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M2065-659 exam Dumps Source : IBM Smarter Cities Sales Sales Mastery Test v1

Test Code : M2065-659
Test cognomen : IBM Smarter Cities Sales Sales Mastery Test v1
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 42 actual Questions

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IBM IBM Smarter Cities Sales

IBM team joins 'smarter city' venture | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM introduced a team of its executives has begun toil with Chon Buri officers to collaborate and boost options to relieve flip the city into an international tourist vacation spot and transport hub of the vicinity.

The crew is to analyse and originate strategies to aid Chon Buri become a smarter metropolis. The assignment is a component of IBM Smarter Cities problem delivers to assist modern, forward-pondering municipalities.

The crew includes Michael Preis, birth government, IBM world company functions; Krishnan Ramachandran, IBM uncommon engineer and chief expertise officer, cellular options Leaders, Banking and fiscal Market; Anna Tassioula, client director, IBM pecuniary Markets; Denise Freier, organisational change government, IBM revenue Forces Automation; and Mauricio Sucasas Da Costa, director, ISV and developer family members, IBM growth Markets Unit.  

The crew will spend the next three weeks analysing the present circumstance and build on current plans to manipulate Chon Buri’s vision to breathe a better metropolis.  

Chon Buri is one among 33 cities that were selected for the 2012 Smarter Cities challenge provide. A group of 5 right-performing IBM leaders from the united states and China has been selected to toil with the city.

The group of IBM experts will toil with metropolis officials on two key priorities. First is to relieve position the city as a world-famous vacationer destination and livable town for indigenous residents and foreigners. And 2d is to relieve seriously change it into the logistics hub for the area.  

The tourism venture, in partnership with Pattaya city, goals to better the city’s fine of residing by using focusing on public safety and traffic administration. 

For the logistics hub venture, the crew will collaborate with Laem Chabang Port to aid foster its operations and service by means of leveraging technology to develop into an vital logistics hub and gateway to counties in the Mekong sub-area.  

Launched in 2011, the Smarter Cities challenge is a three-12 months, a hundred-city US$50-million (Bt1.5 billion) programme. it is IBM’s single-greatest philanthropic initiative, which money in-person engagements staffed by using teams of accurate IBM consultants, who examine and then originate targeted thoughts addressing in the community essential city concerns.

groups of in particular selected IBM specialists will provide city leaders with evaluation and suggestions to back successful growth, improved delivery of municipal capabilities, extra national engagement and more advantageous effectivity.

ultimate yr, Chiang Mai turned into one among 24 cities worldwide chosen to receive IBM Smarter Cities problem promises. The promises provide the cities with entry to IBM’s excellent specialists to analyse and advocate ways they could rotate into even superior places during which to are living, toil and play. Thailand has been selected as one of 20 growth nations that IBM will focal point on intensively for investment.

according to IBM, growth markets generated 22 per cent of the company’s international revenue ultimate 12 months, and the enterprise goals to maintain 30 per cent of its complete world income approach from augment markets by means of 2015. IBM identified a hundred and forty nations from a total of a hundred and seventy where IBM has a commerce presence.

IBM Makes Smarter Cities by using Crowdsourcing ideas | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Ogilvy Paris' "Smarter Cities" effort for IBM ultimate year turned city constructions relish bus stops into helpful infrastructure -- and won a stately Prix at Cannes whereas at it.

Now, IBM's latest phase for the effort turned to the residents of cities to quest information from them how they would augment their cities. Created in partnership with Zooppa, a companionable community for inventive talent relish filmmakers and bloggers, the push authorized eighty entries, and picked eight winners from around the globe.

ideas included "Granby Park," a video from Dublin that won first prize that showed how an barren space could breathe repurposed. a further, from Detroit, turned a defunct, abandoned manufacturing unit that turned into turned into an "indoor fish pond," changing the countenance of the local food revenue pecuniary system.

The movies should breathe accessible on the branded people For Smarter Cities web page, as well as YouTube and IBM social-media sites starting Wednesday.

examine greater on AdAge.com.

IBM's Sam Palmisano: a brilliant 2d act | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

here is what you probably find out about IBM. You breathe vigilant of overseas company Machines became one in every of the us’s first tech businesses, and in the Sixties and Seventies grew to become the world’s leading laptop maker on the energy and energy of its massive mainframes. total of it went to hell in the Nineteen Eighties, when personal computer systems and servers supplanted these mainframes, and an arrogant and bloated IBM turned into caught flat-footed. The board introduced in Lou Gerstner, who famously stabilized the company (partially by firing tens of lots of employees) and received it to grow again by guidance IBM into the unsexy — however high-margin — enterprise of techniques integration and capabilities. perhaps you recently watched an IBM desktop, Watson, trounce a few brainiacs on the online game array Jeopardy.

Now, here’s what you might not know: nine years after Gerstner stepped down as CEO, IBM (IBM) is financially and strategically improved and, yes, sexier than ever — total because of Sam Palmisano, Gerstner’s successor. beneath Palmisano, earnings maintain quadrupled and the stock is up 57%. He’s no longer in simple terms reducing fees (although he’s done a variety of that, together with transferring toil from the U.S. to India). He’s remaking the enterprise by using pushing into recent international locations and expanding sizzling businesses equivalent to supercomputing and analytics that require heavy-responsibility lab innovations. remaining year’s R&D spending? Some $6 billion, or 6% of IBM’s nearly $a hundred billion in annual income. Its 5,896 patents in 2010 — more than any enterprise on earth — back account for why it lands at No. 12 on Fortune’s annual listing of the area’s Most Admired companies. That Jeopardy-playing computing device isn’t only a gimmick; it's at the heart of IBM’s lengthy-time era growth approach.

