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construction projects for carrier-oriented options are, on the floor, plenty love some other customized development projects for dispensed functions. functions are designed, developed, and deployed alongside the commonplace supporting forged of entrance and returned-end technologies. when you dig slightly deeper below the layers of carrier-orientation, although, you're going to locate that as a way to competently construct and position capabilities as a allotment of a standardized SOA, close task cycles require some alterations.
As they will see in determine 1 (see under), middling birth lifecycles encompass processes peculiarly tailor-made to the introduction of capabilities in advocate of SOA. within the service-oriented evaluation stage, for instance, services are modeled as service candidates that comprise a preparatory SOA. These candidates then turn into the starting aspect for the provider-oriented design phase, which transforms them into convincing world carrier contracts.
provider-oriented evaluation (and a connected sub-system known as provider modeling) symbolize a crucial a allotment of carrier birth that requires the involvement of industry analysts and extremely a worthy deal demonstrates how company evaluation in time-honored is littered with SOA. we'll discuss these tactics in more component later during this collection. For now, their focus is on the task lifecycle and its relationship to enterprise analysis.
figure 1: regular phases of an SOA delivery lifecycle.
The lifecycle tiers displayed in determine 1 limn an easy, sequential direction to constructing particular person functions. actual world beginning, although, is hardly ever that essential. These levels generally should be prepared into a delivery cycle that can accommodate the dreams and constraints associated with assignment necessities, schedules, and budgets.
The challenge frequently lies in balancing these concerns. The success of SOA within an commercial enterprise is increasingly associated with the extent to which it is standardized when phased into enterprise and software domains. although, the success of a venture delivering a carrier-oriented retort is traditionally measured through the extent to which the solution fulfills anticipated necessities within a given funds and timeline.
To address this difficulty, they want a technique. This approach should be in accordance with a firm's priorities in order to set up the apposite stability between the delivery of lengthy-time era migration desires with the success of extra immediate, tactical requirements.
in this article they contrast two middling concepts used to build capabilities known as backside-up and right-down. Neither is ideal, however each supply us with insight as to how the SOA birth lifecycle may furthermore be configured.
The bottom-up approach is at present probably the most close diversity, where services are created on an "as want" basis to meet generally tactical requirements. The exact-down strategy, on the other hand, is one in complete evaluation, profound thought, and endurance. provider-orientation is infused into company layers so that functions may furthermore be modeled in alignment with enterprise models. In other phrases, it is way more strategic.
since the theme of this train is about how SOA pertains to company evaluation they are greater interested in what lies at the back of the precise-down process. The backside-up strategy is described essentially to supply contrast.
the vast majority of companies which are presently structure capabilities as internet features comply with a technique similar to the one proven in determine 2. The primary intent being that many just add net capabilities to their current application environments with a view to leverage the open net functions expertise set (essentially for integration applications). in spite of the fact that the ensuing architecture is commonly referred to as SOA, it definitely continues to be greater harking back to middling disbursed architectural fashions, as carrier-orientation is rarely considered.
figure 2: close bottom-up procedure steps.
although backside-up designs permits for the efficient advent of capabilities they can interpolate some ponderous penalties down the highway. enforcing a "suitable SOA" after a wide unfold implementation of tactical functions can impose a very sterling deal of retro-becoming.
here's very a sterling deal an "evaluation first" method that requires no longer handiest industry approaches to develop into carrier-oriented, it furthermore promotes the creation (or realignment) of an organization's typical enterprise models. This manner is for this reason intently tied to or derived from a firm's existing company logic, and it frequently outcomes in the advent of a lot of reusable company and application features.
The exact-down strategy will usually comprise some or complete the steps illustrated in device 3.
determine three: accustomed accurate-down manner steps.
The aspect of this method is to invest within the up-front analysis and planning labor required to build a towering property carrier structure. The restrict and parameters of each service are utterly analyzed to maximise reuse skills and alternatives for streamlined and complicated compositions. complete of this lays the groundwork for a standardized and federated commercial enterprise where features maintain a status of adaptability, while carrying on with to unify current heterogeneity.
The barriers to following a excellent-down strategy are usually associated with time and funds. agencies are required to manufacture investments drastically in up-front evaluation projects that can consume a worthy deal of time to expose tangible, ROI-type benefits. There are additional risks linked to over planning, the status by the time the evaluation initiatives are achieved, they could develop into outdated.
accurate-down strategy and commercial enterprise models
Of particular activity to industry analysts are the enterprise fashions referenced in Step 1 of determine 3. These are inclined to vary across diverse groups, each of in order to be pleased models which are intellectual to its company domains.
average forms of commercial enterprise model documents embrace a proper ontology, an industry entity model, an enterprise-wide analytic statistics model, a standardized statistics representation structure (frequently realized through a group of standardized XML Schemas), and different kinds of fashions generally associated with commercial enterprise guidance structure.
Some of those supply enterprise-centric views of a solid that prove extraordinarily positive sources for deriving enterprise capabilities. company entity models principally tie at once into the subsequent definition of entity-centric enterprise capabilities.
besides the fact that children listed as only a sole step within the typical procedure, the requirements to thoroughly define industry models can effectively outcome in the want for one or extra divide strategies, each of which can furthermore require its own assignment and working group. however, if the required commercial enterprise industry models already exist, then this step may furthermore readily embrace their identification.
The option of birth strategy will assess the extent to which enterprise analysts can advocate configuration a carrier portfolio conceptually, before services are corporal implemented. it is hence rewarding to give staid consideration to the professionals and cons associated with each strategy.
