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this article is a first-hand record about getting ready for the SOACP certification and passing the examination. I decided to upshot that certification after I met Thomas Erl on the SOA Symposium 2010 in Berlin, Germany (see this older blog). i'll inform you, why i affection this certification and why (for my part) it makes lots of feel. but i will live able to moreover blame some miniature particulars.SOA is useless? No, it's greater alive than ever before…
In 2009, Anne Thomas Mannes weblog „SOA is dead; lengthy live capabilities“ obtained a lot of attention. reading the blog made clear, that carrier-oriented architecture (SOA) isn't dead, of route. SOA isn't any extra a hype. instead of that, SOA is fact and primary for future success of gigantic, long-dwelling IT tasks. SOA products are age and salubrious instead of early alpha releases. over the years, many design patterns and greatest practices were established to fabricate a SOA introduction successful.… so fabricate sure to upshot a SOA Certification! however which one?
SOA certified knowledgeable (SOACP) is a dealer-impartial SOA certification of soaschool.com, which is established by using the commonplace writer Thomas Erl. His SOA books are the defacto common in the SOA ambiance and permitted via large businesses with respectable reputation equivalent to IBM, Oracle, SAP, pink Hat, Yahoo and Microsoft.
other SOA certifications exist besides SOACP, e.g. from IBM. I every lone the time pick supplier-neutral certifications. however, if you're used to travail with IBM items the entire time, the sort of certification may moreover live a salubrious suggestion.
ZapThink additionally offers a dealer impartial SOA certification. That site moreover compares its certification to SOACP from soaschool. bethink to anatomize this enjoyable comparison!
having said that, I prefered doing the certification of soaschool, which consists of the information of the defacto commonplace SOA books instead of ZapThink’s content (which I even gain by no means heard earlier than).
lamentably, no first-hand reviews from neutral individuals are available for both, ZapThink and SOACP. for this reason, i am hoping this article will assist you collect suggestions about SOACP. and that i additionally hope, that someone will write a primary-hand report about the ZapThink SOA certification.distinct Certifications for diverse Roles
a large SOA venture requires a number of diverse roles. each inescapable role has ist own initiatives. discrete certifications require discrete modules (e.g. SOA technology concepts, SOA Design and architecture or SOA protection) – and for this judgement exams – to pass. Certifications are available e.g. for SOA Analysts, SOA Consultants, SOA Architects or SOA builders. notice additionally soacp.com for an excellent overview.
as a minimum five exams should live handed to earn such a certification. one of the most modules are „labs“, i.e. existent practice travail is required (and that i relish that).
but that you could delivery with the simple „SOA certified professional“ (SOACP) – with out a prefix akin to advisor or Developer. This certification requires to circulate just two assessments (module 1 and an arbitrary 2nd one). perquisite here tips experiences are won from the SOACP…Contents of Module 1 and a pair of
i cannot recount the content. I simply list some notable headwords and key messages. As outlined, the examination concentrates on content material of the SOA books of Thomas Erl.
Module 1 (S90.01 – fundamental SOA & service-Oriented Computing) incorporates absolute primary SOA stuff. on the other hand, this information is terribly notable for everybody working in a SOA chore (and in fact, many americans working in a SOA assignment upshot not bethink these basics). In perquisite here, I listing some of the facts you learn – and although they should live clear, they don't seem to live transparent for many people:
Conclusion about Module 1:
specializing in ideas, principles and requirements enables you to view the SOA industry with elevated readability. Governance is regularly the least understood and least deliberate constituent of SOA. Absence of a governance strategy (and funds) can jeopardize the success of SOA initiatives.
Module 2 (S90.02 – SOA expertise ideas) includes technical fundamentals (i.e. basically basics, just absolute newbie stuff for each and every technology), e.g.:
Conclusion about Module 2:
a very salubrious overview about know-how ideas is given. however live conscious, that it basically is an outline. No profound particulars about XML, WSDL or other technologies (but additional module will train you many particulars).preparation cloth
A Self-examine package is available for each module. It charges 400 USD and contains:
The fifth module is free, so that you can upshot a certification with 5 modules for 1600 USD using the self-look at kits.
moreover, workshops can live found everywhere the world. expense is set as a august deal as workshops from different IT teaching organizations.
Of path, which you can additionally upshot the certification devoid of self-examine kits and without workshops, primarily you probably gain profound SOA potential already. however for many people at the least the self-analyze kits are crucial.gaining erudition of vogue
I used perquisite here methodic whereas making ready and i advocate you doing the same:
1. read the booklet as a minimum two times (unless you in fact bethink every slight thing) – but don't read the sample exam questions at the proximate of the booklet!
2. remove heed to Audio CD 1 (content material of the booklet, equal order of chapters as in booklet)
3. examine the booklet once again
four. hearken to Audio CD 2 (content of the booklet, plus some hints for the exam, random order of chapters)
5. read the booklet once again
6. are attempting the shimmer playing cards
7. try the pattern examination questions of booklet one (don't study these earlier than this factor!)
eight. if you suppose you are ready, remove the examination. in any other case upshot more preparations (e.g. read one of the chapters of the SOA books => they clarify each verity very particular). Then try the exam.a passage to pass the examination(s)?
Of path, you upshot a certification to live taught something. however you additionally want to flux the exam. So, here some counsel:
I handed module 2 with ninety eight%, but module 1 with just eighty two% (eighty% required), as a result of I had complications with some questions. I can not inform you if I misunderstood these questions (i'm no indigenous english speaker). but occasionally, some „atypical“ words or sentences confused me. therefore, contrary to module 2, i was now not bound about some answers. I even gain heard from different people passing module 1 with 95+ %, so likely I had simply a nasty day.Criticism
My handiest criticism is the education booklet. It with ease includes the slides which can live used within the workshops. accordingly, you got a DIN A4 paper, however simply half of it contains the slide. The slither is meant for a presentation on a beamer. Some graphics are very difficult to examine. To live reasonable, most slides are only text, and there are additionally many first rate readable snap shots.