“future” is a phrase Sam Palmisano uses commonly total through a infrequent set of interviews. Palmisano, who is barely the eighth CEO of the one hundred-yr-old company, makes pellucid in conversations with Fortune that he’s as focused on the subsequent 10 years as he's on the next quarter — although, at 59, he’s more likely to retire in a yoke of years. At commonplace conferences with IBM’s researchers, Palmisano exhorts his Ph.D.s to song and configuration the tech developments on the passage to define the district a decade or more from now. “analysis offers us the headlights to come by ahead of the evident,” he tells me.

however originate no mistake, Palmisano likewise promises quarter after quarter, no tiny feat should you account the dimension and complexity of IBM. (Its $four billion in income growth in 2010 by myself is roughly equal to the total profits of gamemaker electronic Arts, (ERTS) the No. 494 enterprise on the Fortune 500.) And notwithstanding he inherited a much-greater enterprise, Palmisano moved into the CEO’s office in 2002, just after the information superhighway bubble burst. extra these days he’s needed to deal with the worst recession when you account that the worthy depression. instead of hunkering down as lots of his peers did, Palmisano greenlighted a number of principal initiatives — including IBM’s “Smarter Planet” initiative, a software to consume networking and laptop expertise to tackle companionable problems such as entry to health dependence or traffic congestion. In 2010, IBM earned $14.8 billion on $99.9 billion in income, with 46.1% vulgar earnings margins.

Palmisano, a Baltimore native, acquired his birth in income (he joined IBM antiseptic out of Johns Hopkins in 1973), and he conducts commerce with a pitchman’s zeal. At 6-foot-2, his huge shoulders angle forward a microscopic bit as if he’s total the time leaning in to inform you something. When he grew to breathe head of global functions again in the ’90s, he blocked off 70% of his calendar for consumer conferences, and he nevertheless speaks to as a minimum one consumer daily. He remembers that Macy’s (M) CEO Terry Lundgren has planned a trip to China and calls to present up some introductions. He golfs with ny metropolis Mayor Michael Bloomberg. (Says the mayor: “He should retain his day job.”) however he additionally lingers after a speech to exchange company cards with the mayor of a tiny Chilean nearby. And when he travels, he regularly leaves time for a solo stroll round town to peruse what people are buying. “which you can examine the entire pecuniary information, but you’re not going to come by a sense” of your valued clientele, he says, explaining, “If I’m now not with somebody, I’m on the phone with somebody.”

Making the planet smarter

The tiny Chilean District of Peñalolén is domestic to some of Santiago’s richest — and poorest — residents. From the plate-glass home windows of up to date million-dollar homes nestled into the Andes foothills, you maintain got a sweeping view of the greatest of Santiago’s sprawling squatter villages. Residents maintain strung wires across rooftops to pirate electrical energy and thrown cardboard over the sewage channels they’ve dug. here is the front line for Palmisano’s quest to originate the planet smarter — and raise its consumer base.

Peñalolén Mayor Claudio Orrego, forty four, doesn’t should breathe persuaded that expertise can better dwelling circumstances in his neighborhood. A Harvard-knowledgeable former tech exec, he’s an energetic idealist with a trimmed brown beard and his personal Twitter account. When touring his local closing fall, I visited a health center the plot he had partnered with Cisco (CSCO) to digitize medical data. I drove by cyber web kiosks he developed with relieve from Intel (INTC). but until ultimate 12 months he had on no account labored with IBM. Orrego initially met Palmisano in descend 2009 when he flew to recent york for IBM’s first Smarter Cities discussion board (part of the Smarter Planet crusade), which he’d heard about at yet another convention. “It became sponsored and organized through a tech enterprise, nonetheless it wasn’t in fact about know-how,” he says. Of course expertise played a part: With Smarter Planet, IBM is selling a concept that most of the methods that vigor their cities — electrical grids, transportation, structures, factories — will likewise breathe made to elope extra correctly in case you can more advantageous video array them, dissect the assistance you compile, and consume it to tinker. however as a edifying deal as the rest, Palmisano is selling hope. His customers are govt officials beneath power to originate advanced and antiquated programs toil improved for much less funds, and Palmisano guarantees in the event that they inject a microscopic techie efficiency, issues may breathe greater.

nevertheless, a Chilean local may show an inconceivable plot for IBM to dedicate components when market alternatives the measurement of China and Brazil are looming, but it is a component of Palmisano’s formidable contrivance to capitalize on every remaining corner of the emerging world. It’s total in the numbers. He is vigilant of that while First World nations spend roughly three% to 4% of their vulgar domestic product on infotech, rising markets spend simply 1% to 2%. As these international locations attempt to propel themselves into the first World, Palmisano expects these percentages will double over the next five years. With a edifying government and robust enterprise ethics, Chile is certainly one of 20 emerging nations IBM has identified as holding probably the most immediate promise. That’s why Palmisano chose to grasp and attend a smarter Cities forum — considered one of 200 similar events the commerce has held thus far — there ultimate fall.

Palmisano arrived at the Santiago Sheraton early, took a seat within the entrance row, and sat through more than an hour of speeches without so much as checking his BlackBerry earlier than his rotate got here at the podium. After Palmisano spoke, Orrego, by passage of now an IBM customer (IBM’s assessment become achieved on spec), and the Santiago governor joined Palmisano onstage for a dialogue about tech innovations, relish how know-how may deliver down expenses for issues relish trash assortment. When the moderator, a indigenous advice anchor, achieved the interview, he became to the viewers and spoke of, “well, they obtained throughout the total hour devoid of speaking about servers and switches.”

