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abstract:for people who've potential of the terminology and primary concepts of TOGAF 9 and occupy in judgement the core ideas of commercial enterprise structure and TOGAF. earning the TOGAF groundwork certification is the primary degree of the TOGAF Practioner application.
initial necessities:You exigency to slip the TOGAF 9 partake 1 exam ($320). The examination carries forty questions and has a 60 minute time limit. A passing rating of 55% is required.
continuing necessities:You must recertify every 2 years by artery of paying a $300 fee.
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more than 25,000 individuals occupy earned certification below the Open neighborhood's TOGAF 9 program, the group said recently, marking a milestone for what has become a gauge framework and components for enterprise structure (EA).
Andrew Josey, director of standards for The Open community, introduced the milestone in his weblog. The number of certifications, he wrote, become facts of "a sizable surge within the popularity of open necessities over the final few years." He additionally credited the recent monetary downturn.
"…considering that the monetary calamity begun," he wrote, "open necessities occupy helped by proposing a framework that enables commercial enterprise Architects to shop their agencies cash, maintain and enhance profitability and drive company efficiencies. And, on knowledgeable level, certification has helped enterprise Architects to differentiate themselves, delivering improved job security and employment prospects via trying out instances."
TOGAF, which stands for The Open neighborhood architecture Framework, is designed to deliver organizations with a structured procedure for governing their implementations of know-how, primarily software. it be according to the U.S. offshoot of defense Technical architecture Framework for tips management (TAFIM), and turned into developed with the aid of a diverse neighborhood of member organizations, together with PG&E, Oracle, Rolls Royce and Microsoft. the primary version changed into launched in 1995, and TOGAF 9 was introduced in 2009.
"This framework is a synthesis of stuff that has labored for lots of people in lots of diverse contexts," Leonard Fehskens, the Open community's vice chairman of capabilities and capabilities, instructed ADTmag in an prior interview.
The Open neighborhood certifies individuals, service providers, equipment, and practising around TOGAF. In 2006 about 1,000 people were TOGAF-certified; that quantity had grown to well-nigh 9,000 via the birth of 2009.
presently in version 9.1, TOGAF comes with a group of assisting equipment, referred to as the TOGAF useful resource Base, but at its coronary heart it's a description of a step-with the aid of-step approach to the technique called the structure building components (ADM).
The certifications are available in two flavors: "TOGAF 9 foundation," which demonstrates erudition of the terminology, constitution, and simple ideas of TOGAF 9, in addition to an knowing of the core ideas of EA and the TOGAF normal; and "TOGAF 9 licensed," which validates an potential to investigate and apply the foundation capabilities.
The Open community is a dealer- and expertise-neutral consortium focused on open necessities and "global interoperability inside and between businesses." The organization changed into shaped from the merger of the Open programs basis and XOpen within the mid-1990s. The community's initial focus became the building of Unix specifications and certification of Unix implementations. Over time, as the individuals' issues moved away from Unix as a strategy for multiplatform integration and into the realm of enterprise architecture, the neighborhood's actions and hub of attention moreover shifted.
Posted on 09/09/2013 at eleven:22 AM
©The Open group August 2006, The Open community all rights reserved. No partake of this e-book could be reproduced, kept in a retrieval equipment, or transmitted, in any form or by means of any skill, digital, mechanical, photocopying, recording or in any other case, devoid of the prior license of the copyright homeowners.
refer to situations of consume for particular situations of consume concerning TOGAF version eight.1.1.
Any feedback relating to the cloth contained during this doc can be submitted to The Open neighborhood at:
The Open GroupThames Tower37-45 Station RoadReadingBerkshire, RG1 1LXUnited Kingdom
or by electronic message to:
The Open community architecture Framework (TOGAF) - edition 8.1.1, commercial enterprise edition - is an open, industry consensus framework and routine for commercial enterprise structure.
TOGAF may be reproduced freely with the aid of any firm wishing to acquire consume of it to develop an trade architecture to be used inside that corporation.This document
There are four leading components to the TOGAF document:part I (Introduction) This half gives a excessive-stage introduction to one of the most key concepts in the back of commercial enterprise architecture and in selected the TOGAF strategy. half II (architecture evolution components) here is the core of TOGAF. It describes the TOGAF structure construction formulation (ADM) - a step-by means of-step approach to developing an commercial enterprise architecture. part III (enterprise Continuum) This half describes the TOGAF commercial enterprise Continuum, a digital repository of architecture belongings, which contains the TOGAF groundwork structure, and the built-in advice Infrastructure Reference mannequin (III-RM). part IV (materials) This partake comprises the TOGAF resource base - a collection of tools and techniques attainable to be used in applying TOGAF and the TOGAF ADM.
Downloads of the TOGAF documentation, together with a printable PDF file, are available beneath license from the TOGAF suggestions internet site (www.opengroup.org/structure/togaf). The license is free to any firm wishing to consume TOGAF absolutely for interior purposes (for example, to ameliorate an guidance system structure for consume within that company).
The TOGAF documentation is freely attainable for viewing on-line with no license. on the other hand, the comprehensive TOGAF documentation set could be downloaded and kept under license, as explained on the TOGAF suggestions net site.