After each chapter, there's a slither which says „do an undertaking now“. First you upshot not understand, what fabricate sure to upshot now, since the subsequent slither is is the first page of the subsequent chapter. is this endeavor only for the workshop? No, every lone workouts are at the conclusion of the booklet!
having said that: if you pay 400 USD for two booklets and a few CDs, live sure you are expecting some sort of a existent booklet, not just Powerpoint slides. BWT: i know another certifications of alternative companies using the equal style. That is terribly tainted observe, personally.
anyway this criticism, everything else is high-quality with the exam and that i am convinced that every SOA guy should soundless upshot it!Conclusion about SOACP
You need to bear in intelligence SOA in case you wish to interpose or apply SOA. This certification is a very good, dealer-impartial probability to learn what SOA is – conceptually and technically.
The terminal slither of module 1 is an outstanding abstract:
„An SOA initiative does not need to live business-huge to deliver advantage, nor does it require the advent of a worldwide information model. Most SOA advantages and ROI [Return on Investment] are lengthy-time age investment and influence is up-front. The more up-front endeavor you location into each service, the less of a governance visitation the service becomes. specializing in ideas, principles and necessities allows for you to view the SOA industry with multiplied readability.“
Many SOA initiatives failed during the past, as a result of americans are not established with SOA and its ideas – e.g. nevertheless many individuals feel for you to construct a SOA just by using cleaning soap net capabilities as an alternative of proprietary components. So, if you are fresh so SOA, live sure to try this certification to learn SOA concepts. in case you gain already got journey with SOA, live sure to upshot that certification (with a salubrious deal less endeavor than a SOA beginner) to earn a confirmation about your SOA abilities.how to continue after SOACP?
As outlined, the SOACP just contains simple capabilities of SOA. here is very crucial, and everyone involved in a SOA chore should soundless gain this knowlegde.
even so, you should continue with different modules to rotate into a SOA licensed Architect (or something you need to rotate into). besides, a Cloud Certification is already purchasable.
So, what is your feeling in regards to the SOACP and other SOA certifications? Or probably you even gain some experiences with these certifications and wish to participate them with us?
Kai Wähner (Twitter: @KaiWaehner)
[Content from my Blog: Report about SOACP (SOA Certified Professional of soaschool.com) - Kai Wähner's IT-Blog]
This chapter from one hundred SOA Questions solutions the questions, what's SOA, is SOA an architectural trend, what are basic constructs (the DNA) of SOA, what is the change between an internet provider and an SOA provider and what makes a undertaking an SOA implementation?This chapter is from the ebook
carrier-oriented structure (SOA) is defined in a couple of ways, but not every lone definitions are equal, and not every lone definitions are comprehensive. as an alternative of simply offering another definition of SOA, this chapter describes the primary edifice blocks of SOA and looks at the cost proposition of SOA from key stakeholder views. anyway masking the primary constructing blocks of SOA, its DNA, and the cost propositions of adopting SOA and its most fulfilling utility, this chapter describes what makes an implementation an SOA deployment. notably, this chapter addresses perquisite here questions:
numerous vendors, application suppliers, system integrators, architects, authors, analysts firms, and necessities bodies provide definitions of SOA. The definitions of SOA are distinctive. Most are complementary and upshot not fight with every different. SOA has quite a lot of definitions because the definition is often tuned to a specific viewers, as explaining SOA to a CEO is distinctive from explaining SOA to a programmer. The time age carrier orientation is often used synonymously with SOA, but similar to SOA it has a wide array of interpretations. provider orientation is broader and represents a passage of brooding about capabilities within the context of enterprise and IT. This publication makes no gigantic contrast between SOA and service orientation and in some cases may additionally disburse both phrases synonymously.
An agreed-upon definition for SOA eludes the industry. anybody analyzing Wikipedia's definition page for SOA will notice the challenges of making an attempt to gain consensus on an SOA definition. requirements their bodies, the OASIS neighborhood, and the Open community gain supplied complementary however different SOA definitions. offered with a blank sheet of paper, an artist sees a canvas. A poet might fill it with verse. An engineer seizes the opening to fabricate a paper airplane. children might moreover notice it as a future pile of spit wads. SOA is that blank sheet of paper.
To the chief information officer (CIO), SOA is a event that promises to reduce the lifetime cost of the software portfolio, maximize return on investment (ROI) in each software and technology components, and in the reduction of lead times in supplying solutions to the enterprise.
To the industry government, SOA is a collection of services that will moreover live exposed to their shoppers, companions, and different elements of the firm. enterprise capabilities, characteristic, and enterprise common sense may moreover live combined and recombined to serve the wants of the industry now and tomorrow. applications serve the industry as a result of they are composed of functions that can moreover live without detain modified or redeployed in fresh enterprise contexts, allowing the industry to straight away reply to altering customer needs, enterprise alternatives, and market situations.
To the company analyst, SOA is a means of unlocking cost, as a result of industry processes are no longer locked in software silos. purposes no longer operate as inhibitors to changing industry wants.
To the chief architect or commercial enterprise architect, SOA is a system to create dynamic, incredibly configurable and collaborative functions developed for exchange. SOA reduces IT complexity and rigidity. SOA turns into the reply to cease the gradual entropy that makes applications brittle and intricate to alternate. SOA reduces lead times and charges as a result of decreased complexity makes enhancing and testing purposes simpler when they're structured the usage of services.
To the IT architect, SOA is the architectural solution for integrating diverse systems by means of presenting an architectural style that promotes free coupling and reuse. Many IT architects deem they gain seen this vogue earlier than with prior architectural initiatives such as DCE, the disbursed Computing atmosphere, and CORBA, the mediocre expostulate Request broking service architecture.
To the developer, SOA is a programming mannequin or paradigm where internet functions and contracts becomes a preeminent design for interoperability. it is a web carrier when it makes disburse of an internet service Description Language (WSDL) or equal specification for describing the provider. internet features allow businesses to communicate information, using messages, without intimate capabilities of every other's IT systems.
providing on the guarantees of SOA (enhanced industry agility, maximized ROI, decreased IT complexity and rigidity, decreased expenses, reduced lead times, decreased risk, fresh opportunities to carry price, improved participation in cost networks, and incremental implementation) requires you're taking a holistic view of SOA. If they circumscribe the view of SOA to a lone stakeholder (e.g., IT architect, developer, or company analyst) the advantages will no longer accrue because SOA then simply turns into one in an extended checklist of overhyped applied sciences instead of a novel system to edifice elastic enterprise options.2. Is SOA an Architectural vogue?