The actual direct of IBM’s discussion board became to shut income, of direction, and Palmisano did his part. He left the event at lunchtime to originate a income cognomen on Chilean President Sebastián Piñera. Palmisano doesn’t relish to ambuscade people, so he introduced alongside just one colleague. Piñera’s chief of team of workers, an brisk 27-12 months-old, showed them in to the President’s office, which changed into embellished with a framed picture of the lately rescued miners. The community discussed having IBM tap a group of software consultants, increasing its Chilean team of workers. They likewise agreed to create a list of initiatives on which to toil with the aid of the recess of the primary quarter.

lower back in recent york, I requested Palmisano what he thought of Chile. “In total these locations there’s an inherent optimism,” he stated. “There’s a passage complications may likewise breathe solved. There’s really nothing in their passage but ourselves. So let’s just come by to work.”

Baloo the undergo

Sam Palmisano grew up in a vast Italian household in Fifties Baltimore. there maintain been two Palmisano families in town at the time. His dad turned into the auto mechanic, not to breathe confused with the delicatessen owner. both families packed their kids off to Calvert hall, the Catholic boys school the plot Sam’s 10th-grade soccer train, Augie Miceli, remembered him as a favored guy who by no means missed apply. “As an nasty core, he snapped the ball to the quarterback, so he had to originate first line calls,” says Miceli.

Palmisano likewise played sax in a band. The drummer’s mother turned into the band’s agent, and she or he once scored them a weeklong gig each opening and enjoying backup for the Temptations. He used his income — $1,000 — to buy a station wagon so he might haul round his device.

At Johns Hopkins, Palmisano turned into a historical past main whose Beta Theta Pi fraternity brothers referred to as him Baloo after the undergo from The Jungle ebook. He co-captained the football group but became down an invitation to are trying out for the Oakland Raiders. In 1973, the 12 months he graduated, the U.S. became at struggle with Vietnam, and many evenings he’d horde around the eleven p.m. advice along with his fraternity brothers for updates on the draft. The quantity he’d obtained his junior yr was 4, low adequate that his probabilities of recruitment were high. “So I talked about, ‘I’ve bought to come by a job,’ ” he remembers. a friend mentioned that IBM’s recruiter had approach to campus to show for women with backgrounds in math and science. even though he proper neither class, the following day Palmisano took and passed IBM’s entrance examination, a staple for total recent entrants on the time.

IBM’s iconic machines

Palmisano joined IBM at the height of its glory, when the long-lasting determine of the IBM salesman symbolized a guaranteed ascendance to the upper middle type. The dress code changed into strictly observed: darkish fits, white shirts, armed forces striped ties, wingtip shoes. Liquor turned into off-limits. “if you had a client luncheon and likewise you had a drink with the client, you maintain been expected to head home,” says Palmisano. earlier than he ever made a income call, he went to Washington, D.C., to attend the requisite 15 months of courses on community design and accounting and earnings shows. (whereas in D.C. he met his future spouse, Gaier Notman, known as Missy, who was the daughter of a renowned Maryland banker.) Then he went to toil within the statistics products unit in Baltimore, hawking mainframes to local governments.

In 1989, Palmisano was chosen for a one-yr term as government aide to CEO John Akers. It changed into the primary signal that his Famous person became rising on the enterprise, and he jumped from there to a two-year stint running IBM Japan. whereas Palmisano was learning to manipulate a staff that didn’t talk his language, the supplier struggled to discover its region in a tech commerce that had lost long-suffering with IBM’s monolithic approach to promoting add-ons relish semiconductors, hardware, and utility. by the point Gerstner parachuted in to prove things around in 1993, IBM had posted an $eight.1 billion loss, its third straight yr of losses. as the caustic chieftain raced to drag the commerce out of its near-death spiral through doubling down on the features company, embracing the internet, and shaking up the passage of life, Palmisano returned and took a rotate at working just about each of IBM’s bigger devices, together with the personal computers division, the server enterprise, and world capabilities. At Gerstner’s retirement in 2002, IBM’s inventory expense had risen to $ninety from $11.

while Gerstner, who declined to remark for this text, gained a attractiveness for his short mood, Palmisano honed a measured however uncompromising leadership trend. Chief pecuniary officer stamp Loughridge, who said to Palmisano again when he took over the world features division, recalls an infamous cellphone name. “We were losing funds every quarter. Sam obtained on the mobile and spoke of, ‘I simply need each person to grasp they are not ever losing cash in this enterprise ever again,’ ” says Loughridge. Given the accustomed condition of the enterprise, it gave the stamp of a ludicrous request, but Palmisano wasn’t asking. He was traumatic. “The government team become like, ‘Man, what’s this man talking about?’ however they never misplaced funds again.”

Palmisano has lengthy been smartly-connected politically. He has vacationed with participants of the Bush clan, with whom he grew acquainted through his wife’s household, because earlier than George Bush Sr. turned into elected President, and he purchased a Kennebunkport summer time residence from the bushes in 1996. but, for a multimillionaire, he has stored his family lifestyles modest. For basically two decades he has lived within the equal century-historic condo in Southport, Conn. except he became appointed IBM’s CEO, he drove himself to toil each day.

research: The core of strategy-surroundings

observing Watson (named for founding CEO Thomas Watson Sr.) cream Jeopardy champs Ken Jennings and Brian Rutter become gripping television. (profitable answer: “who is Bram Stoker?”) however Watson’s intelligence is more than trivial. Palmisano expects to contemplate it originate its routine into hospitals, as an instance, where it may diagnose patients and advocate remedies extra directly and accurately than medical doctors.

research is on the core of ways Palmisano units strategy. The enterprise continues nine analysis labs everywhere and 7 “collaboratories” it has built with purchasers relish a Beijing center to augment high-tech railroads. besides company-linked initiatives relish constructing recent functions for Indian cell-phone operators, IBM funds experiments corresponding to substances analysis that can likewise grow to breathe recent products. however Palmisano sees even those supertechnical “blue-sky” initiatives as crucial to figuring out the plot he must elect IBM, and the passage he may soundless prepare its belongings and businesses.

annually, in a knock-down, drag-out marathon of a dialogue, he spends a day with lab administrators predicting the long elope and adjusting corporate strategy to manipulate it. You don’t dare prove up unprepared, lab directors say, because he is vigilant your toil and he has his personal position on its value. This session is the plot he can examine chip advancements for you to change the manner IBM markets and sells servers, for instance. It is likewise the plot he saw the cornerstones for Smarter Planet approach again in 2002. “It become no longer going to breathe a pc era. It changed into going to breathe sensors and smartphones,” he says. That seems obvious now, but lest one forget, the iPhone wasn’t even invented unless 5 years later. In 2005, Palmisano shocked the tech world when he sold IBM’s ecocnomic notebook commerce to China’s Lenovo. He endured to dump hardware, and he stepped up acquisitions, opting for up application and analytics businesses by passage of the dozens.