In either case, the TOGAF documentation can be used freely by any organization wishing to accomplish that to strengthen an structure for consume within that organization. No partake of it could be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any potential, digital, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or in any other case, for any other purpose together with, but now not by the consume of hindrance, any consume for trade gain, without the prior license of the copyright house owners.intended viewers
TOGAF is meant for IT architects and any one answerable for the structure characteristic within a firm.key phrases
structure, structure framework, architecture building method, architect, architecting, enterprise architecture, trade structure framework, trade architecture components, components, methods, open, neighborhood, technical reference model, requirements, requisites tips baseconcerning the Open group The Open community
The Open community is a dealer-impartial and know-how-neutral consortium, whose vision of Boundaryless suggestions rush will permit entry to built-in assistance within and between companies in line with open requirements and global interoperability. The Open group works with customers, suppliers, consortia, and different necessities bodies. Its position is to capture, endure in mind, and ply present and rising necessities, establish policies, and partake superior practices; to facilitate interoperability, strengthen consensus, and evolve and integrate necessities and Open supply technologies; to offer a finished set of services to enhance the operational efficiency of consortia; and to function the business's premier certification provider, together with UNIX certification.
additional suggestions on The Open neighborhood is accessible at www.opengroup.org.
The Open neighborhood has over 15 years' adventure in developing and working certification courses and has wide journey establishing and facilitating trade adoption of verify suites used to validate conformance to an open timehonored or specification.
greater assistance is accessible at www.opengroup.org/certification.
The Open neighborhood publishes a sizable orbit of technical documentation, the leading partake of which is focused on construction of Technical and Product requisites and guides, however which moreover contains white papers, technical stories, branding and checking out documentation, and enterprise titles. full particulars and a catalog can be institute at www.opengroup.org/bookstall.
as with any reside files, Technical requisites and standards require revision to align with novel traits and associated foreign standards. to distinguish between revised necessities which might be utterly backwards-compatible and those which aren't:
Readers should note that Corrigenda may moreover apply to any publication. Corrigenda counsel is published at www.opengroup.org/corrigenda.trademarks
AdobeTM, AcrobatTM, and Acrobat ReaderTM are emblems of Adobe programs incorporated.
Boundaryless advice slip TM is a trademark and UNIX® and The Open neighborhood® are registered logos of The Open neighborhood within the u.s. and different nations.
Java® is a registered trademark of solar Microsystems, Inc.
here are registered trademarks of the application Engineering Institute (SEI):
The Open neighborhood acknowledges that there may well be other company names and products that might be covered by artery of trademark coverage and advises the reader to check them independently.Acknowledgements
The Open group gratefully acknowledges:
members of The Open community structure discussion board.Referenced files
here files are referenced in this e book:
right here net websites supply positive reference fabric:
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The TOGAF document set is designed to be used with frames. To navigate across the document:
return to confiscate of web page
Downloads of the TOGAF documentation, are available beneath license from the TOGAF tips web site. The license is free to any organization wishing to acquire consume of TOGAF entirely for inner purposes (as an instance, to boost an assistance system architecture for consume within that organization). A hardcopy e-book is moreover available from The Open group bookstall as doc G063.
Copyright © 1999-2006 The Open community, all Rights ReservedTOGAF is a trademark of The Open community
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Skill Level: Foundation Status: Active
Low Cost: $320 (shortest track)
Summary:For individuals who occupy erudition of the terminology and basic concepts of TOGAF 9 and understand the core principles of Enterprise Architecture and TOGAF. Earning the TOGAF Foundation certification is the first plane of the TOGAF Practioner program.
Initial Requirements:You must pass the TOGAF 9 partake 1 exam ($320). The exam consists of 40 questions and has a 60 minute time limit. A passing score of 55% is required.
Continuing Requirements:You must recertify every 2 years by paying a $300 fee.
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Never dependence a discipline that is not able to foretell its own demise.It seems that every system integrator, consultancy and analyst house has its own “maturity model.” They assist organizations measure how far along they are in inevitable disciplines, such as in systems administration, security, content management, integration and so forth. These models typically start with a stage called ad hoc or reactive, then depart through stages such as departmental or focused, then almost invariably there is a stage indicating some benevolent of integration, and finally the situation is optimized.There is No Such Thing as “Optimized” The appeal of these models is easy to spot. Wouldn’t they all want to be in the optimized stage? And if there are consultants who can assist us spot where they are, where they want to be, and plot how they accumulate there, isn’t this the groundwork for any estimable strategy? Still, I assume these models simply miss the mark. I don’t assume that at one moment you can bellow that you’re done, that you occupy reached a condition of being a high-performance organization, or being optimized in any way. I don’t believe that there is any constant state, for that matter. Progress comes with ebbs and flows. At most moments in time, you will reach some benevolent of equilibrium, where the system, process, program or whatever supports what it needs to support. Then something changes again, disturbing the equilibrium. Technology moves on, user requirements progress, competitors raise the bar, customer demands shift, economic circumstances change, the regulatory environment tightens, and so forth. The list of potential changes is endless. These changes disrupt the current balance, and then you try to create a novel equilibrium. Sometimes this is an improvement, and sometimes it is a step back, like with many things in life.1 And if they must assume in stages, where are the stages of putrefy and death? Technologies accumulate absorbed into other ones, and some user requirements simply disappear. When was the eventual time you sent a fax?
In short, everything you don’t upshot energy into decays – buildings, animate creatures, friendships, relationships, systems, processes, everything. If you preserve putting application in, there may be improvement along the way, but you’re never done. There is no such thing as optimized. Every manager knows that if you slip your attention to one area, another district suffers. To consume a metaphor, there is always one more plate turning than you can manage.