The subsequent article during this collection continues this exploration via explaining a touchstone deliverable of the exact-down evaluation application conventional as the commercial enterprise carrier model. they are able to furthermore then recount how the both tactical and strategic necessities will furthermore be addressed in an option strategy referred to as "agile" or "meet-in-the-center."
this article carries excerpts from "service-Oriented structure: concepts, technology, and Design" via Thomas Erl (792 pages, Hardcover, ISBN: 0131858580, Prentice hall/Pearson PTR, Copyright 2006). For extra assistance, talk over with www.soabooks.com.
in regards to the writer
Thomas Erl is the realm's appropriate-selling SOA creator and train Editor of the "Prentice corridor carrier-Oriented Computing sequence from Thomas Erl" (www.soabooks.com). Thomas is furthermore the founding father of SOA programs Inc., a solid focusing on strategic SOA consulting, planning, and practising services (www.soatraining.com.) Thomas has made colossal contributions to the SOA trade in the areas of provider-orientation research and the construction of a mainstream SOA methodology. Thomas is involved with a couple of technical committees and research efforts, and travels generally for talking, practising, and consulting engagements. To learn greater, talk over with www.thomaserl.com.
this text introduces an exceptional method for relocating your SOA application ahead through an incremental, challenge-based mostly strategy.
this text turned into initially posted within the SOA journal (www.soamag.com), a book officially linked to “The Prentice corridor service-Oriented Computing sequence from Thomas Erl” (www.soabooks.com). Copyright SOA techniques Inc. (www.soasystems.com).Like this text? They hint
abstract: tasks are the lifeblood of an IT branch. pretty much every thing in it is measured via a challenge lens. SOA, because of its international-centric nature, is commonly viewed as incompatible with task-based application start lifecycles. as a result, most groups discover themselves with the plight of the way to with no peril better an SOA initiatives and proceed to convey tasks at the identical time.
The retort is to combine carrier lifecycle management, structure, SOA governance, funding, and SOA metrics birthright into a sole comprehensive software. The premiere intent is to manufacture certain that via addressing mission needs capabilities are being conveniently designed and applied and that leverage takes belt and is verifiable and that the middling SOA application goals are being accomplished. this article introduces a superior technique for moving your SOA program ahead through an incremental, task-primarily based strategy.Introduction
all and sundry, from the CEO to the developer, understands the advantages of SOA and why it is going to be used. youngsters, many businesses nevertheless fight with questions about a way to correctly beginning, form, and promote an SOA program. Even with careful and skilled information, SOA initiatives visage mounting challenges. essentially the most significant barrier to SOA success is the very simple unit of IT operations – a undertaking. projects are the oldest and most generally approved solution to deliver labor in an IT corporation. projects are time bound and oriented against supplying certain outcomes for limited audiences. SOA initiatives span varied groups and businesses and are geared towards addressing the huge needs of leveraging present belongings or developing unique reusable assets. hence, challenge-based mostly labor is essentially considered incompatible with SOA.
Most corporations that be pleased embarked on the SOA journey find themselves within the unenviable status of trying to reconcile tactical project labor with the strategic SOA initiatives. mission labor requires start of customized functions or third party applications, whereas SOA’s goal is to set up a ground of reusable services. tasks only custody about their necessities. Shared functions be pleased to consume the necessities throughout numerous initiatives into consideration to be basically reusable. venture’s funding comes from the road of industry (LoB) that is conjectural to handicap from it. because SOA efforts can span varied LoB’s, a sole company can furthermore now not be the basic funding supply. Merging these diametrically opposing views into a comprehensive approach has proved knotty for most IT retail outlets.
The methodology outlined listed here bridges the gap between mission labor and SOA. It introduces a group of ideas that no longer best enable the initiatives to obtain their goals but additionally promote the introduction and reuse of shared features. moreover, it addresses the funding, reward, and enforcement concerns that are vital to achieve both project and SOA goals.The service ownership difficulty
some of the greatest political barriers facing SOA in any corporation is provider possession. considering the fact that task groups constrain the start of custom code or integrations, they trust that it is their domain and accountability to build features that tackle venture wants. backyard groups are seen with mistrust, in spite of the fact that they labor alongside the mission crew (as an instance, code created through others is commonly brushed aside or brushed aside). mission teams accept as convincing with themselves the specialists on the belt enviornment coated by using the mission requirements while pushing aside the potential that exists backyard of the team.
ownership can furthermore be a sensitive discipline. Many task groups and IT managers subscribe to the silo mentality where they coincide with the total stack – from the UI down to the records sources – as their property. hence, they coincide with any services, shared or now not, that tackle challenge or application wants as a allotment of the total stack. Any dialogue or initiative that can be construed as an infringement on their territory can trigger irrational habits or illogical conversations. alas, the fact of it's commonly such that empire structure and territorialism are seen through the core management as the most useful approach in opposition t success.
in an application to develop into a hit with SOA, IT businesses exigency to smash these silos. Shared capabilities that may furthermore be consumed by means of a couple of tasks be pleased to be owned and managed one after the other. features exigency to be regarded unbiased utility products which be pleased their own lifecycles diverse from those of tasks or functions they serve. Their code has to be saved one after the other from different code. They ought to be pleased their own verify instances and see at various suites. Shared capabilities may quiet linger on a dedicated, independently scalable infrastructure to be certain applicable levels of responsiveness, scalability, and performance. Ideally, even the information accessed by the shared services ought to be industry caliber and linger on an commercial enterprise scalable infrastructure. device 1 depicts how an touchstone SOA infrastructure should quiet seem following these instructions.
determine 1: An "premiere" SOA infrastructure environment.
one of the most censorious reasons for breaking down silos and managing capabilities independently is incongruence between SOA and venture dreams. initiatives simplest custody about their personal timelines and goals. If a project or application group creates a provider and assumes possession over it, the equal crew will should be accountable for making changes crucial via its future consumers. it'll must address unique necessities that are coming from a unique group, comply with that group’s timeframes, and manufacture certain that adjustments don't be pleased an result on current consumers. These responsibilities signify a complete departure from accustomed undertaking dreams and hence are conveniently now not be adhered to in many instances. as a result, the decentralized possession of features ends up leading to elevated duplication and an accustomed failure of the SOA software.
the way to address this difficulty is manifest – create a centralized team liable for shared service design, building, testing, and assist. it is going to consume accountability for reconciling complete of the carrier-related requirements, designing services to address them, setting up and imposing SOA requisites, ensuring apposite scalability of functions, and managing the services as independent software products. Gartner regularly calls this class of a team the mixing Competency middle (ICC). This strategy eliminates the in the past outlined problems and minimizes the project-centric focus as a result of services are delivered by a divide neighborhood whose fundamental purpose is the advancement of SOA. moreover, a centralized group is stronger perfect for driving the adoption of shared features within the greatest and positive way.service Lifecycle management
Most agencies carry industry initiatives by the exhaust of IT projects. for this reason, projects will most frequently drive the require for capabilities. there is, of path, a much better method to identify what reusable functions are mandatory, through whom, and when. A finished industry technique mapping will create a transparent roadmap for carrier identification and demand. sadly, many groups nonetheless choose no longer to circulation in this route and continue to permit tasks to continue to be the riding constrain in the back of provider identification and implementation.