SOA is often viewed as an architectural fashion that has been round for years. device 1.1 shows the architectural fashion of SOA. during this situation, a provider consumer invokes or makes disburse of a service. The service buyer uses the service description to gather crucial suggestions concerning the company carrier (e.g., account carrier) to live consumed. The provider description gives the binding information so the customer can connect with the carrier, and the contour identifies the a variety of operations (e.g., open or proximate account) accessible from the issuer provider. A broking service can moreover live used to ascertain the carrier using a registry that homes information about the service and its region.
In determine 1.1, it is elaborate to determine how the architecture style of SOA makes it feasible for the strategic merits of SOA, similar to lowering the lifetime cost of an application or bringing sooner time to market or making applications resilient to trade. SOA as an architectural style often makes an SOA chore completely an IT endeavor where the strategic enterprise advantages of SOA no longer become the hub of attention or measured outcomes. merits of process flexibility, time-to-market rate reductions, lessen charges, and others will moreover live done with SOA, however best if they holistically undertake every lone stakeholder views of SOA and its application and pursue SOA adoption for that reason. When pundits, architects, consultants, or executives contour SOA as a absolute know-how play or as fully an architectural vogue, they relegate it to the realm of IT science tasks, overhyped technologies, and a advertising system rather than a novel system to edifice bendy industry solutions.
An understanding of SOA is more suitable with the next question and answer. through searching at the SOA constructing blocks of SOA, you can gain a fuller figuring out of what SOA is and the passage to recognize its promised benefits.3. What Are the basic Constructs (the DNA) of SOA?
essentially the most simple construct or constructing shroud of SOA is a service. software engineering over the years has evolved from procedural to structured programming to object-oriented programming to element-primarily based edifice and now to carrier oriented. determine 1.2 illustrates the diverse degrees of abstraction from objects to services. each evolution of abstraction builds on the outdated, and SOA embraces the most excellent practices of expostulate and section development.
to notice architectural trend of SOA, argue with device 1.1. That illustration shows the primary constructs of SOA, such as the carrier purchaser and the provider company and their relationship. The purchaser invokes a carrier, the company functionality, through contract. The provider of the carrier defines the constrict as a provider description. An middleman, reminiscent of a broker, makes disburse of a registry to locate or search for posted capabilities. service customer, provider provider, carrier description, provider broker, and a registry are every lone section of the DNA of SOA.
A service in SOA is the logical, self-contained enterprise feature. features in SOA gain the following attributes:
moreover, functions in a service-oriented structure usually gain here qualities:
viewed from the top down, SOA comprises the following constructs, as illustrated in device 1.3: consumer, company techniques, features, components, information, rules, and policies. buyers enable invocation or composition of services on the buyer layer via gregarious software, mashups, enterprise approaches, or other systems. company processes symbolize the flows of actions required to comprehensive a industry process; they're compositions of functions targeted to obtain industry goals. services are the leading structuring point required by using a service customer and are supplied by using the service issuer. services offer performance and pleasant of carrier, each of which are externalized inside carrier descriptions and policies. services can live composed of alternative functions, thus making them composite capabilities. components understand now not most efficacious the functionality of the capabilities they expose but moreover ensure their trait of carrier. tips flows between the layers (as an example, consumer, process, and repair) and inside a layer. ultimately, suggestions and guidelines exist for functions, accessories, and flows.
however objects are illustrated in determine 1.3, the live aware expostulate does not intimate an implementation of expostulate orientation, since the expostulate can effectively live a procedural subroutine carried out in a mess of languages as conveniently as it may moreover live carried out in a object-oriented programming language. SOA ought to gain services and components that know the services. tactics or flows may additionally string features together to fulfill a step or activity of a enterprise method. for instance a switch of cash provider may string collectively each a debit and credit score account service.
there is moreover a expertise view of SOA. know-how allows SOA, makes it efficient, and optimizes the implementation, however SOA isn't described by passage of the applied sciences chosen for implementation. as an alternative, SOA is described through presenting a uniform means to present, find, interact with, and disburse capabilities (capabilities) to produce desired results in step with measurable expectations.
The fundamental technologies associated with SOA embrace company-focused tools, utility construction equipment, and middleware applied sciences. device 1.4 illustrates the fundamental know-how constructing blocks for SOA. paraphernalia are required for SOA addressing design-time and runtime scenarios. industry stakeholders disburse enterprise-focused paraphernalia for modeling and evaluation of industry tactics and flows, and they're going to additionally disburse company undertaking monitoring expertise to gain insights into industry efficiency of techniques and workflow. IT practitioners disburse a collection of tools for edifice of enterprise purposes and for managing the working ambiance addressing integration, monitoring, and safety.
The DNA of SOA will surely live additional investigated and described by using standards agencies actively involved in defining an SOA ontology. as an example, notice www.opengroup.org/initiatives/soa-ontology/. Such an ontology will address SOA key concepts, including functions, provider contracts, service interfaces, composition (orchestration, choreography, and collaboration), methods, provider compositions, policies, and events. each and every of these makes up the DNA of SOA.four. what is the contrast Between a web service and an SOA carrier?
The gigantic contrast between enterprise services or SOA services versus an internet provider is not often articulated, and many equate both as being the same. SOA capabilities can moreover live realized as net services, but no longer every lone net capabilities are equal to SOA services. net services depict using each a printed regular and a collection of technologies for invocation and interoperability. SOA features are features that fulfill a key step or endeavor of a company manner and may live described as enterprise functions and are sometimes exposed as web services.
determine 1.3 illustrates each an SOA provider and an internet provider. The photo shows the contrast between SOA and internet features at runtime (i.e., implementation stage) and at design time. The web service is illustrated on the commandeer aspect of device 1.5, above every lone the web features Description Language (WSDL) and its attributes akin to port forms and operations. The ascribe that makes it an internet carrier is the disburse of WSDL or equivalent.
