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VCS-254 Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX

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VCS-254 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX

Test Code : VCS-254
Test title : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX
Vendor title : Vmware
: 298 existent Questions

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Vmware Administration of Veritas Cluster

Symantec's Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 for VMware ESX provides towering Availability and disaster recuperation for actual and virtual Server Environments | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: Symantec

November 07, 2006 08:00 ET

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX Simplifies Cluster Administration and Automates Failover for VMware digital Servers throughout Heterogeneous Networks

CUPERTINO, CA -- (MARKET WIRE) -- November 7, 2006 -- Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC) today unveiled Veritas™ Cluster Server (VCS) 5.0 for VMware ESX, bringing towering availability and disaster healing to heterogeneous information facilities operating digital server software. VCS for VMware ESX automates remote failover for catastrophe healing and offers management of clustered virtual and physical servers. splendid to avoid downtime in case of application, virtual computing device, network hyperlink, or server screw ups, VCS for VMware ESX centralizes cluster management in a unique ESX server or across a campus or WAN. VCS is a key component of Veritas Server foundation, a suite of products which allows commerce consumers to discover in component what is working on the servers of their data core, actively manage and administer these servers, and originate confident that mission crucial applications operating on these servers are at every times obtainable. Symantec may live demonstrating VCS for VMware ESX on the VMworld 2006 convention being held in l. a. this week.

"VMware directors are looking for apparatus that no longer most efficacious automate disaster healing however support them lower the vulnerabilities associated with operating numerous virtual servers on the identical actual server," observed Poulomi Damany, director of product management for Symantec's facts middle management group. "Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX solves these issues through combining catastrophe recovery and exorbitant availability, and consolidating manage of each digital and physical servers and their dependencies."

VCS for VMware ESX complements Symantec's clustering solutions for home windows, Linux and UNIX platforms. Symantec is the market chief in move-platform server clustering, in line with the 2006 version of the IDC global Clustering and Availability utility record(1). With brought aid for VMware ESX, the market's most common virtual server platform, VCS for VMware ESX gives a unique solution to consolidate management of VMware virtual servers in heterogeneous information middle environments.

finished exorbitant Availability and disaster recovery

VCS for VMware ESX provides towering availability and disaster healing for physical and digital servers. by using simplifying and automating far off failover for VMware virtual server environments, VCS for VMware ESX gives brought protection in opposition t digital computing device or application failures, together with:

-- software and aid monitoring, as well as server monitoring, which gives an improved degree of availability; -- computerized healing from software, community storage, virtual useful resource, digital server, and physical server screw ups; -- Centralized administration of virtual and actual materials and servers from a unique console; -- complete trying out for catastrophe recovery integrating both application failover and information replication to allow corporations to test disaster healing without disrupting creation environments. "because it managers are attempting to rein in server sprawl and enhance aid utilization across the commercial enterprise, they're confronted with the challenge of deploying diverse statistics availability and administration solutions to control and protect an ever-starting to live population of virtual servers," mentioned Brian Babineau, Analyst, enterprise approach group. "With VCS for VMware ESX, Symantec has simplified the project for VMware valued clientele by featuring a unique platform that may steer transparent of downtime of mission valuable functions working in virtual and physical server environments across any distance and any platform."

New lead for VMware ESX

VCS for VMware ESX additionally permits shoppers to maximize the superior aspects of VMware with the aid of recognizing and seamlessly interoperating with VMware's VMotion and dispensed useful resource Scheduler (DRS). If a digital machine is moved from one server to an extra for deliberate renovation using VMotion, the movement could live identified via VCS and VCS will seize the fundamental motion to supplant the cluster repute thus. it's additionally appropriate with allotted useful resource Scheduler (DRS), VMware's workload optimization characteristic.

computerized disaster recovery testing

exciting to VCS is fireplace Drill, a feature of VCS that provides an introduced layer of insurance map for digital servers. With hearth Drill, corporations can assess their disaster healing map and configuration without impacting the construction ambiance. In digital environments the dwelling server places alternate often, hearth Drill helps monitor and song cell servers, their configuration and dependency hyperlinks.

fee and Availability

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX is scheduled to live launched within the first quarter of 2007. Pricing for VCS for VMware ESX begins at $1,995 per server.