There is an underlying law of nature called entropy. Everything in nature flows from a concentrated form into some benevolent of disorder. In fact, entropy is a force of evolution. Evolution is based on a number of principles. First, there needs to be genetic variation. Every plant or animal, although belonging to a species, needs to be slightly different. Otherwise, there is no competitive advantage. Then, it needs to be feasible to create novel random permutations, based on inheritance. Lastly, there needs to be a competitive natural environment, in which only the most adaptive survive and in which the random permutations that conclude not occupy an environmental appropriate die. In a way, entropy drives change in nature and, at the same time, allows random permutations to occur.Evolution and Enterprise Architecture Evolution and enterprise architecture are very much related. From a cynical point of view, you could bellow that the forces of evolution occupy shaped most enterprise architectures. To quote one renowned analyst2: “Most of you occupy an incidental architecture. I mean, I can only hope you didn’t deliberately design what you occupy in place.”
Enterprise architecture (EA) can formally be defined as “a rigorous description of the structure of an enterprise, which comprises enterprise components (business entities), the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships (e.g., the behavior) between them. EA describes the terminology, the composition of enterprise components, and their relationships with the external environment, and the guiding principles for the requirement (analysis), design, and evolution of an enterprise. This description is comprehensive, including enterprise goals, trade process, roles, organizational structures, organizational behaviors, trade information, software applications and computer systems.”
This definition already contains the word “evolution.” When they focus on that, they can define enterprise architecture as all activities to counter the forces of entropy and preserve their enterprise focused and composed. Enterprise architecture maintains order and battles the putrefy and chaos that entropy causes. This means an enterprise architecture needs to be resilient to resist entropy. In many cases, this is done by building a rigorous and robust enterprise architecture that will stand the test of time. Obviously, an enterprise architecture is a reference model. It takes time to accumulate there, and practicalities under artery may force you to acquire decisions that are not supported by the enterprise architecture. For instance, inevitable trade applications may occupy their own workflow or content management, or arrive with their own reporting tools. But the goal of the enterprise architecture is to arrive as close as feasible to an gauge state. Again, like with maturity models, they assume in states.Aristotle has the Answer This thinking in states is deeply rooted in Western philosophy. Parmenides (5th century BC), a Greek philosopher predating Plato, felt that any motion and change in nature were nothing more than manifestations of an unchanging reality. In reality, everything “is.” If something changes, it needs to slip from what it is to something else that “is.” In between, change would insinuate a coalesce between “to be” and “to not be.” Impossible, according to Parmenides. Plato continued on this path. actual erudition about objects in this world is universal too, and doesn’t change. Plato felt the process of such objects becoming was not accessible to human beings. The thought of the underlying truth of being has dominated Western philosophy ever since. Heraclitus (535 – 475 BC) took a different approach. He is most renowned for his words “panta rhei, kai ouden menei,” meaning “everything flows, and nothing remains still.”3 Heraclitus didn’t assume in states, but rather much more in terms of continuous movement. Unfortunately, the labor of Heraclitus has been less influential.
But Aristotle (384–322 BC) argues that they can moreover keep all the changes in the world around us. Aristotle starts, like Plato and Parmenides, by pointing out that the most Important characteristic of any expostulate is its existence. But change and movement – in other words the becoming of the expostulate – is a transition from its potential to be to the act of being, with a inevitable degree of perfection. This transition has a inevitable internal or external cause. In short, Aristotle suggests for each change or movement, they should request four questions. What did change? What caused that change? What is the result of the change? What is the purpose of the change?
To respond these questions, Aristotle identified four “causes.” Causes are best translated as "explanatory conditions and factors." The four causes are the material antecedent (causa materialis), the efficient antecedent (causa efficiens), the formal antecedent (causa formalis) and the final antecedent (causa finalis).
It turns out that these causes are a very useful framework for a resilient enterprise architecture. Not resilient in terms of being robust, but built in terms of antecedent and effect. Not based on an gauge condition that is to be pursued, but built on the assumption of continuous change and movement.The First Two of the Four Causes Aristotle was not the first to request the question “why” in trying to understand the world. In fact, “why” is one of the most Important philosophical questions one can ask. Others before Aristotle had explored the “why” of things. Although, according to Aristotle, others had arrive up with all elements of causality that Aristotle mentioned but Aristotle was the first to picture the four causes as a comprehensive theory.
The term that Aristotle used was aition, which is “an explanation for how something came to be.” This is a wider term than the English term “cause,” which comes the closest. Today “cause” is very much connected to “effect,” through cause-and-effect relationships. If they enlarge prices by x%, sales will depart down by y%. If they bump their head, they accumulate a bruise. If they leave the steak on the barbeque too long, it will burn. This is what Aristotle would summon the efficient cause, but there are other causes as well.
The four causes are usually explained with the example of a statue. The material antecedent of the statue is marble, the material of which the statue is made. The efficient antecedent is the sculptor and his chisel, how the statue was made. The formal antecedent consists of what the statue portrays, for instance a woman. The final antecedent describes the purpose of the statue, such as depicting adore or, more mundane, highlighting the hub of a square.
Or win the example of mankind itself. A human being is made of flesh and bones, which constitutes the material cause. It is produced by its father and mother, which is the efficient cause. A human being is recognizable by its features. They all occupy legs and arms, a nose and the competence to reason, which is the formal cause. For what purpose, the final cause, is a question that has many different answers, ranging from simply sustaining the species (biological) to fulfilling your full potential (humanistic) to animate a life worthy of deserving a set in heaven (religious).
Finally, let’s win another example, a shrimp closer to enterprise architecture, by asking “Why did the house collapse?” The material antecedent might be the trait of the stones that were used. The efficient antecedent is that the builders didn’t conclude a estimable job using the materials or that foul weather caused the collapse. The formal antecedent might be the blueprint that contained errors. The final antecedent in this example is that cost was preferred over quality.