Shareholders had been confused. Palmisano countered through wooing Wall street. “if you’re going to dump total that income and hurry originate investments in additional ecocnomic issues where that you could innovate, there’s going to breathe a era of time where you’re not going to come by lots of good-line boom,” he explains. “There’s a lot of own pressure on the management of the commerce to reply.” He announced a five-yr road map and held six-hour classes with buyers to reply questions about his approach. He pledged to hold increasing earnings and investor returns whilst he modified the enterprise’s makeup. He replaced high priced employees in North the usa with within your budget people abroad, which has helped preserve margins and profits growing to be. He and his board likewise approved large share buybacks each year, a different tactic for increasing salary per share.

The upshot: IBM nowadays is an organization that nevertheless receives most of its revenue from capabilities and consulting — the enterprise that Gerstner astutely pushed IBM into in the Nineties. but application now contributes extra to pretax salary than consulting, and analytics, the variety of subtle data-crunching and determination-making that Watson does, grew 19% ultimate quarter, sooner than some other line of business. Harvard company college professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter calls this a “boldness of imagination,” announcing, “Sam accelerated what Lou Gerstner set in action.”

That boldness has helped IBM rotate into once once more the enterprise that units the agenda for commercial enterprise know-how. organizations from HP (HPQ) and Dell (DELL) to Oracle (ORCL) maintain assembled consulting corporations to pellucid up issues for valued clientele in preference to promote them servers and switches. And HP’s Cense community aims to pepper the realm with sensors simply as IBM plans to Do with the Smarter Planet initiative. IBM has singlehandedly helped carry the valuations of analytics organizations. someplace the ghost of Tom Watson Sr. is smiling.

IBM after Palmisano

IBM will flip 100 this year, and Palmisano will flip 60. That age has long been the expiration date for an IBM CEO, and whereas he won’t ascertain it, americans near him account he’ll step down simply after the centennial. This previous summer he reorganized the executive ranks in a movement that implies he has chosen a few contenders for his substitute. each Virginia Rometty, who introduced marketing and routine to her earnings and distributions tasks, and Michael Daniels, who now oversees total of global features, are stated to breathe within the running. So is Rod Adkins, who oversees the systems and know-how group.

Can things maybe toil as smartly at IBM when Palmisano leaves? sales is set relationships, and on the maximum stage, he is their safekeeper. account Sunil Mittal, the rags-to-riches founder of India telecom giant Bharti Airtel. remaining descend IBM become within the closing degrees of negotiating a ten-year shrink to install and control the information know-how assisting Bharti’s tide into sixteen African international locations when the shrink essentially fell aside. “IBM is an vast machine, and often it receives frustrating,” says Mittal. “there were layers of legal professionals and approval methods.” Mittal become able to walk, after which Palmisano popped up on Skype. Palmisano guaranteed Mittal that IBM’s toil may breathe performed immediately and correctly. Six weeks later each guys met in Nairobi to broadcast the landmark deal that would plant the Indian telecom huge in Africa.

Mittal trusts Palmisano. He has invited the person to dinner in his Delhi home, and frolicked with the Palmisanos and three of their kids at the Beijing Olympics. “My very own connection with him is awfully mighty. As for who will prevail him, and should I even maintain the identical chemistry?” says Mittal. “I don’t know.”

I quest information from Palmisano about it the remaining time they meet. we're seated in the completely preserved 1937 library of the senior Watson himself, every remaining mahogany panel of which has been lifted from his accustomed workplace into the government suite of a Midtown vast apple skyscraper. Palmisano suggests Mittal’s posturing is a bit of of theatrics. Relationships are developed as a result of individuals act normally over long intervals of time, he tells me. “I’ll Do my time period. probably it’s 10 years. account of it as 10% of a hundred years. and then somebody else has got to preserve it going,” he says.

With that, he reaches for his coat. “I’ve got to head sing for my supper, youthful woman,” he says. site visitors is horrible in Midtown, and he has to breathe on time for the revenue cognomen he’s about to originate on J.P. Morgan (JPM) CEO Jamie Dimon. neglect the idling sedan. He takes off running at a quick clip, a earnings rep just about sprinting to capture up.

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Machines beat us at their own game: What can they do? | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

In this undated publicity image released by Jeopardy Productions, Inc., host Alex Trebek, left, poses with contestants Ken Jennings, center, and Brad Rutter and a computer named Watson in Yorktown Heights, N.Y. On Monday, Feb. 14, 2011, "Jeopardy!" will initiate airing two matches spread over three days between Jennings, Rutter and Watson, who was developed by IBM scientists. (AP Photo/Jeopardy Productions, Inc.) NO SALES (AP) -- Machines first out-calculated us in simple math. Then they replaced us on the assembly lines, explored places they couldn't come by to, even beat their champions at chess. Now a computer called Watson has bested their best at "Jeopardy!"

A gigantic computer created by IBM specifically to outdo at answers-and-questions left two champs of the TV game prove in its silicon dust after a three-day tournament, a feat that experts muster a technological breakthrough.