About Symantec

Symantec is the world chief in presenting solutions to assist individuals and businesses guarantee the safety, availability, and integrity of their guidance. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in forty international locations. greater suggestions is available at

(1) IDC, global Clustering and Availability utility 2005 dealer Shares, Doc #203676, October, 2006

notice TO EDITORS: if you would relish additional info on Symantec corporation and its products, please talk over with the Symantec information latitude at every costs stated are in U.S. greenbacks and are telling best in the united states.

Symantec and the Symantec brand are logos or registered logos of Symantec enterprise or its associates within the U.S. and different nations. other names could live emblems of their respective homeowners.

Symantec adds catastrophe recuperation capabilities to Veritas Cluster Server | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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VMware Fusion eleven pro boosts photos efficiency and hardware back | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Mac clients nonetheless wanting to dash endemic home windows purposes will find VMware Fusion 11 professional's graphics and hardware improvements worth the upgrade rate. learn greater about the up-to-date VM platform.


photo: Natalya_Yudina, Getty photographs/iStockphoto

operating windows on a Mac continues to live an occasional requirement for some Mac clients. fortunately, digital machine (VM) application now not simplest streamlines the method, however VM lead and efficiency are enhancing.

VMware's Fusion pro eleven platform is a well-liked alternative. A full license runs $159.99, whereas enhancements from edition 8 or more recent can permeate only $119.99.

SEE: 10 fundamental apps and utilities for your Mac (free PDF) (TechRepublic)

Fusion eleven seasoned defaults to the usage of a new more suitable metallic photographs Rendering Engine with Direct3D 10.1 compatibility on compatible hosts. The VM utility additionally now helps Anti-Aliasing, Geometry shaders, and games and apps requiring DirectX 10.1 and people that tumble back to version 10.1 from eleven and that dash in a windows 7, eight, or 10 VM session.

VMware Fusion 11's new software Menu simplifies accessing assorted VMs, altering views and adjusting settings and snapshots. the brand new interface moreover lets you open a home windows app with a unique click on.

Mac Finder operation is built-in inside the new VM window, thereby allowing you to birthright now navigate to file and folder places. you can now drag-and-drop a file to print the VM's file direction within a text field.

MacBook pro clients fond of Apple's contact Bar will find the brand new Fusion pro 11 possesses additional contact Bar customization alternate options. additional enhancements prolong customizing loads of VM Library and VM Window services (figure A). The means speeds entry to typical elements, chiefly if you necessity to maneuver distinctive VMs.

figure A



photo: VMware

Fusion's leisure API, which smooths automation and third-birthday party application integration, consists of virtual networking improvements. for example, there are new alternatives for working with Mac-IP DHCP bindings and NAT port forwarding.

that you may now utilize the VM platform to connect to any Linux VM it truly is running an OpenSSH or suitable carrier, too. And, new vSphere updates and ESXi 6.7 and vCenter Server apparatus 6.7 back permit viewing materials by using VM, host, or cluster. The enhancements simplify VM administration, primarily for those managing assorted VMs.

With hardware platform edition sixteen support, performance and security are more advantageous inside Fusion 11 professional. moreover safety fixes, UEFI comfy Boot talent and additional support for the newest host and visitor working techniques, including macOS, Ubuntu, Fedora, and home windows client and server structures, the brand new VM utility is commerce able.

Even newbie users handicap from enhancements delivered over time designed to originate it easier to maneuver digital machines. automatic Disk Cleanup, originally added in Fusion 10, is but one sample (determine B).

determine B



When chosen (allow the function from the frequent digital computing device Settings selection as proven in motif B), the virtualization application instantly performs disk cleanup actions whenever a VM is shut down. The feature helps ensure host disk space is optimized, which is not any little consideration with default pressure sizes having trended downward on many Mac models.

Apple Weekly publication

no matter if you necessity iPhone and Mac information or rundowns of business-specific Apple information, we've acquired you coated. Delivered Tuesdays

check in today

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Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX

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Symantec's Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 for VMware ESX Provides towering Availability and disaster Recovery for Physical and Virtual Server Environments | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

SOURCE: Symantec

November 07, 2006 08:00 ET

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX Simplifies Cluster Administration and Automates Failover for VMware Virtual Servers Across Heterogeneous Networks

CUPERTINO, CA -- (MARKET WIRE) -- November 7, 2006 -- Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC) today unveiled Veritas™ Cluster Server (VCS) 5.0 for VMware ESX, bringing towering availability and disaster recovery to heterogeneous data centers running virtual server software. VCS for VMware ESX automates remote failover for disaster recovery and provides management of clustered virtual and physical servers. Ideally suited to preclude downtime in case of application, virtual machine, network link, or server failures, VCS for VMware ESX centralizes cluster management in a unique ESX server or across a campus or WAN. VCS is a key component of Veritas Server Foundation, a suite of products which enables enterprise customers to discover in detail what is running on the servers in their data center, actively manage and administer those servers, and ensure that mission critical applications running on those servers are always available. Symantec will live demonstrating VCS for VMware ESX at the VMworld 2006 conference being held in Los Angeles this week.