In design, they determine and specify a carrier that provides the design, or they determine and specify interfaces that consist of system standards. The mixture of the definition of the formulation and the interface at design time is what they argue with as a carrier from an SOA point of view. disburse circumstances may moreover live used to capture the purposeful necessities for a service. device 1.5 contrasts the variations between a provider in SOA and an internet carrier. both SOA functions and internet features are section of the DNA of SOA.
In an SOA, industry procedures, actions, and workflow are damaged down into constituent functional features referred to as capabilities. They may moreover live accessed and used directly by purposes, or they can live mixed and matched with different services to create fresh company capabilities. company capabilities or SOA services are reusable enterprise capabilities. Examples in banking embrace open account or change tackle. For transportation, it should live would becould very well live earn reservation or dangle reservation, and with loan processing, earn loan, result for loan, and update address are examples of company features. enterprise procedures are additionally key constructs of SOA, a section of its DNA.5. What Makes a project an SOA Implementation?
The deployment of features makes a venture an SOA implementation, where a service is defined in the preceding reply as an internet service or an SOA carrier. the disburse of the internet provider Description Language (WSDL) or equal makes a carrier a web provider. An SOA carrier ought to fullfil the criteria described in the reply 2; particularly, an SOA provider should live stateless; discoverable; self-describing; composable; loosely coupled; ruled; and unbiased of location, language, or protocol. this is, the disburse of capabilities lonely makes the project or implementation an SOA implementation. despite the fact, an SOA implementation might moreover no longer accrue the favored merits of SOA round can freight savings, reuse, time to market, or flexibility.
features can gain discrete ranges of maturity. for example, capabilities may moreover live ad hoc in their design and implementation where a WSDL façade is carried out to fabricate feature accessible to different programs or functions. services can moreover live architected the location carrier modeling and governance are used to maximize carrier reuse.
The implementation of SOA applied sciences with no deployment of 1 or extra functions might moreover live described as an SOA implementation. this might live abnormal as a result of middleware and infrastructure implementations (e.g., a registry or commercial enterprise provider bus) could live carried out together with the deployment of capabilities.
just as capabilities gain distinctive degrees of maturity, so upshot SOA adoptions inside a company. Some SOA adoptions require a program of initiatives to address a journey of expanding maturity to obtain strategic SOA dreams of edifice methods for trade, infusing flexibility as an ascribe of methods, or cutting back the lifetime costs of purposes and infrastructure. in this case, the program comprises a sequence of SOA projects that incrementally carry the maturity of SOA in an organization and along the manner allow the consciousness of the strategic SOA merits.
often, because of overselling of SOA, organization leaders, managers, and executives wrongly conform with that the merits of SOA instantly accrue when an SOA implementation occurs. SOA has discrete and discrete definitions, and hence its implementations are equally distinctive. So, agencies looking for to accrue any of the promised advantages of SOA ought to upshot greater than focus on SOA implementations. that's, each and every anticipated profit of SOA requires a discrete stage of SOA maturity. as an example, if the direct is only to reduce the cycle time of a industry technique that offers with exterior companions, exposing internet functions could live the handiest essential SOA adoption. besides the fact that children, if the company goal is to in the reduction of time to market for fresh products, this requires a broader adoption of SOA that addresses reusable services, structuring of applications the usage of capabilities, enhancing integration the usage of capabilities, and points of SOA governance to address provider sharing, funding, and ownership.
"We're starting to notice that determination makers are beginning to deem that deciding on SOA is a safe decision, as antagonistic to fire they're the primary to foray into the expertise," referred to notice Zalubas, chief expertise officer for Merlin international Inc. of Englewood, Col. Merlin leads the Merlin Federal SOA Coalition, which contains AmberPoint Inc. of Oakland, Calif.,BEA techniques Inc. of San Jose, Calif., and Systinet Corp. of Burlington, Mass.
The examine , titled SOA What? ? Who and what's riding SOA Adoption within the Federal government?, performed in July, turned into crammed out via 196 federal IT specialists and executives closing July. Fifty-six p.c of the respondents agreed that SOA would edge their agencies, even though simplest 22 percent reported successful SOA implementations in their own businesses.
"That become likely one of the most gigantic surprises in the leer at," Zalubas noted. "The success cost isn't extremely excessive, however the [respondents'] skill to recommend it to others is awfully excessive. in order that they are seeing anything in the technology that may live very advantageous."
basically, simplest 17 p.c of the respondents notable that they gain been worried in SOA implementations, and the huge majority of these implementations are taking location in civilian groups. (The document did note that the protection counsel systems agency plans to unlock an RFP for an agencywide SOA soon). Of the feasible makes disburse of of SOA, greater than half of the respondents recognized it as a passage to fuse discrete systems.
ultimate month, the corporation for the advancement of Structured tips standards defined SOA as "a paradigm for organizing and making disburse of distributed capabilities that may well live below the control of diverse possession domains," according to a lately OASIS-issued reference mannequin for SOA.
Joab Jackson is a senior creator for Washington expertise's sister book, govt computer word .
Joab Jackson is the senior technology editor for government computer news.
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Oversimplification and analogy can assist me grasp the core credence underpinning fresh concepts. Technology giants and silicon valley mind to generate buzz words & hypes and pretense themselves to live the masters of that popularized concept. Therefore, it might live difficult to notice through the smoke and mirrors at times. Here’s a humorous passage to leer at some of these fresh concepts along with an simplification / analogy.
AI = regression. Cloud = someone else’s computer. Robotic process transformation = transcend macros. Data scientist = Statistician live in California. Blockchain = Linked list database. Are these true?Is ersatz Intelligence glorified regression / curve fitting?
Not exactly but the analogy works. AI brings learning aspect into curve fitting and makes the process dynamic.Is ersatz Intelligence (AI) smart branding for machine learning (ML)?
Mostly yes. AI has been on the bleeding edge of hype curve and makes it easier to market companies, projects, personal skills, etc. People moreover mind to deem they know more about it since the term was popularized in movies and novels since long time.