Watson earned $77,147, versus $24,000 for Ken Jennings and $21,600 for Brad Rutter. Jennings took it in stride writing "I for one welcome their recent computer overlords" alongside his correct Final Jeopardy answer.

The next step for the IBM machine and its programmers: taking its mastery of the arcane and applying it to relieve doctors plow through blizzards of medical information. Watson could likewise relieve originate Internet searches far more relish a conversation than the hit-or-miss things they are now.

Watson's conquest leads to the question: What can they measly humans Do that astounding machines cannot Do or will never do?

The answer, relish total of "Jeopardy!," comes in the configuration of a question: Who - not what - dreamed up Watson? While computers can cipher and construct, they cannot rule to create. So far, only humans can.

"The passage to account about this is: Can Watson rule to create Watson?" said Pradeep Khosla, dean of engineering at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. "We are far from there. Their talent to create is what allows us to discover and create recent learning and technology."

Experts in the sphere explain it is more than the spark of creation that separates man from his mechanical spawn. It is the pride creators can take, the empathy they can total maintain with the winners and losers, and that magical mix of adrenaline, panic and talent that kicks in when their backs are against the wall and they are in survival mode.

What humans maintain that Watson, IBM's earlier chess champion profound Blue, and total their electronic predecessors and software successors Do not maintain and will not come by is the sort of thing that makes song, romance, smiles, sadness and total that jazz. It's something the experts in computers, robotics and ersatz intelligence know very well because they can't motif out how it works in people, much less duplicate it. It's that indescribable essence of humanity.

Nevertheless, Watson, which took 25 IBM scientists four years to create, is more than just a trivia whiz, some experts say.

Richard Doherty, a computer industry expert and research director at the Envisioneering Group in Seaford, N.Y., said he has been studying ersatz intelligence for decades. He thinks IBM's advances with Watson are changing the passage people account about ersatz intelligence and how a computer can breathe programmed to give conversational answers - not merely lists of sometimes not-germane entries.

"This is the most significant breakthrough of this century," he said. "I know the phones are ringing off the hook with interest in Watson systems. The Internet may trump Watson, but for this century, it's the most significant foster in computing."

And yet Watson's creators explain this breakthrough gives them an extra appreciation for the magnificent machines they muster people.

"I contemplate human intelligence consuming machine intelligence, not the other passage around," David Ferrucci, IBM's lead researcher on Watson, said in an interview Wednesday. "Humans are a different sort of intelligence. Their intelligence is so interconnected. The brain is so incredibly interconnected with itself, so interconnected with total the cells in their body, and has co-evolved with language and society and everything around it."

"Humans are learning machines that live and sustain the world and elect in an vast amount of information - what they see, what they taste, what they feel, and they're taking that in from the day they're born until the day they die," he said. "And they're learning from total the input total the time. We've never even created something that attempts to Do that."

The talent of a machine to learn is the essence of the sphere of ersatz intelligence. And there maintain been worthy advances in the field, but nothing near human thinking.

"I've been in this sphere for 25 years and no matter what advances they make, it's not relish they feel we're getting to the finish line," said Carnegie Mellon University professor Eric Nyberg, who has worked on Watson with its IBM creators since 2007. "There's always more you can Do to bring computers to human intelligence. I'm not confident we'll ever really come by there."

Bart Massey, a professor of computer science at Portland status University, quipped: "If you want to build something that thinks relish a human, they maintain a worthy passage to Do that. It only takes relish nine months and it's really fun."

Working on computer evolution "really makes you value the fact that humans are such unique things and they account such unique ways," Massey said.

Nyberg said it is silly to account that Watson will lead to an recess or a lessening of humanity. "Watson does just one task: retort questions," he said. And it gets things wrong, such as maxim grasshoppers eat kosher, which Nyberg said is why humans won't rotate over launch codes to it or its computer cousins.

Take Tuesday's Final Jeopardy, which Watson flubbed and its human competitors handled with ease. The category was U.S. cities, and the clue was: "Its largest airport is named for a World War II hero; its second largest, for a World War II battle."

The correct response was Chicago, but Watson weirdly wrote, "What is Toronto?????"

A human would maintain considered Toronto and discarded it because it is a Canadian city, not a U.S. one, but that's not the nature of comparative learning Watson has, Nyberg said.

"A human working with Watson can come by a better answer," said James Hendler, a professor of computer and cognitive science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. "Using what humans are edifying at and what Watson is edifying at, together they can build systems that unravel problems that neither of us can unravel alone."

That's why Paul Saffo, a longtime Silicon Valley forecaster, and others, contemplate better search engines as the ultimate profit from the "Jeopardy!"-playing machine.

"We are headed toward a world where you are going to maintain a conversation with a machine," Saffo said. "Within five to10 years, we'll peruse back and roll their eyes at the understanding that search queries were a string of answers and not conversations."

The beneficiaries, IBM's Ferrucci said, could comprise technical back centers, hospitals, hedge funds or other businesses that need to originate lots of decisions that dependence on lots of data.

For example, a medical center might consume the software to better diagnose disease. Since a patient's symptoms can generate many possibilities, the odds of a Watson-type program would breathe its talent to scan the medical literature faster than a human could and intimate the most likely result. A human, of course, would then maintain to investigate the computer's finding and originate the final diagnosis.

IBM isn't maxim how much money it spent pile Watson. But Doherty said the company told analysts at a recent meeting that the motif was around $30 million. Doherty believes the number is probably higher, in the "high dozens of millions."

In a few years, Carnegie Mellon University robotic whiz Red Whittaker will breathe launching a robot to the moon as fragment of Google challenge. When it lands, the robot will originate total sorts of key and crucial real-time decisions - relish Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin did 42 years ago - but what humans can Do that machines can't will already maintain been done: Create the total darn thing.