When a provider is designed and developed to tackle particular project needs, it isn't utterly reusable. unique consumers consistently exigency adjustments delivered to the carrier to conform to their necessities. This typically comprises box adjustments or additions, unique operations, addition or elimination of foremost entities, and even expertise enterprise common sense changes. The greatest SOA secret is that capabilities are nearly on no account reused as-is – changes and integration costs are virtually unavoidable.
in order to manufacture features really reusable and manufacture certain maximum leverage, the service lifecycle exigency to be centrally managed. The significant crew answerable for the start of services exigency to even be charged with service identification, lifecycle management, and pipelining activities. complete the disparate service requirements offered by distinctive projects exigency to be collected collectively to create a comprehensive view of the carrier pipeline and roadmap. determine 2 depicts the relationship between mission needs and a carrier roadmap.
determine 2: A carrier roadmap as influenced through tasks.
the key to the pipelining activity is accurate and timely guidance. this may manufacture it feasible to embrace diverse task requirements into the provider that is conjectural to be created for a selected assignment. If the undertaking timelines are near enough and the necessities are well defined, service designers should quiet try to embrace as many of them as viable into the current release. This introduces efficiencies, scalability, and agility into the birth mechanism through accumulating procedures and information gathering throughout distinctive projects. Centralized and consistent provider lifecycle management could manufacture this a fact.Minimizing be pleased an repercussion on of changes and Maximizing Reuse
due to the fact adjustments to functions are inevitable, the architecture and design patterns ought to be based with trade in mind. features ought to be designed in such a means that many of the adjustments brought as allotment of its evolution could be pleased minimal, if any be pleased an result on on its latest patrons. an extra intent of provider design should quiet be to maximize carrier reuse as this represents the cornerstone of SOA. both of these dreams will furthermore be completed through the exhaust of the service Façade and Concurrent Contracts design patterns [REF-1] at the side of a canonical modeling method.
Canonical modeling is a well known and based method for abstracting provider patrons from the backend information sources and introducing a common entity representation. Many SOA proponents coincide that canonical modeling is a vital allotment in the success of the SOA program. A canonical, or normal, mannequin attempts to set up a single, constant representation of the entire entities that could be passed through a shared provider. This representation should be independent from the backend information constructions and service customer specifics, which will nick the influence on buyers when both one adjustments. additionally, as a result of LoBs may additionally signify the identical entities in a unique manner, a sole canonical mannequin will mitigate reconcile these variations and permit diverse materials of the solid to converse the same language. This, in flip, maximizes the competencies and convincing reuse of services constructed across the business.
The provider Façade sample is used to nick the be pleased an repercussion on of carrier changes on its consumers. each provider, whether it's developed using a canonical mannequin or not, should expose a façade interface by way of Concurrent Contracts certain to each purchaser. patrons would no longer entry the carrier at once however sort of via its uncovered façade contract. each and every façade may quiet be designed in such a method that it presents statistics in a kindhearted without problems understood and ingested by using individual or group of service buyers. device three shows how the façade sample may quiet be used to design and construct shared features.
determine 3: The carrier Facade sample in action.
because every façade compress is specific to at least one or many carrier consumers and doesn't expose inner (canonical) carrier contract, alterations to the provider implementation or even to the canonical mannequin will be pleased minimal, if any repercussion on the customer. The mappings between the façade compress and canonical structure may wish to be up-to-date however this activity might be transparent to the buyers. From their standpoint, no adjustments will consume area. The carrier Façade pattern additionally ensures optimum reuse of the carrier because the identical carrier illustration is getting used beneath the covers notwithstanding numerous façade interfaces can be uncovered.SOA Governance
the entire most reliable tactics and architectures can't be helpful if they don't seem to be being adopted. here's the status governance comes into play. establishing and enforcing useful governance mechanisms and procedures is paramount to the success of any SOA program. The secret's to be certain minimal overhead, highest compatibility with the current IT governance methods, and inordinate level of synergy with complete the software development Methodologies (SDM) being adopted within the organization. The success of the SOA program is stylish on how efficient it is, how closely it may furthermore be integrated with the current strategies, and how strongly its options can furthermore be enforced.
SOA governance and the project-based mostly IT subculture are largely incompatible. SOA governance inserts checkpoints into the touchstone circulation of application construction, whereas tasks are essentially worried with hitting their timelines in any respect expenses. If the governance mechanisms commemorate a problem and put a question to a assignment to manufacture changes, this can lead to unpleasant conversations at even the govt degree. Confrontations love these may often be unavoidable; despite the fact, the premier method to manufacture certain that each governance and project goals are met is to acquire visibility into the project pipeline as early as viable and repercussion each assignment’s direction to be in keeping with the centered SOA guidelines. SOA governance doesn’t should be focused essentially on enforcement and catching non-compliers however as an alternative should quiet pay attention to exploiting synergies with the already centered SDM tactics and influencing the solutions.
figure four depicts a pattern SOA governance method that can furthermore be employed to satisfy each undertaking and SOA application dreams. be aware that it's designed to be conveniently integrated with the commonplace waterfall SDM. The governance checkpoints are very gentle and may be achieved in a short era of time, in order that tasks don't lose advantageous time navigating advanced governance strategies. on the identical time, however, the entire governance steps are well timed and ensure apposite compliance birthright through the application start procedure. they're designed with influence, not enforcement in intellect.