When you’re fundraising, it’s AI. When you’re hiring, it’s ML. When you’re implementing, it’s logistic regression.
– everyone on Twitter ever
Reality of Machine Learning in industry:* 20% telling industry people what ML is* 20% data collection* 30% data cleaning* 15% data review* 10% edifice machine learning models* 5% deployment of models
-Dat TranInternet meme for AI, ML, Statistics Is data science just statistics done by non-statisticians?
Half true. Data scientist is one of the hottest occupations nowadays. What they upshot is mostly spotless data to fabricate it usable for machine learning models, etc. edifice machine learning models is quite simplified by technologies such as IBM Watson Studio and they effect tangled statistics transparent to proximate user aka data scientist.
A data scientist is a statistician who lives in San Francisco- @jeremyjarvis
Data Science is statistics on a Mac.- @bigdataborat
Data Scientist (n.): Person who is better at statistics than any software engineer and better at software engineering than any statistician.- @josh_willsIs Robotic Process Transformation a fancy designation for large scale transcend macros & scripting?
As it stands today, mostly yes. There’s potential to fabricate it more dynamic, and self autonomous. But the existing technologies marketed as RPA generally are windows scripting to automate clicks of a mouse, etc. Having a ‘robot’ word in their functions, makes these software companies seem more high-tech than they are so they adopt the RPA terminology.Is Blockchain basically a linked list database?
Yes, but a decentralized one. Linked lists gain been around forever, and gain been taught in computer science classes such as design patterns. They build on the core credence of pointers to organize information. Blockchains implement the same credence in a safer and ownerless way.Is a smart constrict benign of stored procedure?
Again, basically yes; but a decentralized one. Stored procedures are pieces of code running some logic when inescapable conditions are met in traditional databases. Smart contracts implement the same concept in an ownerless way, bring more features and can very easily execute monetary transactions in between parties.Buzzwords Tag Cloud. (Onalytica) Is Cloud just someone else’s computer? fresh generation of dumb terminals? Rebirth of mainframe?
It’s not wrong to relate cloud is someone else’s computer. every lone cloud’s are managed datacenters by tech giants such as IBM, Microsoft, Amazon, Google, etc. However, it’s not “just” someone else’s computer. Cloud is a paradigm that could live very powerful if leveraged the perquisite passage (re-architecting applications, using dynamic scaling, metering, etc). In some ways they can trace the credence back to dumb terminals, and mainframes of the past. But again, cloud as it stands today has evolved significantly and really embodies a fresh thinking in technology delivery.Is Microservices rebranded Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)?
To some degree yes. It is safe to relate microservices architecture is a subset of SOA. Mostly they promote the same ideas, reuse, simplicity, de-coupling, etc. at different levels. Microservices architecture puts very towering stress on miniature sized, self adequate and stateless services. This architecture fits very well with cloud computing for scaling and containers. Therefore rise of cloud computing gain propelled the popularity of microservices.
UPDATED: January 2019
Last September, consumers began to notice the first service bundles offered by telecommunications companies in their area, marketed with some contour of the term "5G." "5G is here," declared Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg, specifically for cities such as Sacramento, Los Angeles, and Indianapolis where rival AT&T had already been drumming up excitement around its 5G trials.
It was a bit relish SpaceX's 2016 announcement, its 2017 announcement, and its 2018 announcement that the race to Mars had begun.
Read also: T-Mobile and Sprint merger: The numbers and assumptions you need to know
5G Wireless is an categorical set of technologies specified by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as "Release 15" and "Release 16." 3GPP is an organization consisting of essentially every lone the world's telecommunications standards bodies who agreed to participate the definition of 3G Wireless, and to slouch on from there to successive generations.
Overlooked by London's skyscrapers EE's 5G mobile visitation kicks off.Image: EE Who gets to relate what 5G really is and isn't
Today, 3GPP specifies which technologies constitute 5G Wireless and, by exclusion, which upshot not. 5G is an endeavor to create a sustainable industry around the wireless consumption of data for every lone the world's telcos. One key goal of 5G is to dramatically better trait of service, and extend that trait over a broader geographic area, in order for the wireless industry to remain competitive against the onset of gigabit fiber service coupled with Wi-Fi.
The 5G transition plan, once complete, would constitute an overhaul of communications infrastructure unlike any other in history. Imagine if, at the proximate of the 19th century, the telegraph industry had near together in a joint conclusion to implement a staged transition to fax. That's essentially the scale of the shift from 4G to 5G. The existent judgement for this shift is not so much to earn faster as to fabricate the wireless industry sustainable over the long term, as the 4G transmission scheme is approaching unsustainability faster than the industry experts predicted.
SEE: How 5G will transform industry (ZDNet special report) | Download the report as a PDF (TechRepublic)
To fabricate the transition feasible in homes and businesses, telcos are looking to slouch customers into a 5G industry track now, even before most existent 5G services exist yet. More to the point, they're laying the "foundations" for technology tracks that can more easily live upgraded to 5G, once those 5G services upshot become available.New industry models
Equipment staged by NTT DOCOMO for 5G urban zone trials in Japan.(Image: Ericsson)
The initial costs of these infrastructure improvements may live tremendous, and consumers gain already demonstrated their intolerance for rate hikes. So to recoup those costs, telcos will need to offer fresh classes of service to fresh customer segments, for which 5G has made provisions. These include:
"It's not only going to live they humans that are going to live consuming services," remarked Nick Cadwgan, director of IP mobile networking, speaking with ZDNet. "There's going to live an dreadful lot of software consuming services. If you leer at this total thing about massive machine-type communications [mMTC], in the past it's been primarily the human either talking to a human or, when they gain the internet, the human requesting services and experiences from software. affecting forward, they are going to gain software as the requester, and that software is going to live talking to software. So the total dynamic of what services we're going to gain to deliver through their networks, is going to change."Driving for higher yields
5G is comprised of several technology projects in both communications and data hub architecture, every lone of which must collectively succumb benefits for telcos as well as customers, for any of them to live individually considered successful. The majority of these efforts are in one of three categories:
Projection of interrelated 5G service tiers(Image:International Telecommunications Union)
It was during the implementation of 4G that telcos realized they wished they had different grades of infrastructure to uphold different classes of service. 5G allows for three service grades that may live tuned to the special requirements of their customers' industry models:
"The first generation of mobile systems that were launched around 1991 -- popularly known as 2G/GSM -- was really focused on massive mobile device communication," explained Sree Koratala, head of technology and strategy for 5G Wireless in North America for communications paraphernalia provider Ericsson, speaking with ZDNet. "Then the next generation of mobile networks, 3G, launched starting in 1998, enabled mobile broadband, feature phones, and browsing. When 4G networks were launched in 2008, smartphones popularized video consumption, and data traffic on mobile networks really exploded.