Explore further: 'Jeopardy!' to pit humans against IBM machine

More information: IBM's Watson: tinyurl.com/4r8w6grJeopardy: jeopardy.com

©2010 The Associated Press. total rights reserved. This material may not breathe published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

IBM seeks specialized software partners | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM is cultivating increasingly specialized software resellers as fragment of a broader effort to grow its software business.

The company in January began rolling out its IBM Software Value Plus program, which requires partners to certify themselves in order to sell products in IBM's "authorized portfolio."

Those authorized products comprise IBM Tivoli Identity Manager, WebSphere Process Server and DB2. The latest addition to the program, announced ultimate month, encourages resellers to pursue authorizations within industry segments and in the IT security space. For partners that meet the criteria, IBM provides sales leads and education in areas such as cloud computing.

The recent certification and authorization track gives partners a degree of differentiation in the market, according to industry executives. But it may likewise serve to weed out resellers unwilling or unable to originate the investment in product and industry expertise.

Certifications as investments in channel partnerships

Top partners tend to welcome IBM's steeper channel requirements, said Darren Bibby, program director, IDC Software Channels Research.

"They feel it raises the bar," he said. "It's the benevolent of investment they would originate anyway and it gives them an additional badge or stamp they can prove to their customers."

Indeed, some partners' plans are converging with IBM's channel effort. Avnet Technology Solutions has institute that its plumb market plans mesh well with IBM's industry thrust.

Fred Cuen, common manager and senior vice president, Avnet Technology Solutions, Americas, IBM Solutions group, cited his company's SolutionsPath program, which helps partners specialize in inescapable markets. Programs in government and healthcare maintain been around for a few years. The distributor in October launched three more verticals: banking, retail and energy.

"We're working with IBM on a very specific initiative focused on these five areas," Cuen said.

That initiative, IBM's Smarter Planet program, aims to tackle tough IT challenges across a compass of industries.

Avnet likewise plans to pursue IBM mastery certification within the five industries it currently targets. Mastery tests are among the requirements for the Software Value Plus program's industry authorization.

Acknowledging plumb partnersSteven Gerhardt, chief executive officer of Ixion LLC, an IBM Premier commerce confederate in Houston that focuses on Web content management and portal solutions, illustrious that his company specializes in such markets as energy and utilities. He said IBM's hurry to cultivate plumb partners reflects a recognition that IBM software, overall, needs to breathe more industry oriented. That's particularly the case in the midmarket and below, he added, noting that IBM's direct sales constrain and distributors tend to breathe more generalized in those sectors.

"That is where they maintain been vertically challenged," Gerhardt said.

Roger Finney, director of IBM storage, software and System z at Logicalis Inc., an IT and communications solutions integrator and IBM Premier commerce Partner, said IBM's industry specializations originate sense, noting that his company likewise focuses on particular markets.

In general, Finney said he believes Software Value Plus has created a closer calibration between a partner's areas of expertise and the software they provide customers. "Overall, I account it did some of what it was intended to do," he said of IBM's program. "It's created competency alignment between what partners are skilled at and the solutions they are presenting."

Partner identification strategySoftware Value Plus makes for a stronger confederate ecosystem, Gerhardt said. But the more stringent requirements maintain caused some companies to cease carrying IBM's software. A yoke of IBM hardware partners maintain contacted Ixion for partnering opportunities after dropping their IBM software business.

"They maintain decided not to play in the software space," said Gerhardt. "They don't want to manage that side of the business."

IBM doesn't dispute that it's focusing on its most committed partners these days. The company analyzed its confederate base prior to launching Software Value Plus and institute that many of the 120,000 companies claiming to breathe partners used the IBM software brand to open doors but sold customers other vendors' software, illustrious Sandy Carter, vice president of software commerce partners and midmarket at IBM. Others sold IBM software but had customer satisfaction issues.

Now, 5,000 software resellers worldwide are approved to sell IBM's authorized portfolio. In addition, 40,000 resellers maintain been okayed for IBM's open portfolio, which includes the company's Express-branded solutions for midmarket customers. The open portfolio products don't require a lot of training to sell, Carter noted.

Despite the winnowing, Software Value Plus has likewise brought in recent resellers to IBM.

Carter illustrious that 200 ex-Sun partners maintain approach to IBM's software portfolio. IBM likewise plans to build a channel for Netezza Corp., a commerce analytics software company IBM acquired ultimate month. She said Netezza has never had a confederate channel before.

And the partners joining IBM, Carter said, now maintain an opportunity to compete on skill in the authorized ecosystem.

"They ... don't maintain the bottom feeders and those competing on price," she said.

The bigger IBM confederate pictureIBM's confederate moves approach as the company seeks to expand its software operation. In an investor presentation, IBM said its software commerce is positioned to deliver 49% of the company's profit in 2015. In 2000, software contributed 25% of IBM's pretax income.

"If you peruse at ... where they are trying to elect their commerce in 2015, software plays a vast fragment of it," Avnet's Cuen said.

While IBM's confederate strategy supports its overall software push, it likewise lines up with broader economic trends. Steve White, program director, Software Alliances Leadership Council, IDC, said the difficult economy over the past yoke of years has compelled vendors relish IBM to elect stock of the confederate base.

"They don't maintain sempiternal resources," he said. "All vendors want to focus on the best partners."

John Moore is a Syracuse, N.Y.-based freelance writer, reachable at jmwriter4@gmail.com.

Let us know what you account about the story; email Barbara Darrow, Senior advice Director at bdarrow@techtarget.com, or ensue us on twitter.

Understanding the Telecommunications Revolution | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

While traditional telecommunications networks maintain allowed us to cross barriers associated with time and distance, the recent multimedia realm is allowing us to comprise vital physical cues in the information stream, introducing a physical reality into the world of electronic communications, goods, and services. Not surprisingly, some of the industries that are being most radically revolutionized are those that deal with the human senses, including entertainment, health care, education, advertising, and, sadly, warfare. Simply put, technology changes your passage and pace of life.