"VMware administrators are seeking tools that not only automate disaster recovery but back them minimize the vulnerabilities associated with running multiple virtual servers on the selfsame physical server," said Poulomi Damany, director of product management for Symantec's Data center Management Group. "Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX solves these problems by combining disaster recovery and towering availability, and consolidating control of both virtual and physical servers and their dependencies."

VCS for VMware ESX complements Symantec's clustering solutions for Windows, Linux and UNIX platforms. Symantec is the market leader in cross-platform server clustering, according to the 2006 edition of the IDC Worldwide Clustering and Availability Software report(1). With added support for VMware ESX, the market's most widely used virtual server platform, VCS for VMware ESX provides a unique solution to consolidate management of VMware virtual servers in heterogeneous data center environments.

Comprehensive towering Availability and disaster Recovery

VCS for VMware ESX provides towering availability and disaster recovery for physical and virtual servers. By simplifying and automating remote failover for VMware virtual server environments, VCS for VMware ESX provides added protection against virtual machine or application failures, including:

-- Application and resource monitoring, as well as server monitoring, which provides a higher even of availability; -- Automatic recovery from application, network storage, virtual resource, virtual server, and physical server failures; -- Centralized management of virtual and physical resources and servers from a unique console; -- Comprehensive testing for disaster recovery integrating both application failover and data replication to enable organizations to test disaster recovery without disrupting production environments. "As IT managers try to rein in server sprawl and improve resource utilization across the enterprise, they are faced with the challenge of deploying multiple data availability and management solutions to control and protect an ever-growing population of virtual servers," said Brian Babineau, Analyst, Enterprise Strategy Group. "With VCS for VMware ESX, Symantec has simplified the chore for VMware customers by providing a unique platform that can preclude downtime of mission critical applications running in virtual and physical server environments across any distance and any platform."

New support for VMware ESX

VCS for VMware ESX moreover allows customers to maximize the advanced features of VMware by recognizing and seamlessly interoperating with VMware's VMotion and Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS). If a virtual machine is moved from one server to another for planned maintenance using VMotion, the movement will live recognized by VCS and VCS will seize the necessary action to update the cluster status accordingly. It is moreover compatible with Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS), VMware's workload optimization feature.

Automated disaster Recovery Testing

Unique to VCS is Fire Drill, a feature of VCS that provides an added layer of protection for virtual servers. With Fire Drill, organizations can verify their disaster recovery map and configuration without impacting the production environment. In virtual environments where server locations change frequently, Fire Drill helps monitor and track mobile servers, their configuration and dependency links.

Price and Availability

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX is scheduled to live released in the first quarter of 2007. Pricing for VCS for VMware ESX starts at $1,995 per server.

About Symantec

Symantec is the world leader in providing solutions to back individuals and enterprises assure the security, availability, and integrity of their information. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in 40 countries. More information is available at

(1) IDC, Worldwide Clustering and Availability Software 2005 Vendor Shares, Doc #203676, October, 2006

NOTE TO EDITORS: If you would relish additional information on Symantec Corporation and its products, please visit the Symantec word latitude at every prices notable are in U.S. dollars and are telling only in the United States.

Symantec and the Symantec Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Symantec Corporation or its affiliates in the U.S. and other countries. Other names may live trademarks of their respective owners.

Veritas to support Linux Server Clustering | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

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Red Hat Enterprise Linux Cluster Suite | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

When mission-critical applications fail, so does your business. This often is a lawful statement in today's environments, where most organizations expend millions of dollars making their services available 24/7, 365 days a year. Organizations, regardless of whether they are serving external customers or internal customers, are deploying highly available solutions to originate their applications highly available.

In view of this growing demand, almost every IT vendor currently is providing high-availability solutions for its specific platform. Famous commercial high-availability solutions embrace IBM's HACMP, Veritas' Cluster Server and HP's Serviceguard.