In all examples, multiple causes can play a role in the explanation of an expostulate or an event. Leaving out one cause, or choosing a different explanation as a result of one of the four causes, would lead to different results.Material Cause There has to be an unmoved mover, the thing that comes first. In Aristotle’s view, what they can assume to be present are the materials of which the expostulate is composed. They can define this broadly and advert to bronze as the raw material of a statue, or define multiple levels of material causes, where the bronze is caused by its elements, ultimately leading to the atomic plane of the material. The statue is caused by its raw materials because without the bronze it wouldn’t be there. As Aristotle tries to picture change through his four causes, the raw material undergoes change as well. For instance, the bronze needs to be melted and molded to become partake of the statue. The material antecedent is not limited to a separate kind of material. The material antecedent of the house, in the example I used, includes concrete, wood, glass and spikes (notice that a spike in itself has four causes as well – it consists of material, it was produced, it has a form, and a meaning). Materials can antecedent inevitable things, but others not. Bronze is only suitable for a inevitable kind of statue; from the point of view of the other causes, another statue might profit more from marble.
The link with enterprise architecture is pretty obvious. The material antecedent describes the technology level. all technologies in consume by the organization together form the material cause. This includes trade technologies such as content management and trade intelligence; hardcore technologies such as evolution environments and integration tools; and supporting technologies taking dependence of systems management, security and so forth. If you exigency inevitable technologies, it is not feasible to create enterprise architectures that deem those technologies necessary. Some organizations may be able to invest in their own technologies, but for most organizations the technologies available are indeed the unmoved mover. They are assumed to be there.
Yet, it is not that simple. Others would wrangle that technologies are not the antecedent of an architecture. They are the effect. One would select the technologies needed to compile a inevitable enterprise architecture. Still, they are the material cause, as Aristotle defined “cause” in a broader sense. The technologies, chosen or already available, form a description of the enterprise architecture envisioned or in place. Furthermore, enterprise architects labor within inevitable paradigms as well. It is hard to include technologies you are not watchful of. In strategy, this debate was summarized as “strategy follows structure,” or “structure follows strategy.” The only conclusion that remains in such a heated debate is that both are interdependent. novel strategies arrive out of existing structures, and novel structures are the result of novel strategies. The relationship between enterprise architecture and technologies is the same.
I moreover include skills and organizational capabilities in the material cause. This seems to be in contradiction to Aristotle. He regarded the sculptor and his skills as the efficient cause. However, there is an Important difference. In the case of a statue, the sculptor is external to the statue; he creates it. In the case of organizational capabilities, they are partake of the enterprise architecture itself and therefore partake of the material cause. Obviously, it is not enough to own technologies. It is equally Important to master them or to know where to accumulate the privilege skills. Another essential organizational capability in an adaptive enterprise architecture is being able to spot novel and innovative technologies, and consume them in a meaningful way. Consequently, organizations exigency to be able to absorb those novel technologies into the architecture, as partake of absorbing all external and internal change to existing systems and processes.Efficient Cause The efficient antecedent comes closest to what they today would summon cause-and-effect. The foul weather causes the house to be flooded or the sculptor with his chisel creates a statue. To be more precise, according to Aristotle, it is the erudition and the skills of the sculptor that form the efficient cause, the craft of sculpting in general. The efficient antecedent is the primary source of change.
This antecedent is different from what I occupy seen in other enterprise architecture frameworks. Most frameworks win a closed-system approach, describing only the elements within the frameworks, all other things being equal. If the primary source of change is the efficient cause, then the external factors that shape and reshape the organization deserve quite some attention. Understanding the efficient antecedent of enterprise architecture can be accomplished through a stakeholder analysis. A very useful framework to conclude this is the Performance Prism that was developed at Cranfield University in the UK. This framework defines both stakeholder contributions and requirements. Stakeholders include customers, suppliers, employees, investors, authorities and society at large.
Stakeholders each occupy contributions. As a stakeholder, they occupy an interest in the success of the organization. By offering their business, opinions and trust, customers fuel the organization's growth. In addition to estimable products and services, suppliers should offer an efficient buying process that is reliable, fast, easy and leads to the privilege price. Employees offer their hands, their minds, their hearts and their voices in the market. Investors offer capital and their support, but moreover win credit risk. Authorities ensure there is a equitable market, with lucid rules, and can provide advice. Lastly, the community provides an infrastructure within which to conclude business. This includes access to skills and the means to create positive public relations through the media.
An enterprise architecture describes the repercussion of these contributions on the organizational structure, its systems and processes; and it describes how changing contributions influence the enterprise architecture. But there is more. In order to import on stakeholder contributions, they exigency to win stakeholder requirements into account as well.
Customers require what you require from your suppliers. Next to estimable products and services, you should offer an efficient buying process that is reliable, fast, easy and leads to the privilege price. Suppliers require what you occupy to offer as a customer: profit, growth, your opinion and trust. Employees require pay and care, but moreover the chance to build skills and receive feedback on how their labor is contributing to organizational success. Investors obviously hope a return, but moreover transparency so they can preserve faith in their investment. Authorities hope organizations to obey the law, conduct trade in a equitable way, elope safe operations and be truthful in their reporting. The community is looking for jobs, a partake of the wealth that is created and a inevitable amount of fidelity.
As the Performance Prism describes these stakeholder contributions and requirements in much detail, the change that they bring can be detected, to a inevitable extent predicted, and taken into account to build an agile enterprise architecture. It is Important to bethink that relationships with the environment are reciprocal. Simply extracting value from the larger ecosystem is not sustainable.The Formal antecedent and Final Cause The formal antecedent describes how the expostulate of analysis looks – its form. A statue can depict a human being, a horse, or an abstract three-dimensional pattern called “happiness.” Understanding an object’s form is needed to picture that particular object. In order for something to be called a house, it usually has a roof, a door, windows and, in some houses, a chimney and a garden. Without this explanation and a lucid blueprint, the house could inspect totally different or – in the absence of any formal antecedent – be just a collection of materials neatly packed on a piece of land.