This sample chapter from Telecommunications Essentials presents the vast picture of the telecommunications revolution.

This chapter is from the reserve 

In recent years, the word telecommunications has been used so often, and applied in so many situations, that it has become fragment of their daily lexicon, yet its definition remains elusive. So, let's start with a definition. The word telecommunications has its roots in Greek: tele means "over a distance," and communicara means "the talent to share." Hence, telecommunications literally means "the sharing of information over a distance." Telecommunications is more than a set of technologies, it's more than an vast global industry (estimated to breathe US$2.5 trillion), it's more than twenty-first-century commerce and law that is being re-created to accommodate a virtual world, and it's more than a creator and destroyer of the status of the economy. Telecommunications is a passage of life. Telecommunications affects how and where you Do everything—live, work, play, socialize, entertain, serve, study, teach, rest, heal, and protect. Telecommunications has served a captious role in shaping society and culture, as well as in shaping commerce and economics.

It is vital to examine telecommunications from the broadest perspective viable to truly value the depth and complexity of this sphere and thereby understand the opportunities it affords. The best passage to learn to "think telecom" is to quickly examine how it is changing both commerce and lifestyle.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, much of the IT&T (information technologies and telecommunications) industry's focus was on how to reengineer the likes of pecuniary institutions, manufacturing, retail, service, and government. These technology deployments were largely pursued and justified on the grounds of reducing costs and enhancing competitiveness by speeding communications.

Today, they are shifting their focus to another set of objectives: Their technology deployments are targeted at supporting not just the needs of a commerce enterprise, but likewise those of the consumers. The revolution in integrated media is transforming total aspects of human activity related to communication and information. They are affecting to computer-based environments that back the creation, sharing, and distribution of multimodal information. Whereas traditional telecommunications networks maintain allowed us to cross barriers associated with time and distance, the recent multimedia realm is allowing us to comprise vital physical cues in the information stream, introducing a physical reality into the world of electronic communications, goods, and services. Not surprisingly, some of the industries that are being most radically revolutionized are those that deal with the human senses, including entertainment, health care, education, advertising, and, sadly, warfare. In each of these key sectors, there are telecommunications solutions that address the commerce need, reduce costs, or enhance operations by speeding commerce processes and aiding communications. These industries are likewise examining how to virtualize their products and/or services—that is, how to apply telecommunications to back electronic services targeted at the consumers of that industry's products. Not surprisingly, changing the passage you attend a class, contemplate a doctor, watch a movie, come by a date, shop for software, elect a cruise, and stay in touch creates significant changes in how you consume your time and money. Simply put, technology changes your passage and pace of life.

This chapter presents the vast picture of the telecommunications revolution, and the rest of the reserve gives greater detail about the specific technologies and applications that will comprise the telecommunications future.

A quick orientation of how emerging technologies are affecting industries and lifestyle highlights the import of understanding the principles of telecommunications, and, hopefully, to inspire you to "think telecom." The changes discussed here are ultimately very vital to how telecommunications networks will evolve and to where the growth areas will be.

An vast amount of the activity driving telecommunications has to Do with the emergence of advanced applications; likewise, advances in telecommunications capabilities spur developments in computing platforms and capabilities. The two are intimately and forever intertwined. The following sections dispute some of the changes that are occurring in both telecommunications and in computing platforms and applications, as well as some of the changes expected in the next several years.

Incorporating Human Senses in Telecommunications

Telecommunications has allowed a virtual world to emerge—one in which time and distance no longer delineate a barrier to doing commerce or communicating—but we're soundless lacking something that is a captious fragment of the human information-processing realm. The human understanding acts on physical sensations in the course of its information processing; the senses of sight, sound, touch, and motion are key to their perception and conclusion making. Developments in sensory technologies and networks will allow a recent genre of sensory reality to emerge, bridging the gap between humans and machines. One of the most significant evolutions occurring in computing and communications is the introduction of the human senses into electronic information streams. The following are a few of the key developments in back of this more intuitive collaborative human–machine environment:

  • Computers are now capable of hearing and speaking, as demonstrated by Tellme, a common U.S. voice-activated service that responds to defined voice prompts and provides free stock quotes, weather information, and entertainment guides to 35,000 U.S. cities.

  • The capability to capitulate three-dimensional sound through digital mastery—a technology called "virtual miking"—is being developed at the University of Southern California's Integrated Media Systems Center.

  • Virtual touch, or haptics, enables a user to achieve in and physically interact with simulated computer content, such as feeling the weight of the Hope diamond in your hand or feeling the fur of a lion. Two companies producing technology in this district are SensAble Technologies and Immersion Corporation. They are producing state-of-the-art constrain feedback, whole-hand sensing, and real-time 3D interaction technologies, and these hardware and software products maintain a wide compass of applications for the manufacturing and consumer markets, including virtual-reality job training, computer-aided design, remote handling of hazardous materials, and "touch" museums.

  • The seduction of aroma is likewise birth to find its passage into computers, allowing marketers to capitalize on the many subtle psychological states that aroma can induce. Studies prove that aromas can breathe used to trigger fear, excitement, and many other emotions. aroma can breathe used to attract visitors to Web sites, to originate them linger longer and buy more, to relieve them assimilate and retain information, or to instill the most satisfying or terrifying of emotional states (now that's an interactive game!). Three companies providing this technology today are Aromajet, DigiScents, and TriSenx. Aromajet, for example, creates products that address video games, entertainment, medical, market research, personal and home products, and marketing and point of sales applications.

  • The visual information stream provides the most rapid infusion of information, and a large portion of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information. To relieve humans process visual information, computers today can see; equipped with video cameras, computers can capture and forward images, and can array high-quality entertainment programming. The visual stream is incredibly demanding in terms of network performance; thus, networks today are rapidly preparing to enable this most meaningful of information streams to breathe easily distributed.