seeing that the entire projects that utilize existing or create unique functions exigency to commemorate these governance mechanisms, many dreams of sterling SOA governance will furthermore be performed. Getting publicity to the apposite tasks as early as the evaluation allotment offers the means for SOA governance to be pleased an repercussion on their route. This furthermore makes it viable for the Shared capabilities team to profit perception into the comprehensive functions pipeline, accumulate complete of the linked requirements together, and scheme provider releases correctly. each governance checkpoint represents an opportunity to validate even if conventional techniques were carried out and, if now not, reject the project from moving forward. most importantly, the SOA governance manner should quiet accept an opportunity to fully shut the loop on complete the adjustments or unique functions being deployed, which should quiet be represented within the formal approval or rejection of moving the code into construction.
one more vital factor of the SOA governance process that's depicted on device 4 but no longer yet mentioned is the role of the Registry/Repository (RegRep). each checkpoint prompts an motion involving carrier registration or merchandising. here's vital not most efficient to document a convincing status of the provider however furthermore to formalize and automate the entire SOA governance procedure. Many RegRep tools comprise governance automation capabilities. Exploiting them is extraordinarily efficient due to the fact that it streamlines the total manner and eliminates inefficient manual steps. organising a policy that each one capabilities should be registered to be consumable closes any loophole projects can are attempting to consume handicap of. because registration and promoting steps are tightly coupled with the SOA governance checkpoints, which deserve to be performed by way of an unbiased birthday celebration, tasks finish not exigency an altenative to sidestep any of them. in the event that they do, services will effectively see love unavailable for consumption or in a status incompatible with the assignment wants. finally, registries may furthermore be used to bring together run-time carrier utilization metrics, the magnitude of which is discussed almost immediately.carrier Funding
Funding for the SOA program should approach from a significant supply. it would cowl every puny thing from the shared infrastructure, expertise, equipment, and methodologies. the status the money involves construct particular person functions, although, items a much bigger challenge. due to the fact initiatives are the primary drivers behind require for capabilities, special consideration may quiet be given to venture needs and budgets. As discussed previous, particular person carrier’s pipeline and roadmap should quiet be unbiased from these of a challenge. consequently, service design and implementation can embrace further requirements that topple outside of the project scope. yet another touchstone undertaking-connected difficulty stems from the shared nature of services. it's unfair to burden a undertaking with the complete cost of a carrier that can be utilized by a number of different buyers.
There are three feasible tips on how to tackle the service funding considerations.
If option 1 is selected, a couple of techniques for recouping the preparatory investment can furthermore be used.
As outlined above, it is unfair for the venture to raise the complete prices of the carrier build-out, in particular if it comprises further necessities. as a result, until the challenge implements one of the most alternate options to recoup its preparatory funding, funding alternative #1 is not going to be attainable. now not getting better the money isn't a practical alternative both as it doesn't incent the initiatives to build in fact reusable services. The different pervade healing concepts may additionally labor but require special metrics to be captured on the provider leverage and/or transactional quantity.
organising a principal funding source for complete projects to exhaust when structure reusable services is likely the optimal strategy. Few corporations, despite the fact, would be willing to write what in essence could be a spotless check for the tasks to manufacture exhaust of of their service start efforts. The opportunity for mistreat and misappropriations can be too tempting. unless powerful governance and control mechanisms are in place, this funding formula will most likely turn out to be costing the industry extra cash and provide unrealistically tiny return on funding.
proposing supplementary funding to tasks constructing functions is likely essentially the most practical approach. A valuable fund has to be established to cowl the efforts falling outdoor of the project scope. since shared services would typically embrace other initiatives’ and enterprise necessities, the exact cost finally ends up being larger than what tasks budgeted for their wants. hence, the easiest way to distribute supplementary funding is to enable the projects to pay for performance already blanketed in their budgets and canopy complete of the additional fees during the valuable fund.
some thing the funding method is used, it needs to be cautiously administered. a celebration no longer concerned in daily venture labor is most fulfilling proper to play the administrative role. The Shared capabilities group is the most likely candidate to control the funds and exhaust it accurately to extra the SOA program adoption, raise provider leverage, and evade political influences.SOA Metrics
once the SOA program is up and working, its effectiveness, stage of adoption, and outcomes should be measured. This can be done during the assortment and conversation of the crucial metrics. the most everyday SOA measurements are the number of services created, volume of service reuse, and price avoidance/mark downs.
due to the fact that the significant Shared features team has an entire view of complete of the current and future carrier advent or reuse opportunities, it's in the premier status to collect and record on the metrics. in order to accumulate accurate metrics and bear censorious studies, here steps exigency to be performed.
all the steps above should be accomplished for every assignment that both creates or leverages services. Any adjustments to the existing service should depend towards the entire can pervade of the construct.
once the entire data has been accrued, cost avoidance will furthermore be calculated. The simple formulation for individual service pervade avoidance as concerning a particular project is supplied beneath.
carrier cost Avoidance = carrier build can pervade – challenge’s carrier Integration cost
carrier build pervade = initial carrier build cost + cost of complete Subsequent adjustments
To calculate the complete undertaking’s can pervade avoidance amount, quite simply add the cost avoidance for complete of the services being leveraged. To forecast the overall expertise can pervade avoidance at any point of time, multiply the variety of instances every service is envisioned to be leveraged by using its build can pervade and add it complete together. in view that the combination expenses for each ongoing or future mission can best be estimated, a common reuse component can furthermore be applied to the provider construct charge. eighty% is the close number utilized in these instances. word that projects creating services should quiet no longer matter number towards pervade avoidance.