If you're looking for a commercial high-availability solution on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the best selection probably is the Red Hat Cluster Suite.

In early 2002, Red Hat introduced the first member of its Red Hat Enterprise Linux family of products, Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS (originally called Red Hat Linux Advanced Server). Since then, the family of products has grown steadily, and it now includes Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES (for entry- and mid-range servers) and Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS (for desktops/workstations). These products are designed specifically for utilize in enterprise environments to deliver superior application support, performance, availability and scalability.

The original release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS version 2.1 included a high-availability clustering feature as fragment of the base product. This feature was not included in the smaller Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES product. However, with the success of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux family, it became transparent that high-availability clustering was a feature that should live made available for both AS and ES server products. Consequently, with the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 3 in October 2003, the high-availability clustering feature was packaged into an optional layered product called the Red Hat Cluster Suite, and it was certified for utilize on both the Enterprise Linux AS and Enterprise Linux ES products.

The RHEL cluster suite is a separately licensed product and can live purchased from Red Hat on top of Red Hat's base ES Linux license.

Red Hat Cluster Suite Overview

The Red Hat Cluster Suite has two major features. One is the Cluster Manager that provides towering availability, and the other feature is called IP load balancing (originally called Piranha). The Cluster Manager and IP load balancing are complementary high-availability technologies that can live used separately or in combination, depending on application requirements. Both of these technologies are integrated in Red Hat's Cluster Suite. In this article, I focus on the Cluster Manager.

Table 1 shows the major components of the RHEL Cluster Manager.

Table 1. RHEL Cluster Manager Components

Software Subsystem Component Purpose Fence fenced Provides fencing infrastructure for specific hardware platforms. DLM libdlm, dlm-kernel Contains distributed lock management (DLM) library. CMAN cman Contains the Cluster Manager (CMAN), which is used for managing cluster membership, messaging and notification. GFS and related locks Lock_NoLock Contains shared filesystem support that can live mounted on multiple nodes concurrently. GULM gulm Contains the GULM lock management user-space tools and libraries (an alternative to using CMAN and DLM). Rgmanager clurgmgrd, clustat Manages cluster services and resources. CCS ccsd, ccs_test and ccs_tool Contains the cluster configuration services dæmon (ccsd) and associated files. Cluster Configuration Tool System-config-cluster Contains the Cluster Configuration Tool, used to configure the cluster and display the current status of the nodes, resources, fencing agents and cluster services graphically. Magma magma and magma-plugins Contains an interface library for cluster lock management and required plugins. IDDEV iddev Contains the libraries used to identify the filesystem (or volume manager) in which a device is formatted.

Shared Storage and Data Integrity

Lock management is a common cluster infrastructure service that provides a mechanism for other cluster infrastructure components to synchronize their access to shared resources. In a Red Hat cluster, DLM (Distributed Lock Manager) or, alternatively, GULM (Grand Unified Lock Manager) are viable lock manager choices. GULM is a server-based unified cluster/lock manager for GFS, GNBD and CLVM. It can live used in dwelling of CMAN and DLM. A unique GULM server can live dash in standalone mode but introduces a unique point of failure for GFS. Three or five GULM servers moreover can live dash together, in which case the failure of one or two servers can live tolerated, respectively. GULM servers usually are dash on dedicated machines, although this is not a strict requirement.

In my cluster implementation, I used DLM, and it runs in each cluster node. DLM is obliging selection for little clusters (up to two nodes), because it removes quorum requirements as imposed by the GULM mechanism).

Based on DLM or GLM locking functionality, there are two basic techniques that can live used by the RHEL cluster for ensuring data integrity in concurrent access environments. The traditional way is the utilize of CLVM, which works well in most RHEL cluster implementations with LVM-based logical volumes.

Another technique is GFS. GFS is a cluster filesystem that allows a cluster of nodes to access simultaneously a obstruct device that is shared among the nodes. It employs distributed metadata and multiple journals for optimal operation in a cluster. To maintain filesystem integrity, GFS uses a lock manager (DLM or GULM) to coordinate I/O. When one node changes data on a GFS filesystem, that change is visible immediately to the other cluster nodes using that filesystem.

Hence, when you are implementing a RHEL cluster with concurrent data access requirements (such as, in the case of an Oracle RAC implementation), you can utilize either GFS or CLVM. In most Red Hat cluster implementations, GFS is used with a direct access configuration to shared SAN from every cluster nodes. However, for the selfsame purpose, you moreover can deploy GFS in a cluster that is connected to a LAN with servers that utilize GNBD (Global Network obstruct Device) or two iSCSI (Internet little Computer System Interface) devices.