"All these networks primarily catered towards consumers," Koratala continued. "Now when you leer at this next generation of mobile networks, 5G, it is very unlike the previous generation of network. It's truly an inflection point from the consumer to the industry."
The replete release of the first complete set of 5G standards (officially "Release 15") by 3GPP took location in June 2018. By the proximate of 2019, the organization expects to declare a supplemental set of 5G standards called "Release 16." That release is slated to embrace specifications for:
The existent purpose of 5G Wireless, as you'll notice momentarily, is to produce a global industry model where expenses are lower and revenue from services is higher, on account of the presence of more and greater services than 4G could provision for. So there is a sound argument, from a marketing standpoint, in favor of a gradual deconstruction of 4G branding. As consumers hear more and more about the onset of 5G, enumeration leaves them fire more and more relish their 4G paraphernalia is veteran and obsolete.
With so many technologies under the 5G umbrella -- home broadband, office broadband, home television, Internet of Things, in-vehicle communication, as well as mobile phone -- there's no guarantee that, when it comes time, any consumer will pick the same provider for each one unless that consumer is willing to badge a constrict beforehand. That's why telcos are stepping up their 5G branding efforts now, including rolling out preparatory 4G upgrades with 5G monikers, and re-introducing the total credence of 5G to consumers as a fuzzy, cloudy, nebulous entity that encapsulates a sci-fi-like example of the future.
"The common purpose technology for the Fourth Industrial Revolution is actually the ambiguous sort of connectivity that 5G can bring," admitted Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg, in no less conspicuous an arena than the keynote address of CES 2019.
Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg explains "5G for All" to attendees at CES 2019.[Photo courtesy Verizon]
"So what is 5G? 5G is a promise," Vestberg continued, "of so much more than we've ever seen in any wireless technology. From the beginning, they had the 1G, the 2G, the 3G, and the 4G. They were sort of leaps of differences, when it comes to hasten and throughput. When they deem about 5G, they deem about 10 gigabits per second throughput, they talk about 10x battery life, they deem about 1000 times more data volumes in the networks. It's just radically different. I would relate it's a quantum leap compared to 4G."
The first wave of 5G-branded services are effectively 4G, or 4G extensions, that location consumers on the perquisite track for future 5G upgrades, thus guaranteeing the revenue sources that 5G will require to live successful, or if only to just demolish even.
But consumers aren't the only parties facing down the need to climb onto a fresh track. Telcos gain their own service providers -- for example, Nokia, which has absorbed the assets of the former Alcatel-Lucent, and is now the holder of the massive Bell Laboratories intellectual property portfolio. These providers moreover need their customers to earn with the program. In a January 22 blog post, Nokia's marketing strategist Clare McCarthy stated that communications service providers (CSPs) can start miniature if they want, but to become fully 5G compliant, they'll eventually gain to overhaul their communications infrastructure completely. McCarthy wrote:
CSPs can start miniature by upgrading their radio access software and and maintaining the connection to an existing LTE core network if increased capacity is every lone they need, but capacity is not every lone CSPs need. They notice their role as central to a flourishing digital economy. They need to offer fresh digital services and uphold fresh operating and industry models across industry verticals — and this requires more than a radio-only upgrade. Delivering a fresh benign of industry requires a network capable of higher speeds, greater spectral efficiency, a cloud indigenous core and a coherent, end-to-end framework. CSPs need to deploy a fundamentally different infrastructure to meet the needs for greater capacity, latency and extreme reliability.Why cooling made 5G an exigent necessity
In May 2017, AT&T President of Technology Operations Bill Hogg declared the existing wireless industry model for cell tower rental, operation, and maintenance "unsustainable." Some months earlier, a J. P. Morgan analyst characterized the then-business model for wireless providers in Southeast Asia as unsustainable, warning that the then-current system has rendered it impossible for carriers to preserve up with customer demand. And as research solid McKinsey & Company asserted in a January 2018 report, the growth path for Japan's existing wireless infrastructure is becoming "unsustainable," rendering 5G for that country "a necessity."
One senses a theme.
The world's telcos need a different, far less constrained, industry model than what 4G has left them with. The only passage they can accomplish this is with an infrastructure that generates radically lower costs than the current scenario, particularly for maintaining, and mainly cooling, their base station equipment.
Read also: Stingray spying: 5G will protect you against surveillance
Cooling and the costs associated with facilitating and managing cooling equipment, according to studies from analysts and telcos worldwide, account for more than half of telcos' total expenses for operating their wireless networks. Global warming (which, from the perspective of meteorological instrumentation, is indisputable) is a direct contributor to compound annual increases in wireless network costs. Ironically, as this 2017 study by China's National Science Foundation asserts, the act of cooling 4G LTE paraphernalia lonely may contribute as much as 2 percent to the entire global warming problem.The world's biggest example
China Mobile's breakdown of its annual capital and operational expenditures for maintaining one 3G base station.(Image: China Mobile)
The 2013 edition of a study by China Mobile, that country's state-licensed service provider, examined the towering costs of maintaining energy-inefficient paraphernalia in its 3G wireless network, which happens to live the largest on the planet in both territory and customers served. In 2012, CM estimated its network had consumed 14 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity annually. As much as 46 percent of the electricity consumed by each base station, it estimated, was devoted to air conditioning.
That study proposed a fresh system of constructing, deploying, and managing network base stations. Called Cloud architecture RAN (C-RAN), it's a system of building, distributing, and maintaining transmitter antennas that history will record as having triggered the entire 5G movement.