In cost avoidance calculations and projections, realizing each and every provider operation instead of the complete service reuse will lead to greater accurate results. To obtain this, current and future reuse alternatives should quiet be tracked on the carrier operation degree. This degree of granularity can be tough to obtain, youngsters, mainly when maintaining tune of the build prices. for this reason, approximation ideas will furthermore be used that check the operation build pervade based on some manipulations of the total provider build charge. Dividing the total carrier construct can pervade by using the amount of operations produced may be the least difficult strategy. If tracking is performed at the carrier operation stage, the cost avoidance formulas above should alternate to bespeak operation rather than carrier certain metrics.
as soon as metrics are accumulated, they deserve to be distributed to complete the SOA program stakeholders. reckoning on the firm, it will furthermore be IT managers and executives, enterprise executives, and partners. Metrics may quiet now not be reported effectively for the sake of sharing the progress made with the aid of the SOA application however fairly to advocate SOA program’s dreams and influence the habits resulting in reaching them. certain goals exigency to be set through the IT executives and metrics may quiet be used to investigate even if they've been effectively reached or no longer. Metrics collection and reporting should quiet be performed by a significant crew with a purpose to be certain that the complete method can not be compromised to misrepresent the fact or serve individual team’s or group’s interests.Conclusion
despite what the expertise companies would such as you to consider, SOA is a fancy idea. a couple of points should approach collectively to basically obtain service orientation. lots of labor needs to be executed to set up a a success SOA program. Yet, complete of this needs to be executed along side providing projects. The industry does not stop. It doesn't and can't watch for the SOA software to be dependent, fully constructed out, and complete of the services delivered. hence, most SOA programs visage the challenge of dealing with initiatives while at the identical time attempting to carry on their inordinate stage guarantees.
To tackle the SOA and project point incompatibilities, carrier lifecycle administration, architecture, SOA governance, funding, and SOA metrics should be brought together in a comprehensive program. creating a vital team to control this procedure will influence in more constant deliverables, more productive operations, much less random for political be pleased an result on, and quicker attainment of SOA merits.
projects with SOA information should quiet be regarded allotment of the accustomed features pipeline. Cumulative necessities should quiet power provider design and construction. The provider architecture needs to be springy adequate to accommodate alterations, lower the influence of carrier adjustments on the current patrons, and maximize carrier reuse potential. SOA governance should quiet strike the initiatives to manufacture the usurp decisions and capture non-compliers if essential. A finished view of the project pipeline should quiet manufacture this method streamlined and productive. exceptionally exact funding options should dispose of the disincentive for tasks to construct reusable functions. at last, the SOA metrics should expose the finished consequences and influence the usurp conduct. device 5 demonstrates the relationship between complete of the task-oriented SOA features.
these groups that embrace the venture-oriented strategy to SOA can be pleased more advantageous success in SOA adoption and offering outcomes. at the conclusion of the day, the company doesn’t custody how many services were constructed or leveraged. What really makes the company executives tick are the income, unique product introductions, unique purchasers, precise label downs, done efficiencies, and everything else that deals with growing to be profits and impacting the ground line. Enabling industry agility is the primary point of SOA. setting up an strategy that grants both the SOA application benefits and company desires of quicker time to market and value reductions will certainly manufacture IT and the entire company a hit.References
[REF-1] SOA Design Patterns (Prentice hall), www.soapatterns.com
la--(business WIRE)--SOA utility, a leading issuer of API management options, announced nowadays that its Semantics manager Product has been chosen by means of the medical data Interchange specifications Consortium (CDISC) to vigour its Shared health And medical research digital (SHARE) Library mission. CDISC partake will give a world digital repository for constructing, integrating and having access to CDISC metadata standards for scientific analysis in digital format. counsel on CDISC partake will furthermore be discovered at http://www.cdisc.org/cdisc-share.
SOA utility's Semantics manager™ is a comprehensive metadata and standards management retort that organizations exhaust to quite simply meet governance, regulatory and requisites compliance (GRC) necessities for guidance model definition and administration (e.g., in BioPharma, Finance and many others.), whereas improving common industry efficiency. Semantics supervisor helps businesses profile and align their discrete interior counsel models to both trade typical definitions and to a touchstone inside illustration. by using aligning with trade specifications and with the aid of mapping data to domain concepts, companies can achieve semantic interoperability - a key point of any API administration initiative that comprises data alternate. Semantics supervisor enables a collaborative, metadata-pushed tips lifecycle by way of providing corporations a centralized, requirements-based metadata repository and governance process automation platform.
For the BioPharma industry, Semantics manager enormously improves the capacity to consume note the influence of adjustments to each necessities and operational facts representations as they evolve. Semantics manager combines existing requisites (e.g., CDISC, BRIDG and ISO 21090) with a versatile metamodel definition framework that easily contains unique requisites. requirements development businesses (SDOs) can leverage the federation capabilities of Semantics supervisor to instantly disseminate necessities to business.
"We at CDISC are delighted to be working with SOA utility as their expertise accomplice on this vital initiative," stated Wayne Kubick, Chief know-how Officer for CDISC. "After an intensive evaluation system, it grew to be transparent that SOA software's solution supplied CDISC with the greatest possibility to birthright now deliver on the engage of partake for realizing the various advantages of CDISC specifications and enhancing interoperability with healthcare."
“we are excited to be chosen by using CDISC and are involved to exhaust their huge event in metadata management, exceptionally in the context of features and API's, to allow CDISC's imaginative and prescient of semantic interoperability for the BioPharma business,” preeminent Brent Carlson, SVP expertise, SOA software.
Semantics supervisor is constructed on trade necessities such as demur management group's (OMG) Reusable Asset Specification (RAS) and ISO’s 11179 touchstone for Metadata registries. the ground library includes complete CDISC Terminologies, CDASH 1.1, SDTM 1.2, BRIDG three.1, and ISO 21090, giving BioPharma businesses a jumpstart towards aligning their inside tips models with domain necessities and regulatory requirements. As a centralized requirements-based repository, Semantics manager gives a sole supply of governed content material to implement facts requisites, strategies and guidelines whereas making certain regulatory compliance and efficient records trade each throughout the solid and externally with companions and regulators. content material can be readily discovered and reused by the exhaust of extensive in-built search mechanisms. Collaboration is built-in as neatly and is feasible at any level - metadata, governance or at the repository level, with complete actions tracked via a totally configurable audit path that offers counsel about conventional choices and facts lineage. greater suggestions may furthermore be discovered at http://www.soa.com/options/semantics-management.