With the erudition they occupy today, the formal antecedent doesn’t occupy to be a static result, like a statue, a house or – in terms of an enterprise architecture – a description of all the organizational functions the architecture supports.
With the advent of service-oriented architectures, they can win the formal antecedent one step further and create an agile enterprise architecture that is continuously being recomposed. Service-oriented architecture may form the technology component, but the thinking behind it can moreover be applied to organizations, creating a service-oriented organization. If all activities are seen as a trade service, not as a step in a process, they can be upshot together in multiple, probably countless, ways. A trade service is a unit of labor that leads to a transferable result: The result is sufficient for the next person to continue, even if the next person is the customer. Viewed from the IT perspective, a trade service represents the functionality to be developed to champion the task. From the perspective of the organization model, a trade service represents the role an employee performs to complete the task. trade services are not focused on specific processes and products, but focused on competencies that can be used for a multitude of things. There are many trade examples available. Since the beginning, breweries occupy realized that their distilling process can be used for other spirits as well, such as whisky. Amazon realized its infrastructure is not only capable of selling books, but moreover of selling second-hand books, goods other than books, and even IT capacity itself (cloud computing). Utility companies, such as the electricity company, sometimes offer invoicing services for other utilities, such as water and gas. The capability is at the center, not the product.4
Seen this way, it is not very inviting to define the formal antecedent as a full description of all trade services. This can be done on an aggregated level, and other than that the enterprise architecture can declare to “let there be trade services.” A far more inviting approach would be to picture how trade services should inspect (the form they have!), how they can be standardized and how they can interact.
If you assume this through, this approach actually reconciles the opposing forces of entropy and evolution on one hand and enterprise architecture on the other. Enterprise architecture is no longer fighting evolution and entropy, but rather embraces it. In fact, service orientation on any plane is very much like evolution. In order for biological components to mix, they exigency extreme standardization on the DNA plane too. Random variation is nothing other than trying all kinds of DNA combinations.
It should be said that you can wrangle whether evolution belongs in the formal cause. Evolution creates random variation and doesn’t concern itself with how something should look. And evolution certainly doesn’t look to belong in the final cause, as there is no meaning to random variation. Aren’t the latter two causes more the territory of “intelligent design”? This controversy is relatively easy to counter. Adaptation exists by the grace of evolution, and the form that fits its natural environment best will succeed and procreate.Final Cause The final antecedent is the most important. It describes the purpose of the object, the essence of its being. Once a final antecedent is in place, the material cause, efficient antecedent and formal antecedent can, in principle, be derived. They supervene from the goal. If the final antecedent of a statue is to present the magnificence of the emperor going to battle on his horse, the first step is to acquire a wax model. Then the bronze is melted, poured, and further treated. Each and every step is bringing the thought of the statue closer to becoming reality.
At first, it is a bit odd that the final antecedent is a cause. Isn’t it the result? The final effect? Aristotle maybe called the final antecedent the most Important one because it is the initial thought that triggered the other causes. Because you wanted it to be reality, it becomes reality. Because you want to be an entrepreneur, you start your own business.
Still, the causality isn’t that simple. Let’s recur for a second to the “structure follows strategy” debate. You may want to be the world’s best basketball player; but if you are not tall and athletic, it is unlikely it is going to happen. And if you don’t occupy an athletic posture, you probably would never occupy the thought to become the world’s best basketball player. The final antecedent closes the loop. It is what triggers change, and it is the result of change.
One of the best books I read on the subject, Enterprise Architecture as Strategy, by Jeanne Ross, Peter Weill and David Robertson, elaborates greatly on different trade operating models (different final causes) and how that leads to different enterprise architectures. Ross et al picture a two-by-two matrix, with one axis describing an increasing integration of trade processes and the other describing increased trade process standardization. Low standardization and low integration insinuate a diversified trade strategy and operating model. The key capability for any enterprise architecture is to provide economies of scale, without limiting independence.
A lofty plane of standardization with low integration is the main characteristic of a trade model based on replication. trade units partake best practices, and the enterprise architecture focuses on creating, managing and disseminating gauge components.
A lofty plane of integration with a low plane of standardization is the hallmark of a coordinated business, where various specialized trade units exigency to collaborate. Enterprise architecture in this model is all about providing access to shared data and data exchange. Highly integrated and standardized businesses profit most from an enterprise architecture that reinforces gauge processes and enterprise systems.
Depending on the operating model you have, a inevitable enterprise architecture will follow. The final cause. Yet, novel technologies and more agile enterprise architectures moreover enable novel blends in operating models, and once in a while completely novel trade models. The final effect.The Ultimate Enterprise Architecture Framework? Aristotle aimed to interpret all form and matter with his four causes. This includes enterprise architecture, even though obviously the concept didn’t exist in Aristotle’s time. Does this insinuate that the four causes are the ultimate enterprise architecture framework? Probably not. Existing leading frameworks such as Zachman and TOGAF are generic frameworks to cover all sorts of enterprise architectures, while at the same time being very specific in covering aspects of enterprise architecture only. They are not theories-of-everything. This makes existing enterprise architecture frameworks particularly valuable.