Both GFS and CLVM utilize locks from the lock manager. However, GFS uses locks from the lock manager to synchronize access to filesystem metadata (on shared storage), while CLVM uses locks from the lock manager to synchronize updates to LVM volumes and volume groups (also on shared storage).

For nonconcurrent RHEL cluster implementations, you can reckon on CLVM, or you can utilize endemic RHEL journaling-based techniques (such as ext2 and ext3). For nonconcurrent access clusters, data integrity issues are minimal; I tried to retain my cluster implementations simple by using endemic RHEL OS techniques.

Fencing Infrastructure

Fencing moreover is an valuable component of every RHEL-based cluster implementation. The main purpose of the fencing implementation is to ensure data integrity in a clustered environment.

In fact, to ensure data integrity, only one node can dash a cluster service and access cluster service data at a time. The utilize of power switches in the cluster hardware configuration enables a node to power-cycle another node before restarting that node's cluster services during the failover process. This prevents any two systems from simultaneously accessing the selfsame data and corrupting it. It is strongly recommended that fence devices (hardware or software solutions that remotely power, shut down and reboot cluster nodes) are used to guarantee data integrity under every failure conditions. Software-based watchdog timers are an alternative used to ensure rectify operation of cluster service failover; however, in most RHEL cluster implementations, hardware fence devices are used, such as HP ILO, APC power switches, IBM BladeCenter devices and the Bull NovaScale Platform Administration Processor (PAP) Interface.

Note that for RHEL cluster solutions with shared storage, an implementation of the fence infrastructure is a mandatory requirement.

Step-by-Step Implementation of a RHEL Cluster

Implementation of RHEL clusters starts with the selection of proper hardware and connectivity. In most implementations (without IP load balancing), shared storage is used with two, or more than two, servers running the RHEL operating system and RHEL cluster suite.

A properly designed cluster, whether you are edifice a RHEL-based cluster or an IBM HACMP-based cluster, should not hold any unique point of failure. Keeping this in mind, you hold to remove any unique point of failure from your cluster design. For this purpose, you can dwelling your servers physically in two sunder racks with redundant power supplies. You moreover hold to remove any unique point of failure from the network infrastructure used for the cluster. Ideally, you should hold at least two network adapters on each cluster node, and two network switches should live used for edifice the network infrastructure for the cluster implementation.

Software Installation

Building a RHEL cluster starts with the installation of RHEL on two cluster nodes. My setup has two HP Proliant servers (DL740) with shared fiber storage (HP MSA1000 storage). I started with a RHEL v4 installation on both nodes. It's best to install the latest available operating system version and its updates. I selected v4 update 4 (which was the latest version of RHEL when I was edifice that cluster). If you hold a telling software subscription from Red Hat, you can log in to the Red Hat network, and fade to software channels to download the latest update available. Later, once you download the ISO images, you can sear it to CDs using any appropriate software. During the RHEL OS installation, you will fade through various configuration selections, the most valuable of which are the date and time-zone configuration, the root user password setting, firewall settings and OS security even selection. Another valuable configuration option is network settings. Configuration of these settings can live left for a later stage, especially in edifice a high-availability solution with Ether-channel (or Ethernet bonding configuration).

You may necessity to install additional drivers after you install the OS. In my case, I downloaded the RHEL support package for the DL740 servers (the HP Proliant support pack, which is available from

The next step is installing the cluster software package itself. This package, again, is available from the RHEL network, and you definitely hold to select the latest available cluster package. I selected rhel-cluster- for my setup, which was the latest cluster suite available at the time.

Once downloaded, the package will live in tar format. Extract it, and then install at least the following RPMs, so that the RHEL cluster with DLM can live installed and configured:

  • Magma and magma-plugins

  • Perl-net-telnet

  • Rgmanager

  • System-config-cluster

  • DLM and dlm-kernel

  • DLM-kernel-hugemem and SMP support for DLM

  • Iddev and ipvsadm

  • Cman, cman-smp, cman-hugemem and cman-kernelheaders

  • Ccs

  • Restart both RHEL cluster nodes after installing vendor-related hardware support drivers and the RHEL cluster suite.