About SOA software
SOA utility’s mission is to energy the API pecuniary system with items that enable their customers to devise, construct, sprint and partake APIs via complete cloud and on-premise solutions for API lifecycle, protection, administration and developer engagement. the world’s greatest companies together with bank of the united states, Pfizer, and Verizon exhaust SOA software products to harness the vitality of their expertise and seriously change their businesses. Gartner positioned SOA software within the Leaders Quadrant for the 2011 “Magic Quadrant for SOA Governance technologies.” The industry is furthermore diagnosed as a “leader” by using the Forrester research Waves for integrated SOA Governance, SOA administration, and SOA lifestyles Cycle management. For greater counsel, please discuss with http://www.soa.com.
All product and industry names herein can be trademarks of their registered house owners.
SOA utility, Semantics supervisor, OAuth Server, Lifecycle manager, neighborhood manager, policy supervisor, Portfolio manager, carrier supervisor, API Gateway, and SOLA are emblems of SOA utility, Inc.
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Construction began this month on a third apartment knotty in Jacksonville's Brooklyn district, more progress for a formerly blighted allotment of town that has held mixed fortunes for developers and that experts assure is quiet a tricky status to revitalize.
Sandwiched between downtown and Riverside, and laden with pedestrian hazards, the Brooklyn neighborhood presents significant challenges to developers, but the newest residential development signals continued interest in structure there despite mixed results for the two retail projects already in place.
The Vista Brooklyn project will be the neighborhood's third major knotty in six years. adding another 308 apartments and 13,000-square-feet of retail space to the revitalized neighborhood.
Experts assure it will be a challenge to develop a complementary restaurant and retail arm of the housing projects because of inherent pedestrian and surface road conditions and its location between Riverside and Downtown.
The reality is that at 220 Riverside, an apartment knotty next door where Vista Brooklyn is being built, the attempt to jump-start retail development fizzled.
Despite the closing of multiple businesses, mostly restaurants, at 220 Riverside, Vista Brooklyn developers want to link their residential project — slated for completion in 2021 — with retail.
“We mediate for walkable urban neighborhoods to thrive it is significant for there to be ground-floor retail creating energy at the pedestrian-street level,” said Keith Goldfaden,managing ally for NAI Hallmark, the development solid managing Vista Brooklyn's construction.
Goldfaden said it’s too early to assure what companies will occupy Vista Brooklyn retail spaces. He said they'll target local, regional and national retailers as tenants.
“We envision having a couple of restaurants along with service-oriented retailers that can service both the big day-time workforce and the ever-growing residential ground and future hotels guests,” Goldfaden said.
Apartment complexes built in Brooklyn be pleased had no problems with occupancy rates for tenants. Recently-opened apartment complexes in the LaVilla belt to the east and north of Brooklyn are furthermore thriving in terms of attracting tenants.
A MIXED BAG
Retail in the unique Brooklyn developments is a mixed bag.
The Brooklyn Station shopping seat to the east of Vista Brooklyn anchored by The Fresh Market grocery store has thrived. Even when retail tenants leave the urban shopping plaza, they’re quickly replaced.
220 Riverside opened in 2016 with a plenary slate of first-floor retail tenants adjoining an amphitheater called union Plaza. In May, Brixx Wood Fired Pizza closed, the final retailer operating in the building's commercial space.
The union Plaza decline has been unrelenting, according to multiple Times-Union reports. The first restaurant to near was Sbraga & Company, which survived just eight months. A year ago, a restaurant called Hobnob said it would no longer operate as a dine-in restaurant.
Twenty-two months later, Brixx was shuttered.
It’s a far wail from the urban culture seat promised when Hallmark broke ground on the amphitheater in 2013. union Plaza’s amphitheater, which holds about 2,000 people, was built with $2.6 million in taxpayer money and envisioned as an event-driven gathering spot for people from around the city.
“We’ll be pleased their very own central park with their own activities with their own identity,” said Alex Coley, principal and co-founder of Hallmark Partners in an April 2013 report. “It is their credit that we’ll see back on this day, the dedication of union Plaza, as a censorious milestone and evolution of their downtown.”
That glowing prediction fizzled.
Few events be pleased been held at the amphitheater and some restaurant owners blamed the lack of cultural activity on the closing of their businesses at 220 Riverside.
NOBLE EFFORT, grandiose HURDLES
Don Capener, dean of the Jacksonville University Davis College of Business, said Hallmark’s plans for mixed-use tenants at Vista Brooklyn are noble, but they visage staid hurdles to manufacture a travel at retail.
“I mediate there are challenges. The pent-up require they complete hoped for downtown — or housing directly adjacent to downtown — is an significant conception or concept. It’s time will come,” Capener said.
“The question is if that will be in the next two or three years or a five-to-10-year timetable. Certainly, complete of us hope it’s the shorter one. ... I be pleased my doubts,” Capener said.
Brooklyn is in an maladroit geographic location — not directly in downtown’s urban core and on the outskirts of the Riverside that thrives in places such as Five Points.
Brooklyn was furthermore blighted for decades before Brooklyn Station and 220 Riverside along with other projects were built in the final half of this decade. Pockets of blight quiet sprint along Park Street and other nearby locations.
Residents in the increasing number of apartments in the LaVilla belt furthermore be pleased to cross busy and hazardous high-traffic overpasses on Riverside Avenue and Park Street to collect to Brooklyn, making pedestrian access formidable if not frightening.
Given those considerations, Capener said the retail space being built into apartment complexes may be ahead of its time, making the prospect of sustaining retailers in residential complexes tough.
Jake Gordon, CEO of Downtown Vision Inc., a nonprofit organization that works with the city to foster commercial development downtown, acknowledged Capener’s point that Brooklyn faces unique challenges.
“When you finish these developments, your focus is on the housing,” Gordon said. “Although, people want to live where there are amenities.