In fact, the Zachman Framework is almost structured in terms of causes. It introduces a number of levels (contextual, conceptual, logical, physical and detailed) and then introduces a string of questions for each level. These questions are: Why? How? What? Who? Where? When? This is a very structured approach toward creating a detailed explanation, very much like Aristotle’s causes but practically applied and offering much more guidance specifically toward creating an enterprise architecture.
Still, there is always leeway for improvement, even when the advice is 2500 years old. For instance, it took TOGAF until version 9 to become more trade focused, and therewith interject what they here summon the final cause. Before version 9, TOGAF was really IT focused, architecture for its own sake. And although Zachman offers a comprehensive framework, it could conclude better in emphasizing the efficient cause. The “who” question is noiseless very much about the material cause, identifying the roles and skills within the organization. The same goes for the stakeholders that are connected to the various levels in the framework – largely internal to the business. The contextual plane could (should?) develop more into the direction of the efficient cause.
One thing is certain: Enterprise architecture and philosophy are very much related. One of the oldest fascinations in philosophy is about what defines beauty. Aesthetics. A fascination that most enterprise architects will share.
Frank's professional background in strategy, performance management and organizational behavior gives him a sturdy perspective across many domains in trade and IT. He is an entertaining speaker at conferences all over the world, and was recently called an “intellectual provocateur” and described as “having an unusual warm tone of voice.” His labor is frequently labeled as provocative, deep, truly original, and out of the box. More down to earth, his daughter once described it as “My daddy sits in airplanes, stands on stages, and tells jokes.” frank is a former Gartner Research VP, and a seasoned IT executive. frank is moreover a visiting fellow at Cranfield University School of Management, and author of various books, including Performance Leadership (McGraw-Hill, September 2008), and Dealing with Dilemmas (Wiley & Sons, August 2010). Frank's newest book, Socrates Reloaded, is now available and is highly recommended. Click here for more information on how to accumulate your copy today.
Editor's Note: More articles and a link to his approved blog are available in Frank's BeyeNETWORK Expert Channel. Be confident to visit today!
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I was recently asked a very simple, but very Important question: “What is the repercussion of setting SET ANSI_WARNING OFF in a stored procedure?”
My immediate reaction was to understand why the team was trying to set ANSI_WARNINGS to OFF because setting ANSI_WARNINGS to OFF can occupy an repercussion on the data trait and system behaviour. This article demonstrates how setting ANSI_WARNINGS of OFF impacts system behaviour.What is the SET option ANSI_WARNINGS?
The ANSI_WARNINGS controls the gauge ISO behavior of the SQL Server database engine for various mistake conditions. When ANSI_WARNINGS is set to ON, the engine follows the gauge ISO behavior for the following situations:
When ANSI_WARNINGS is OFF, the engine follows a non-standard behavior, which reduces data trait and depending upon your trade context, may generate foul data.
The examples below demonstrate the gauge and non-standard ISO behavior when ANSI_WARNINGS is ON v/s OFF for each of the scenarios mentioned above.Null value is eliminated by an aggregate or other SET operation
In their system, most aggregates are performed over revenue values, which would rarely be NULL. One would either occupy a 0, signifying no revenue, or some value (negative or positive), signifying a equipoise amount.
However, when aggregations (SUM, AVG, MAX, MIN, STDEV, STDEVP, VAR, VARP, or COUNT) are performed over columns that may contain NULLs (lap timings for example) a warning will be returned. This code sample demonstrates the issue.
In this example:
The results are shown below. While the aggregation worked, they moreover accumulate a warning in the "Messages" tab of SSMS:
The warning simply notifies the user that the rows with NULL values were ignored when performing the aggregation, which should be expected because one cannot execute any mathematical operation on an unknown value (NULL indicates an unknown value). Therefore, this behavior is not an error, but a note that the system is actually working as expected.
However, when ANSI_WARNINGS is set to OFF, no warning is returned and SQL Server silently ignores the rows with NULL values. Here is the same code with the ANSI_WARNINGS set to OFF.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO DECLARE @lapTiming TABLE (LapNumber INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1), RunnerId INT NOT NULL, LapTime DECIMAL(19,4) NULL ); INSERT INTO @lapTiming (RunnerId, LapTime) VALUES (1, '1.10'), (2, '1.12'), (3, NULL ), --Assume this player is DNF (4, '1.05'); SELECT MIN(lt.LapTime) AS FastestLap FROM @lapTiming AS lt; GO
The results and Message tabs are shown here.
This is especially confusing when performing a import on a column with NULL values and the result does not match the number of rows available in the result set. This is because the rows with NULL values would occupy been eliminated from the aggregation without any notification of the elimination.
Conclusion #1: As can be seen from the example above, setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can eliminate warnings being logged if the aggregations are being done as partake of a nightly job. However, it may antecedent confusion when validating the results of the aggregation.Msg 8134 Divide by zero mistake encountered
Typically, a division by zero mistake is a classic indication of foul data. One would hope that the offending statement in the batch is terminated and that the transaction encountering the divide by zero mistake is rolled back.
This is the ISO gauge behavior enforced when both ARITHABORT and ANSI_WARNINGS are set to ON. ARITHABORT ON terminates the statement as soon as the divide by zero mistake is encountered and ANSI_WARNINGS ON takes dependence of reporting the mistake to the client application.