    Network Configuration

    For network configuration, the best way to proceed is to utilize the network configuration GUI. However, if you map to utilize Ethernet channel bonding, the configuration steps are slightly different.

    Ethernet channel bonding allows for a fault-tolerant network connection by combining two Ethernet devices into one virtual device. The resulting channel-bonded interface ensures that if one Ethernet device fails, the other device will become active. Ideally, connections from these Ethernet devices should fade to sunder Ethernet switches or hubs, so that the unique point of failure is eliminated, even on the Ethernet switch and hub level.

    To configure two network devices for channel bonding, perform the following on node 1:

    1) Create bonding devices in /etc/modules.conf. For example, I used the following commands on each cluster node:

    alias bond0 bonding options bonding miimon=100 mode=1

    Doing this loads the bonding device with the bond0 interface title and passes options to the bonding driver to configure it as an active-backup master device for the enslaved network interfaces.

    2) Edit the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 configuration file for eth0 and the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1 file for the eth1 interface, so that these files reveal identical contents, as shown below:


    This enslaves ethX (replace X with the assigned number of the Ethernet devices) to the bond0 master device.

    3) Create a network script for the bonding device (for example, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0), which would issue relish the following example:


    4) Reboot the system for the changes to seize effect.

    5) Similarly, on node 2, repeat the selfsame steps with the only incompatibility being that the file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0 should hold an IPADDR entry with the value of

    As a result of these configuration steps, you will terminate up with two RHEL cluster nodes with IP addresses of and, which hold been assigned to virtual Ethernet channels (the underlying two physical Ethernet adapters for each Ethernet channel).

    Now, you easily can utilize the network configuration GUI on the cluster nodes to set other network configuration details, such as hostname and primary/secondary DNS server configuration. I set Commsvr1 and Commsvr2 as the hostnames for the cluster nodes and moreover ensured that title resolution in both long names and short names would travail fine from both the DNS server and the /etc/hosts file.

    A RHEL cluster, by default, uses /etc/hosts for node title resolution. The cluster node title needs to match the output of uname -n or the value of HOSTNAME in /etc/sysconfig/network.

    Listing 1. Contents of the /etc/hosts File on Each Server

    # execute not remove the following line, or various programs # that require network functionality will fail. localhost.localdomain localhost Commsvr1 Commsvr2 Commilo1 Commilo2 Commserver node1 node2 KMETSM

    If you hold an additional Ethernet interface in each cluster node, it is always a obliging notion to configure a sunder IP network as an additional network for heartbeats between cluster nodes. It is valuable that the RHEL cluster uses, by default, eth0 on the cluster nodes for heartbeats. However, it is soundless viable to utilize other interfaces for additional heartbeat exchanges.

    For this kind of configuration, you simply can utilize the network configuration GUI to allocate IP addresses—for example, and on eth2, and fetch it resolved from the /etc/hosts file.

    Setup of the Fencing Device

    As I was using HP hardware, I relied on the configuration of the HP ILO devices as a fencing device for my cluster. However, you may admiration configuring other fencing devices, depending on the hardware kind used for your cluster configuration.

    To configure HP ILO, you hold to reboot your servers and press the F8 key to enter into the ILO configuration menus. Basic configuration is relatively simple; you hold to allocate IP addresses to ILO devices with the title of the ILO device. I assigned with Commilo1 as the title of ILO device on node1, and with Commilo2 as the ILO device title on node2. live sure, however, to connect Ethernet cables to the ILO adapters, which usually are marked clearly on the back side of HP servers.

    Once rebooted, you can utilize the browsers on your Linux servers to access ILO devices. The default user title is Administrator, with a password that usually is available on the hard-copy tag associated with the HP servers. Later, you can change the Administrator password to a password of your choice, using the selfsame Web-based ILO administration interface.

    Setup of the Shared Storage Drive and Quorum Partitions

    In my cluster setup environment, I used an HP fiber-based shared storage MSA1000. I configured a RAID-1 of 73.5GB using the HP smart array utility, and then assigned it to both of my cluster nodes using the selective host presentation feature.

    After rebooting both nodes, I used HP fiber utilities, such as hp_scan, so that both servers should live able to behold this array physically.

    To verify the physical availability of shared storage for both cluster nodes, scrutinize in the /dev/proc/proc file for an entry relish /dev/sda or /dev/sdb, depending upon your environment.