“A lot of times you see these bigger residential projects … embrace retail because that helps them lease up. You want to live near amenities love stores,” Gordon said.
The problem, Gordon said, is that the nature of retail has undergone rapid change just since 2015. The internet, restaurant home delivery and other factors add substantial competition to traditional retailers.
“I don’t weakness union [Plaza] at complete for bringing in a couple of high-end restaurants. ... I mediate they did the best that they could in terms of the assumptions they had at the time and it just is a challenging location.
“But there are definitely other things that could potentially thrive there with complete the people live there,” Gordon said.
Ultimately, the risk of opening an apartment knotty with retail space is quiet a solid prospect, Gordon said. If developers don’t embrace commercial units when they open, it’s much more difficult to add retail later, he said.
BROOKLYN STATION SHOWS SUCCESS
The Brooklyn Station shopping seat proves retail can thrive in the neighborhood.
Gordon said the bigger challenge is to collect the mixed-use developments to piggy-back off of that success.
The key to jump-starting success for mixed-use developments that proffer retail space in downtown will be pleased to be aided by the actual estate industry.
“The retail is arduous to fill and it’s furthermore a totally different job [from residential]. If you see at retail brokers in downtown, they effectively don’t be pleased any retail brokers because the sizes are so small, the commission you collect isn’t worth your time as a broker … . It’s kindhearted of the final thing to approach along,” Gordon said.
“I would assure to a unique developer, you be pleased to be pleased retail in your ground floor. But also, it’s really arduous to depend on that retail to manufacture you a bunch of money to mitigate you complete your project,” Gordon said.
Lower-cost restaurants — though not hastily food — and service-oriented shops such as computer stores, hair salons and work-out centers will likely lead to an upward transition for more sustainable businesses in mixed-use Brooklyn developments, Gordon said.
The Brooklyn Station shopping seat can serve as a template, Gordon said.
Capener agreed on that end. He said Brooklyn Station should be seen as an impetus for businesses to operate in mixed-use developments such as Vista Brooklyn.
“I believe they can labor together. There can be synergy, even competition,” Capener said. “It adds what I convoke censorious mass. Getting some of those retailers to add to that censorious mass I mediate makes a significant contribution to the success of the neighborhood.”
Development projects for service-oriented solutions are, on the surface, much love any other custom development projects for distributed applications. Services are designed, developed, and deployed alongside the accustomed supporting cast of front and back-end technologies. Once you dig a bit deeper under the layers of service-orientation, though, you'll find that in order to properly construct and position services as allotment of a standardized SOA, traditional project cycles require some adjustments.
As they can see in device 1 (see below), common delivery lifecycles embrace processes specifically tailored to the creation of services in advocate of SOA. In the service-oriented analysis stage, for example, services are modeled as service candidates that comprise a preparatory SOA. These candidates then become the starting point for the service-oriented design phase, which transforms them into actual world service contracts.
Service-oriented analysis (and a related sub-process known as service modeling) limn an significant allotment of service delivery that requires the involvement of industry analysts and very much demonstrates how industry analysis in general is affected by SOA. We'll discuss these processes in more detail later in this series. For now, their focus is on the project lifecycle and its relationship to industry analysis.
Figure 1: Common phases of an SOA delivery lifecycle.
The lifecycle stages displayed in device 1 limn a simple, sequential path to structure individual services. actual world delivery, however, is rarely that simple. These stages generally exigency to be organized into a delivery cycle that can accommodate the goals and constraints associated with project requirements, schedules, and budgets.
The challenge often lies in balancing these considerations. The success of SOA within an enterprise is increasingly associated with the extent to which it is standardized when phased into industry and application domains. However, the success of a project delivering a service-oriented solution is traditionally measured by the extent to which the solution fulfills expected requirements within a given budget and timeline.
To address this problem, they exigency a strategy. This strategy must be based on an organization's priorities in order to establish the rectify equipoise between the delivery of long-term migration goals with the fulfillment of more immediate, tactical requirements.
In this article they contrast two common strategies used to build services known as bottom-up and top-down. Neither is perfect, but both provide us with insight as to how the SOA delivery lifecycle can be configured.
The bottom-up approach is currently the most common variety, where services are created on an "as need" basis to fulfill mostly tactical requirements. The top-down approach, on the other hand, is one of analysis, profound thought, and patience. Service-orientation is infused into industry layers so that services can be modeled in alignment with industry models. In other words, it is far more strategic.
Because the theme of this train is about how SOA relates to industry analysis they are more interested in what lies behind the top-down process. The bottom-up approach is described primarily to provide contrast.
The majority of organizations that are currently structure services as Web services supervene a process similar to the one shown in device 2. The primary reason being that many just add Web services to their existing application environments in order to leverage the open Web services technology set (primarily for integration purposes). Even though the resulting architecture is often referred to as SOA, it really is quiet more reminiscent of traditional distributed architectural models, as service-orientation is rarely taken into consideration.
Figure 2: Common bottom-up process steps.
Though bottom-up designs allows for the efficient creation of services they can interpolate some ponderous penalties down the road. Implementing a "proper SOA" after a wide spread implementation of tactical services can impose a worthy deal of retro-fitting.
This is very much an "analysis first" approach that requires not only industry processes to become service-oriented, it furthermore promotes the creation (or realignment) of an organization's overall industry models. This process is therefore closely tied to or derived from an organization's existing industry logic, and it commonly results in the creation of numerous reusable industry and application services.
The top-down approach will typically contain some or complete of the steps illustrated in device 3.
Figure 3: Common top-down process steps.
The point of this strategy is to invest in the up-front analysis and planning labor required to build a towering property service architecture. The restrict and parameters of each service are thoroughly analyzed to maximize reuse potential and opportunities for streamlined and sophisticated compositions. complete of this lays the groundwork for a standardized and federated enterprise where services maintain a status of adaptability, while continuing to unify existing heterogeneity.
The obstacles to following a top-down approach are usually associated with time and money. Organizations are required to invest significantly in up-front analysis projects that can consume a worthy deal of time to demonstrate tangible, ROI-type benefits. There are further risks associated with over planning, where by the time the analysis projects are completed, they can become outdated.