We can espy this in the code sample below which performs a simple division operation on a set of values. One of the divisors is a zero and will result in a divide by zero error. When the mistake is encountered, the entire transaction will be rolled back because ANSI_WARNINGS is set to ON and the client application will be notified accordingly.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; --Setting this to ON will automatically swirl ARITHABORT to ON GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO IF OBJECT_ID('#mathOps','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE #mathOps; END GO CREATE TABLE #mathOps (RowId INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1), OpA DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, OpB DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, MathResult DECIMAL(19,4) NULL ); INSERT INTO #mathOps (OpA, OpB) VALUES (1.0, 2.0), (1.0, 3.0), (1.0, 0.0), (1.0, 33.0); GO UPDATE mops SET mops.MathResult = (mops.OpA/mops.OpB) FROM #mathOps AS mops GO SELECT mops.RowId, mops.OpA, mops.OpB, mops.MathResult FROM #mathOps AS mops; GO
The screenshot below confirms that not anything of the records were updated (the statement was indeed terminated and that transaction rolled back) with the following mistake message being returned:
SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.Msg 8134, plane 16, condition 1, Line 36Divide by zero mistake encountered.The statement has been terminated.
However, when both ARITHABORT and ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF, the statement is not aborted. Instead of a rollback, what they espy is that when a divide by zero is encountered, the output of the division is a NULL, i.e. unknown.
The setting of ARITHABORT to OFF prevents the statement from rolling back and the ANSI_WARNINGS causes a divide by zero to be evaluated as a NULL.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; --This will NOT set ARITHABORT to OFF SET ARITHABORT OFF; --Hence, manually setting it to OFF GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO IF OBJECT_ID('#mathOps','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE #mathOps; END GO CREATE TABLE #mathOps (RowId INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1), OpA DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, OpB DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, MathResult DECIMAL(19,4) NULL ); INSERT INTO #mathOps (OpA, OpB) VALUES (1.0, 2.0), (1.0, 3.0), (1.0, 0.0), (1.0, 33.0); GO UPDATE mops SET mops.MathResult = (mops.OpA/mops.OpB) FROM #mathOps AS mops GO SELECT mops.RowId, mops.OpA, mops.OpB, mops.MathResult FROM #mathOps AS mops; GO
The screenshots below present that the transaction completed successfully and the data condition resulting in a divide by zero mistake returned a NULL or an unknown. The client application only receives a warning message that it can discard (and most systems will).
The client application will therefore never realize that an erroneous data scenario just occurred and foul data will be persisted due to the success of the transaction.
Conclusion #2: Setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can antecedent the database engine to accept possibly foul data.
One of the things they espy very frequently when exchanging data between systems is contrast in the sizes of various fields. When trying to insert a string into a realm in a table which is smaller than the length of the input string, the gauge behavior with ANSI_WARNINGS ON is to recur a string truncation error.
In the example provided below, they are inserting more than 10 characters (the author's surname) into a realm that only allows 10 characters.
The insert fails and the statement is rolled back because they would want to either insert all of the data of the input string into the table, or not anything (I would not want my eventual denomination to be stored as incomplete in any database).USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO --String Truncation Errors DECLARE @personTable TABLE (FirstName CHAR(10), LastName CHAR(10) ); --Conduct the test insert INSERT INTO @personTable (FirstName, LastName) VALUES ('Nakul', 'Vachhrajani'); SELECT pt.FirstName, pt.LastName FROM @personTable AS pt; GO
This following mistake message is returned:
SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.Msg 8152, plane 16, condition 14, Line 23String or binary data would be truncated.The statement has been terminated.
Now, when ANSI_WARNINGS are turned OFF, reserved truncation of the input string happens when the input string is longer than the realm into which it is being inserted or updated.
The example provided below is same as the one above, with the exception that ANSI_WARNINGS is explicitly set to OFF.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO --String Truncation Errors DECLARE @personTable TABLE (FirstName CHAR(10), LastName CHAR(10) ); --Conduct the test insert INSERT INTO @personTable (FirstName, LastName) VALUES ('Nakul', 'Vachhrajani'); SELECT pt.FirstName, pt.LastName FROM @personTable AS pt; GO
Notice the incomplete LastName in the screenshot above. The input data was silently truncated without the client system ever knowing about the truncation. Such reserved truncation of string data can lead to data trait issues – which can depart undetected when ANSI_WARNINGS are kept OFF untill discontinue users notice names, addresses or other notes being frustratingly truncated and summon the product champion helpline.
Conclusion #3: Setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can antecedent the database engine to silently generate foul data. reserved truncation of strings can depart unnoticed unless cross-verification of stored data is done at each stage of a data transfer. Storing truncated strings ultimately results in poverty-stricken data trait in cases where names, addresses, warning messages, incident reports or other notes and notices are being stored.Impact on Table Design and Index Management
So far, they occupy seen that setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can generate potentially foul data. foul data conditions are generally reserved and are not immediately detected. The repercussion of ANSI_WARNINGS on table design and index management is a more visible one - in the sense that indexes on computed columns or indexed views exigency ANSI_WARNINGS to be ON.
If ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF, attempting to exploit data in tables with indexed computed columns or indexed views results in an error. The example provided below creates a table with a non-clustered index on a computed column. This is done with ANSI_WARNINGS set to ON. When inserting data, ANSI_WARNINGS are set to OFF for the purposes of this test.USE tempdb; GO --Confirm ANSI_WARNINGS is noiseless ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) = 8 BEGIN PRINT 'ANSI_WARNINGS is ON'; END GO --Now, create a table with some computed columns --Safety Check IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.MathematicalTables','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables; END GO CREATE TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables (intA INT NOT NULL, intB INT NOT NULL, intC AS (intA * intB), CONSTRAINT pk_MathematicalTables PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (intA, intB) ); GO CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX nc_MathematicalTables ON dbo.MathematicalTables (intC); GO --Now, swirl ANSI_WARNINGS OFF SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO INSERT INTO dbo.MathematicalTables (intA, intB) SELECT set1.intA, set2.intB FROM (VALUES (1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(6),(7),(8),(9),(10)) AS set1(intA) CROSS associate (VALUES (1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(6),(7),(8),(9),(10)) AS set2(intB); GO --Revert Back the environment SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; GO
When the code provided above is executed, they receive the following error:
Msg 1934, plane 16, condition 1, Line 34INSERT failed because the following SET options occupy incorrect settings: 'ANSI_WARNINGS'. Verify that SET options are redress for consume with indexed views and/or indexes on computed columns and/or filtered indexes and/or query notifications and/or XML data kind methods and/or spatial index operations.