    Once you find your shared storage on the OS level, partition it according to your cluster storage requirements. I used the parted tool on one of my cluster nodes to partition the shared storage. I created two little primary partitions to hold raw devices, and a third primary partition was created to hold the shared data filesystem:

    Parted> select /dev/sda Parted > mklabel /dev/sda msdos Parted > mkpart primary ext3 0 20 Parted > mkpart primary ext3 20 40 Parted > mkpart primary ext3 40 40000

    I rebooted both cluster nodes and created the /etc/sysconfig/rawdevices file with the following contents:

    /dev/raw/raw1 /dev/sda1 /dev/raw/raw2 /dev/sda2

    A restart of rawdevices services on both nodes will configure raw devices as quorum partitions:

    /home/root> services rawdevices restart

    I then created a JFS2 filesystem on the third primary partition using the mke2jfs command; however, its related entry should not live attach in the /etc/fstab file on either cluster node, as this shared filesystem will live under the control of the Rgmanager of the cluster suite:

    /home/root> mke2jfs -j -b 4096 /dev/sda3

    Now, you can create a directory structure called /shared/data on both nodes and verify the accessibility of the shared filesystem from both cluster nodes by mounting that filesystem one by one at each cluster node (mount /dev/sda3 /shared/data). However, never try to mount this filesystem on both cluster nodes simultaneously, as it might pervert the filesystem itself.

    Cluster Configuration

    Almost everything required for cluster infrastructure has been done, so the next step is configuring the cluster itself.

    A RHEL cluster can live configured in many ways. However, the easiest way to configure a RHEL cluster is to utilize the RHEL GUI and fade to System Management→Cluster Management→Create a cluster.

    I created a cluster with the cluster title of Commcluster, and with node names of Commsvr1 and Commsvr2. I added fencing to both nodes—fencing devices Commilo1 and Commilo2, respectively—so that each node would hold one fence even with one fence device. If you hold multiple fence devices in your environment, you can add another fence even with more fence devices to each node.

    I moreover added a shared IP address of, which will live used as the service IP address for this cluster. This is the IP address that moreover should live used as the service IP address for applications or databases (like for listener configuration, if you are going to utilize an Oracle database in the cluster).

    I added a failover domain, namely Kmeficfailover, with priorities given in the following sequence:

    Commsvr1 Commsvr2

    I added a service called CommSvc and then attach that service in the above-defined failover domain. The next step is adding resources to this service. I added a private resource of the filesystem type, which has the characteristic of device=/dev/sd3, mountpoint of /shared/data and mount kind of ext3.

    I moreover added a private resource of the script kind (/root/ to service CommSvc. This script will start my C-based application, and therefore, it has to live present in the /root directory on both cluster nodes. It is very valuable to hold rectify ownership of root and security; otherwise, you can await unpredictable behavior during cluster startup and shutdown.

    Application or database startup and shutdown scripts are very valuable for a RHEL-based cluster to function properly. RHEL clusters utilize the selfsame scripts for providing application/database monitoring and towering availability, so every application script used in a RHEL cluster should hold a specific format.

    All such scripts should at least hold start and discontinue subsections, along with a status subsection. When an application or database is available and running, the status subsection of the script should recur a value of 0, and when an application is not running or available, it should recur a value of 1. The script moreover should hold a restart subsection, which tries to restart services if the application is institute to live dead.

    A RHEL cluster always tries to restart the application on the selfsame node that was the previous owner of the application, before trying to plug that application to the other cluster node. A sample application script, which was used in my RHEL cluster implementation (to provide towering availability to a legacy C-based application) is shown in Listing 2.

    Listing 2. Sample Application Script

    #Script Name: #Script Purpose: To provide application #start/stop/status under Cluster #Script Author: Khurram Shiraz #!/bin/sh basedir=/home/kmefic/KMEFIC/CommunicationServer case $1 in 'start') cd $basedir su kmefic -c "./CommunicationServer -f Dev-CommunicationServer.conf" exit 0 ;; 'stop') z=`ps -ef | grep Dev-CommunicationServer | grep -v "grep"| ↪awk ' { print $2 } ' ` if [[ $? -eq 0 ]] then kill -9 $z fuser -mk /home/kmefic exit 0 fi ;; 'restart') /root/ stop sleep 2 resound Now starting...... /root/ start resound "restarted" ;; 'status') ps -U kmefic | grep CommunicationSe 1>/dev/null if [[ $? = 0 ]] then exit 0 else exit 1 fi ;; esac

    Finally, you hold to add a shared IP address ( to the service present in your failover domain, so that the service should hold three resources: two private resources (one filesystem and one script) and one shared resource, which is the service IP address for the cluster.