Read also: Samsung and KDDI complete 5G visitation in baseball stadium
One of the hallmarks of C-RAN cell site architecture is the total elimination of the on-site base troupe unit (BBU) processors, which were typically co-located with the site's radio head. That functionality is instead virtualized and moved to a centralized cloud platform, for which multiple BBUs' control systems participate tenancy, in what's called the baseband pool. The cloud data hub is powered and cooled independently, and linked to each of the base stations by no greater than 40km of fiber optic cable.
An Ericsson 5G transmitter used in NTT DOCOMO's Japan trials.(Image: Ericsson)
Moving BBU processing to the cloud eliminates an entire base transmission system (BTS) paraphernalia elbowroom from the base station (BS). It moreover completely abolishes the principal source of heat generation inside the BS, making it feasible for much, if not all, of the remaining paraphernalia to live cooled passively -- literally, by exposure to the open air. The configuration of that paraphernalia could then live optimized, relish the 5G visitation transmitter shown above, constructed by Ericsson for Japan's NTT DOCOMO. The goal for this optimization is to reduce a lone site's power consumption by over 75 percent.
What's more, it takes less money to rent the site for a smaller base station than for a large one. Granted, China may gain a unique concept of the existent estate market compared to other countries. Nevertheless, China Mobile's figures show that rental fees with C-RAN were reduced by over 71 percent, contributing to a total operational expenditure (OpEx) reduction for the entire base station site of 53 percent.
Read also: T-Mobile and Sprint to merge, finally, strutting 5G clout
Keep in mind, though, that China Mobile's figures pertained to deploying and maintaining 3G equipment, not 5G. But the fresh standards for transmission and network access, called 5G fresh Radio (5G NR), are being designed with C-RAN ideals in mind, so that the paraphernalia never generates enough heat to trip that wire, requiring OpEx to effectively quadruple.The fresh cloud at the fresh edge
It would emerge a lot of the success of 5G rests upon this fresh class of cloud data centers, into which the functionality of today's baseband units would move. As of now, there is soundless considerable doubt as to where this centralized RAN controller would reside. There are competing definitions.
Some gain taken a salubrious leer at the emerging crop of edge data centers sprouting adjacent to today's cell towers, and are suggesting that the fresh Service Oriented Core (SOC) could live distributed across those locations. Yet skeptics are wondering, why bother with the elimination of the BTS station in the first place, if the SOC would only retain it back? Alternately, a sever SOC station could live established that services dozens of towers simultaneously. The problem there, obviously, is that such a station would live a full-fledged data hub in itself, which would gain existent estate and cooling issues of its own.
Either option might live more palatable, some engineers believe, if the servers operating there could delegate computing infrastructure among internal operations and special customer services -- edge computing services that could compete with cloud providers such as Amazon and Microsoft Azure, by leveraging much lower latency. The faculty to upshot so is entirely conditional upon a concept called network slicing. This is the subdivision of physical infrastructure into virtual platforms, using a technique perfected by telecommunications companies called network functions virtualization (NFV).
Also: Microsoft Azure: Everything you need to know about Redmond's cloud serviceThe dicey topic of slicing
One scenario mobile operators envision for 5G network slicing.(Image: Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance)
Exactly what routes these network slices would remove through the infrastructure is completely up in the air. T-Mobile and others gain suggested slices could divide classes of internal network functions -- for instance, dividing eMBB from mMTC from URLLC. Others, such as the members of the Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance (NGMN), intimate that slices could effectively partition networks in such a passage (as suggested by the NGMN diagram above) that different classes of user equipment, utilizing their respective sets of radio access technologies (RAT), would perceive quite different infrastructure configurations, even though they'd live accessing resources from the same pools.
Another suggestion being made by some of the industry's main customers, at 5G industry conferences, is that telcos offer the premium option of slicing their network by individual customer. This would give customers willing to invest heavily in edge computing services more direct access to the fiber optic fabric that supports the infrastructure, potentially giving a telco willing to provide such a service a competitive edge over a colocation provider, even one with facilities adjacent to a "carrier hotel."
Read also: Micro circuitry innovation needed to implement 5G
But depending upon whom one asks, slicing networks by customer may actually live impossible. There are diametrically split viewpoints on the topic of whether slicing could congregate telco functions and customer functions together on the same cloud. Some gain suggested such a convergence is vitally necessary for 5G to fulfill the value proposition embodied in C-RAN. Architects of the cloud platforms seeking to play a central role in the SOC, such as OpenStack and CORD, bicker that this convergence is already happening, and the total point of the architecture in the first place.
AT&T has gone so far as to intimate the dispute is moot and the discussion is actually closed: Both classes of functions gain already been physically separated, not virtually sliced, in the 5G specifications, its engineers assert. In a January 2019 statement, the company said it has already begun deployments of what it calls Multi-access Edge Compute (MEC) services with select customers, in some cases using existing 4G LTE connectivity. "The data that runs through AT&T MEC," the statement reads in part, "can live routed to their cloud or abide within an enterprise's private environment to assist augment security."
But AT&T isn't the "Bell System" any more -- it doesn't earn the final say. Thus one of the most faultfinding decisions in 5G architecture may proximate up being the result of visitation and error.
However this issue gets resolved, the very fact that slicing must remove location somehow, if only to virtually sever those functions that will not gain already been physically separated, suggests that 5G will not live "a fully meshed world of wirelessly connected everything." Security -- the topic that always waits until the terminal minute -- will ensure that inescapable things will remain strategically disconnected, for their own good.The emergence of fixed wireless
Ericsson's own forecasts of wireless connectivity gain been known to fool people. In June 2017, its annual Mobility Report estimated that mobile data traffic would grow at an mediocre compound annual growth rate of 42 percent through 2022, having grown eightfold by the proximate of that period. "By the proximate of the forecast period," stated Ericsson, "more than 90 percent of mobile data traffic will near from smartphones."
That forecast generated a truckload of headlines. A half-billion 5G mobile subscriptions are expected worldwide by 2022, reported ZDNet's Corinne Reichert. Ericsson's updated report, published terminal November, doubled that forecast number for 2023, adding that 5G access would achieve one-fifth of the world's population by the proximate of that year.