As the mistake suggests, their INSERT failed because ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF. Keeping ANSI_WARNINGS OFF prevents us from XML and spatial data manipulation and working with filtered index in addition to issues with computed columns demonstrated above.
If ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF at the time of index creation, the index creation itself will fail.This is demonstrated by the code provided below, which is same as the one above, but with an exception that ANSI_WARNINGS are turned OFF when the index is being created.USE tempdb; GO --Confirm ANSI_WARNINGS is noiseless ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) = 8 BEGIN PRINT 'ANSI_WARNINGS is ON'; END GO --Now, create a table with some computed columns --Safety Check IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.MathematicalTables','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables; END GO --Now, swirl ANSI_WARNINGS OFF SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO CREATE TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables (intA INT NOT NULL, intB INT NOT NULL, intC AS (intA * intB), CONSTRAINT pk_MathematicalTables PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (intA, intB) ); GO CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX nc_MathematicalTables ON dbo.MathematicalTables (intC); GO --Revert Back the environment SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; GO
The following mistake is reported if ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF when an index is being created.
Msg 1934, plane 16, condition 1, Line 31CREATE INDEX failed because the following SET options occupy incorrect settings: 'ANSI_WARNINGS'. Verify that SET options are redress for consume with indexed views and/or indexes on computed columns and/or filtered indexes and/or query notifications and/or XML data kind methods and/or spatial index operations.
Conclusion #4: Index creation on computed columns, filtered indexes, data manipulation of XML and Spatial data requires that ANSI_WARNINGS be set to ON in addition to other SET options (ARITHABORT, CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL, QUOTED_IDENTIFIER, ANSI_NULLS, ANSI_PADDING, and ANSI_WARNINGS).Testing for ANSI_WARNINGS
The following code demonstrates how to check whether ANSI_WARNINGS is ON or OFF. The @@OPTIONS function returns a bitmap of the various SET options that can be turned ON or OFF, converted to a base 10 (decimal) integer. all they exigency to conclude is consume binary AND operation to check whether the bit at the confiscate binary position is 1 (i.e. option is ON) or 0 (i.e. option is OFF).--Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO How to configure ANSI_WARNINGS for all sessions on the server?
We simply consume the invert logic used to test for a set option being ON. The system stored procedure sp_configure can be used to set the confiscate option by specifying the decimal representation of the confiscate bit position.
In case of ANSI_WARNINGS, the bitmap for decimal value 8 represents that the option is ON.EXEC sp_configure 'user options', 8 ; GO RECONFIGURE ; GO
The SET option ANSI_WARNINGS controls the ISO behavior of the SQL Server database engine. Setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can eliminate warnings being logged if the aggregations are being done as partake of a nightly job.
However, it may antecedent confusion when validating the results of the aggregation. When divide by zero or string length mismatch issues are encountered, the database engine may successfully accept, process, generate and confide data of a particular transaction with possibly poverty-stricken data trait (i.e. data may be incorrect or incomplete).
Having poverty-stricken trait data in a system may create problems when such data is migrated over to or integrated with another system (maybe another on-premise or a cloud system) and the target system enforces strict data trait standards. It may moreover antecedent dissatisfaction among users if an organization incorrectly addresses them or their shipments conclude not reach them due to reserved truncation of their data.
In addition to data truncation, turning ANSI_WARNINGS OFF moreover has a grave repercussion on table design and index maintenance such that SQL Server prevents insertion of data in the affected tables.Further Reading Disclaimer
A few disclaimers about this information and code:
Nakul Vachhrajani is a Microsoft Certified Professional (MCTS: SQL 2008, MCP: SQL 2012), TOGAF 9 certified Technical Architect and systems evolution professional with Capgemini (formerly, IGATE) having a total IT sustain of more than 12 years. He has more than a decade of dedicated sustain on Data Quality, Data Management and Database Administration. He has a comprehensive grasp on data migrations to Salesforce.com, and product development, implementation and sustenance (including handling of production champion escalations) on products using MS SQL Server and C, C++, Visual C++/C#.
Nakul is the author of 12 technical articles on database technologies (published worldwide in edited journals & communities) and 3 whitepapers (one of which has been published nationwide). Nakul is an dynamic blogger (more than 370 blogs on https://nakulvachhrajani.com, moreover syndicated on ToadWorld - a software community by Dell), and can moreover be institute on forums at SQLServerCentral and Experts-Exchange. He has been a guest columnist for SQLAuthority.com and SQLServerCentral.com. He has moreover presented a webcast in Microsoft Virtual Tech Days.
In addition to his ardor about SQL Server, Nakul moreover contributes to the academia out of personal interest. He visits various colleges and universities as an external faculty to referee project activities being carried out by the students.
When not working occupied with work, Nakul likes to spend time with his family. His hobbies include travelling, listening to music and reading till late into the night.
Specialties: Microsoft SQL Server - Administration, Development, Data trait & Data Management, migration of on-premise SQL Server data to Salesforce.comProduct Development, Sustenance & escalation management in an agile environment
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BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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