    The ultimate step is synchronizing the cluster configuration across the cluster nodes. The RHEL cluster administration and configuration tool provides a “save configuration to cluster” option, which will issue once you start the cluster services. Hence, for the first synchronization, it is better to forward the cluster configuration file manually to every cluster nodes. You easily can utilize the scp command to synchronize the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file across the cluster nodes:

    /home/root> scp /etc/cluster/cluster.conf Commsvr2:/etc/cluster/cluster.conf

    Once synchronized, you can start cluster services on both cluster nodes. You should start and discontinue RHEL-related cluster services, in sequence.

    To start:

    service ccsd start service cman start service fenced start service rgmanager start

    To stop:

    service rgmanager stop service fenced stop service cman stop service ccsd stop

    If you utilize GFS, startup/shutdown of the gfs and clvmd services hold to live included in this sequence.

    Additional Considerations

    In my environment, I decided not to start cluster services at RHEL boot time and not to shut down these services automatically when shutting down the RHEL box. However, if your commerce requires 24/7 service availability, you can execute this easily by using the chkconfig command.

    Another consideration is logging cluster messages in a different log file. By default, every cluster messages fade into the RHEL log messages file (/var/log/messages), which makes cluster troubleshooting fairly difficult in some scenarios. For this purpose, I edited the /etc/syslog.conf file to enable the cluster to log events to a file that is different from the default log file and added the following line:

    daemon.* /var/log/cluster

    To apply this change, I restarted syslogd with the service syslog restart command. Another valuable step is to specify the time age for rotating cluster log files. This can live done by specifying the title of the cluster log file in the /etc/logrotate.conf file (the default is a weekly rotation):

    /var/log/messages /var/log/secure /var/log/maillog /var/log/spooler /var/log/boot.log /var/log/cron /var/log/cluster { sharedscripts postrotate /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/ 2> /dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true endscript }

    You moreover hold to pay special attention to keeping UIDs and GIDs synchronized across cluster nodes. This is valuable in making confident proper permissions are maintained, especially with reference to the shared data filesystem.

    GRUB moreover needs to conform to the suite environment's specific needs. For instance, many system administrators, in a RHEL cluster environment, reduce the GRUB selection timeout to some lower values, such as two seconds, to accelerate system restart time.

    Database Integration with a RHEL Cluster

    The selfsame RHEL cluster infrastructure can live used for providing towering availability to databases, such as Oracle, MySQL and IBM DB2.

    The most valuable thing to recall is to base your database-related services on a shared IP address—for example, you hold to configure Oracle listener based on the shared service IP address.

    Next, I explain, in simple steps, how to utilize an already-configured RHEL cluster to provide towering availability to a MySQL database server, which is, no doubt, one of the most commonly used databases on RHEL.

    I assume that the MySQL-related RPMs are installed on both cluster nodes and that the RHEL cluster already is configured with a service IP address of

    Now, you simply necessity to define a failover domain using the cluster configuration tool (with the cluster node of your selection having a higher priority). This failover domain will hold the MySQL service, which, in turn, will hold two private resources and one shared resource (the service IP address).

    One of the private resources should live of the filesystem kind (in my configuration, it has a mountpoint of /shared/mysqld), and the other private resource should live of the script type, pointing toward the /etc/init.d/mysql.server script. The contents of this script, which should live available on both cluster nodes, is shown in Listing 3 on the LJ FTP site at

    This script sets the data directory to /shared/mysqld/data, which is available on their shared RAID array and should live available from both cluster nodes.

    Testing for towering availability of the MySQL database can live done easily with the back of any MySQL client. I used SQLyog, which is a Windows-based MySQL client. I connected to the MySQL database on Commsvr1 and then crashed this cluster node using the halt command. As a result of this system crash, the RHEL cluster events were triggered, and the MySQL database automatically restarted on Commsvr2. This entire failover process took one to two minutes and happened quite seamlessly.


    RHEL clustering technology provides a reliable high-available infrastructure that can live used for meeting 24/7 commerce requirements for databases as well as legacy applications. The most valuable thing to recall is that it is best to map carefully before the actual implementation and test your cluster and every viable failover scenarios thoroughly before going live with a RHEL cluster. A well-documented cluster test map moreover can live helpful in this regard.

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