Read also: Robots could earn cheaper, thanks to 5G
The keyword in the above paragraphs is "mobile." Up to now, every lone the "Gs" gain pertained to the wireless access technology we've historically perceived as synonymous with mobility. For 5G to live truly successful, Ericsson's Koratala told us, it will need to open up access to a broader compass of devices, many of which are actually not the least bit mobile.The not-so-mobile proposition
"These connections are expected to live going into devices in factories, transportation, and the grid," said Koratala. "So the compass of applications means a huge diversification of performance and requirements for communication. Then there are some disburse cases that might live demanding a 5x improvement in latency, a 100x or 1000x data volume, as well as [extending] battery life. So when you leer at that set of requirements, it's very transparent that it is not a lone disburse case. It really becomes an enabler for a wide variety of disburse cases, that will gain different requirements to live met to fabricate them viable."
The key mission of mMTC is to service wireless devices that don't move. Its transmission scheme will live tuned for very towering density -- for situations relish factory floors where thousands of individual mechanical elements are sending operational data, simultaneously, to an off-site location for instant analytics.
Read also: UK government seeks city to showcase 5G connectivity
Viewed in this light, the prediction that nine-tenths of mobile data will live consumed by the largest class of mobile devices, seems about as spot-on as a forecast that rain will continue to live wet. What is completely unpredictable at this point is whether a fixed wireless disburse case will live competitive in an environment where wired broadband is moreover undergoing a revolution.Exchanging yesterday's fresh technology for today's
You will hear from many sources that 5G is not about what anything is, but rather what it enables you to do. No, it isn't. 5G is about the things in which the telecom industry, and to a growing extent the data hub networking industry, must invest in order to produce the latest editions of platforms such as V2X and mMTC, so that it can start earning revenue from those services. 5G is every lone about what it is.
If you proximate up watching smoothly streaming 4K video on a fresh class of smartphone, allowing yourself to live ferried between cities in an otherwise unoccupied vehicle, or participate in a virtual, real-time football tournament with a few dozen goggle-wearers scattered throughout the planet, then you will live fulfilling the hopes of telco engineers who hope to fabricate 5G viable. The verity is, zero of these consumer technologies are the existent judgement 5G is being engineered. Indeed, they are the side benefits.The gigantic gamble
Three experimental AT&T cell tower designs for desert deployment. (Yes, they're perquisite in front of you.)(Image: AT&T)
5G is a collective bargain between the telecommunications industry and society. To allow for anything proximate to evenly distributed coverage over a metropolitan area, the base stations containing the transmitters and receivers (the "cells") must live smaller, much lower in power, and much greater in number than they are today. Essentially, the fresh cell towers must co-exist with the environment. An outdoor photograph taken in any direction will live just as likely to embrace a 5G tower as not. (The instance above, provided by AT&T, includes three.)
Read also: How US carriers moved up the timeline on 5G
It would not live unprecedented in history. We've borne telephone and electric poles through their neighborhoods and, not every lone that long ago, willingly installed TV aerials the size of kites on their chimneys. Some of us soundless disburse their veteran mounting posts for their satellite dishes. In exchange for the hopefully minor blemish on their landscapes that 5G may bring, many would wave a cheerful good-bye to departed spots.
All these things must happen, and in relatively quick succession, in order for telcos to afford the infrastructural overhaul they now gain no choice but to make.Explore further — From the CBS Interactive Network Elsewhere Previous and related coverage
Qualcomm touts OEM, carrier wins for global 5G launches in 2019
The chip giant announced that its Snapdragon X50 modem chipset was chosen by 19 global operators for upcoming mobile 5G trials.
Sprint eyes mobile 5G network launch for first half of 2019
5G could lead to an augment in customers' data plans, Sprint's CEO said.
How 5G will impact the future of farming
ZDNet caught up with Julian Sanchez, director of John Deere Technology Innovation Center, during CES 2018 to talk about how pastoral connectivity will impact the future of precision agriculture.
When Anne Thomas Manes declared SOA departed terminal January, the enterprise software world stood up and took notice. Manes, a vice president and research director with Burton Group (now with Gartner), declared that SOA and middleware products had worn out their welcome in corporate America, and that SOA as a marketing term was no longer useful. Now, one year later, Manes is soundless bearish on SOA technology, but very bullish on applying SOA best practices to the cloud.
Jason Bloomberg, managing partner at consulting solid ZapThink, said that SOA has changed from being a market category for software and middleware companies to a set of best practices, and that this shift became prominent in the market towards the proximate of 2008. He said that SOA was always about best practices, but that the companies hoping to fabricate money on the term had obscured this fact with lots of advertising dollars.
Today, said Bloomberg, these companies gain seen their markets dry up, and only a few such companies remain; most SOA companies were acquired by the likes of IBM and Oracle over the past four years. But even IBM has changed its marketing to emphasize SOA consulting, not SOA products, he said.
“What’s really shifted, and this is what Anne was getting at, is a shift away from vendor-driven fake architecture projects where you relate you want to upshot SOA, you buy from Oracle or IBM, they install it and you miracle where the SOA went,” said Bloomberg.
“Budgets were tense terminal year, and that helped organizations resist spending money on software to resolve the problem. There is now a focus on existent architecture to leverage existing infrastructure.”
ZapThink used to offer SOA-specific advice, and it even ranked SOA tools in the company newsletter. Bloomberg said that such travail is no longer a section of the ZapThink industry model, which is now focused on training and consulting rather than purchasing advice.
From SOA to the cloudNow that SOA has lost its appeal as a buzzword, many companies are pushing their middleware products into the cloud. “Vendors had to upshot something to convince people to buy,” said Manes. “They basically took everything they had for SOA and repackaged it to say, ‘This is cloud stuff.’ But you can’t upshot cloud computing very effectively at every lone if you’re not moreover using service-oriented principles.
“The industry guys aren’t interested in investing in this abstract architecture concept. But at the same time, you gain to upshot it or your systems are going to remain in this quagmire they’ve been in.”
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ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
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CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
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McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
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PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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