Top-down approach and enterprise models
Of particular interest to industry analysts are the enterprise models referenced in Step 1 of device 3. These tend to vary across different organizations, each of which will be pleased models that are unique to its industry domains.
Common types of enterprise model documents embrace a formal ontology, an enterprise entity model, an enterprise-wide analytic data model, a standardized data representation architecture (often realized through a collection of standardized XML Schemas), and other forms of models generally associated with enterprise information architecture.
Some of these provide business-centric perspectives of an organization that prove extremely valuable sources for deriving industry services. industry entity models especially tie directly into the subsequent definition of entity-centric industry services.
Although listed as just a sole step in the overall process, the requirements to properly define enterprise models can easily result in the exigency for one or more divide processes, each of which may require its own project and working group. On the other hand, if the required enterprise industry models already exist, then this step may simply consist of their identification.
The altenative of delivery strategy will determine the extent to which industry analysts can mitigate shape a service portfolio conceptually, before services are physically implemented. It is therefore worthwhile to give staid consideration to the pros and cons associated with each approach.
The next article in this train continues this exploration by explaining a common deliverable of the top-down analysis application known as the enterprise service model. They will furthermore then recount how the both tactical and strategic requirements can be addressed in an alternative strategy known as "agile" or "meet-in-the-middle."
This article contains excerpts from "Service-Oriented Architecture: Concepts, Technology, and Design" by Thomas Erl (792 pages, Hardcover, ISBN: 0131858580, Prentice Hall/Pearson PTR, Copyright 2006). For more information, visit www.soabooks.com.
About the author
Thomas Erl is the world's top-selling SOA author and train Editor of the "Prentice Hall Service-Oriented Computing train from Thomas Erl" (www.soabooks.com). Thomas is furthermore the founder of SOA Systems Inc., a solid specializing in strategic SOA consulting, planning, and training services (www.soatraining.com.) Thomas has made significant contributions to the SOA industry in the areas of service-orientation research and the development of a mainstream SOA methodology. Thomas is involved with a number of technical committees and research efforts, and travels frequently for speaking, training, and consulting engagements. To learn more, visit www.thomaserl.com.
Easier, cost-effective, better perfoming irrigation systems for the farmers, environmentally frendlier and economically sound for complete water users. This is MASSCOTTE: "MApping System and Services for Canal Operation TEchniques."What is MASSCOTE?
The MASSCOTE is a step-wise methodology to evaluate and dissect different components of an irrigation system and then develop a modernization plan. The modernization scheme consists of physical, institutional, and managerial improvements in different components to better water delivery service and cost effectiveness of operation and management.
While the overall goal of MASSCOTE is modernization of management with the users as central actors, canal operation is the focus and entry point: modern design and management concepts are based on the definition of an operation scheme to achieve specific service and performance objectives. Users are central to this Service Oriented Management (SOM) approach.What finish they signify by modernization of irrigation systems?
FAO defines the modernization as following: A process of technical and managerial upgrading (as opposed to mere rehabilitation) of irrigation schemes with the objective to better resource utilization (labor, water, economics, environmental) and water delivery service to farms.Why the focus on canal operation?
As they often assure “Canals don’t lie”: they reflect the existing performance and express the constraints, limits and opportunities of the management. Thus the entry point of MASSCOTE is canal operation but the scope is modernization and the goal is to promote Service Oriented Management (SOM) with specific targets that are explicit in terms of cost, water and other resources exhaust effectiveness, and for the environment.
Canal operation is a censorious entry point because: (i) it is the activity that puts management decisions into tangible outputs; and (ii) it is there thatmasscote in india the current management performance is sanctioned and expressed in the most obvious manner (its symptoms). MASSCOTE evolves from canaloperation to management options (institutional partitioning, organization, and SOM). A longer-term scheme will address more systematically other issues related to management such as incentive structure, governance, and financing in a full-fletched asset management planHow does MASSCOTE work?
MASSCOTE methodology consists of 11 steps (click here to view steps) which are grouped into two main parts
The steps in the first allotment deal with evaluation and analysis of the current situation, practices and processes. In the second allotment a vision for the irrigation system is developed and targets are established. The modernization improvements are then planned to achieve these targets.
An significant feature of the methodology concerns the revolving nature of MASSCOTE. This might imply iterative circles before reaching a consolidated stage of analysis and project – several rounds of MASSCOTE at different levels of the system (main supply, subunits) before integrating at the main supply and subunit level.Is Modernization a one shot process?
Certainly not, successful modernization programs present that modernization is a continuing process that furthermore needs a lot of maturation era before stakeholders converge towards a common understanding and tangibles interventions. Using RAP and MASSCOTE appears to be a sterling approach in investing in the initial stages of the process and insufflate a sterling momentum
The different time frames of the interventions:
The MASSCOTE aims to assist technical experts, irrigation managers and masscote in chinamore broadly irrigation professionals, in seriously addressing modern needs, issues and challenges, analyzing complete the associated details, and embarking upon the difficult road of modernization or re-engineering of irrigation management of medium to big irrigation canal systems, with practical and particular objectives, plans and solutions.Who can conduct MASSCOTE for modernization
MASSCOTE methodology can be applied by any skilled professionals, however FAO recommends whenever viable to associate MASSCOTE with a training that allows participants to be familiarized with the various steps of the process as well as with some modern techniques of canal control.Whose benefits?
Modernization focuses in on making it easier, simpler and more economical to achieve improved overall economic, water-related and environmental performance through improved service delivery to complete users especially the farmers, thanks to improved irrigation management. masscote in indiaIt pays particular attention to buy-in from irrigation service provider staff (in agencies and water users associations that employ them) in terms of benefits that accrue to them, in addition to the core objective of improving performance and service to farmers. Those who provide funding (agencies, tax payers and farmers) are furthermore intended as censorious beneficiaries together with:
MASSCOTE is already used in:
...and who is interested in adopting it:
More on Masscote >>
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College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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