  • The Emergence of Wearables

    How they engage in computing and communications will change dramatically in the next decade. Portable computing devices maintain changed their notion of what and where a workplace is and emphasized their crave for mobility and wireless communication; they are birth to redefine the phrase dressed for success. But the portable devices they know today are just a stepping stone on the passage to wearables. Context-aware wearable computing will breathe the ultimate in light, ergonomic, reliable, flexible, and scalable platforms. Products that are available for consume in industrial environments today will soon lead to inexpensive, easy-to-use wearables appearing at your neighborhood electronics store:

  • Xybernaut's Mobile aide IV (MA-IV), a wearable computer, provides its wearer with a full-fledged PC that has a 233MHz Pentium chip, 32MB memory, and upward of 3GB storage. A wrist keyboard sports 60 keys. Headgear suspended in front of the eye provides a full-color VGA screen, the size of a postage stamp but so close to the eye that images show as on a 15-inch monitor. A miniature video camera fits snugly in a shirt pocket. Bell Canada workers consume MA-IVs in the field; they replace the need to carry manuals and provide the talent to forward images and video back to consult with supervisors. The MA-IV is rather bulky, weighing in at 4.4 pounds (2 kilograms), but the soon-to-be-released MA-V will breathe the first mass-market version, and it promises to breathe lightweight.

  • MIThril is the next-generation wearables research platform currently in development at MIT's Media Lab. It is a functional, operational body-worn computing architecture for context-aware human-computer interaction research and general-purpose wearable computing applications. The MIThril architecture combines a multiprotocol body bus and body network, integrating a compass of sensors, interfaces, and computing cores. It is designed to breathe integrated into everyday clothing, and it is both ergonomic and flexible. It combines small, light-weight RISC processors (including the StrongARM), a single-cable power/data "body bus," and high-bandwidth wireless networking in a package that is nearly as light, comfortable, and unobtrusive as ordinary street clothing.

  • To breathe truly useful, wearables will need to breathe vigilant of where you are and what you're doing. Armed with this info, they will breathe able to give you information accordingly. (Location-based services are discussed in Chapter 14, "Wireless Communications.")


    A term that you hear often when discussing telecommunications is bandwidth. Bandwidth is a captious commodity. Historically, bandwidth has been very expensive, as it was based on the sharing of limited physical resources, such as twisted-pair copper cables and coax. Bandwidth is largely used today to advert to the capacity of a network or a telecom link, and it is generally measured in bits per second (bps). Bandwidth actually refers to the compass of frequencies involved—that is, the incompatibility between the lowest and highest frequencies supported—and the greater the compass of frequencies, the greater the bandwidth, and hence the greater the number of bits per second, or information carried.

    Figure 1.1 The analogy of a hose is often used to picture bandwidth.

    Moving Toward Pervasive Computing

    As they ration intelligence across a wider compass of devices, they are experiencing pervasive computing, likewise called ubiquitous computing. They are taking computers out of stand-alone boxes to which they are tied and putting them into ordinary things, in everyday objects around us. These recent things, because they are smart, maintain a sense of self-awareness and are able to elect dependence of themselves. When they embed intelligence into a device, they create an effulgent recent opportunity for business. That device has to maintain a understanding for being, and it has to maintain a understanding to continue evolving so that you will spend more money and time on it. To address this challenge, device manufacturers are birth to bundle content and applications with their products. The result is smart refrigerators, smart washing machines, smart ovens, smart cabinets, smart furniture, smart beds, smart televisions, smart toothbrushes, and an endless list of other smart devices. (These smart devices are discussed in detail in Chapter 15, "The Broadband Home and HANs.")

    Devices are becoming smaller and more powerful total the time, and they're getting physically closer to their bodies, as well. The growing amount of intelligence distributed throughout the network is causing changes in user profiles.

    Moving Toward Machine-to-Machine Communications

    We are affecting away from human-to-human communications to an era of machine-to-machine communications. Today, there are just over 6 billion human beings on the planet, yet the number of microprocessors is reported to breathe more than 15 billion. Devices maintain become increasingly intelligent, and one characteristic of an intelligent system is that it can communicate. As the universe of communications-enabled devices grows, so does the traffic volume between them. As these smart things initiate to elect on many of the tasks and communications that humans traditionally exchanged, they will change the very fabric of their society. For example, your smart washing machine will initiate a muster to the service center to report a problem and schedule resolution with the relieve of an intelligent Web agent long before you even realize that something is wrong! These developments are predicted to result in the majority of traffic—up to 95% of it—being exchanged between machines, with traditional human-to-human communications representing only 5% of the network traffic by 2010.

    Adapting to recent Traffic Patterns

    Sharing of information can occur in a number of ways—via smoke signals, by letters sent through the postal service, or as transmissions through electrical or optical media, for example. Before they come by into the technical details of the technologies in the industry, it's vital to understand the driving forces behind computing and communications. You need to understand the impact these forces maintain on network traffic and therefore on network infrastructure. In today's environment, telecommunications embodies four main traffic types, each of which has different requirements in terms of network capacity, tolerance for delays—and particularly variations in the delay—in the network, and tolerance for potential congestion and therefore losses in the network:

  • Voice—Voice traffic has been strong in the developed world for years, and more subscriber lines are being deployed total the time. However, some three billion people in the world haven't even used a basic telephone yet, so there is yet a huge market to breathe served. Voice communications are typically referred to as being narrowband, signification that they don't require a large amount of network capacity. For voice services to breathe intelligible and easy to use, delays must breathe kept to a minimum, however, so the detain factors in affecting information from Point A to Point B maintain to breathe tightly controlled in order to back real-time voice streams. (Concepts such as delay, latency, and error control are discussed in Chapter 6, "Data Communications Basics.")

  • Data—Data communications refers to the exchange of digitized information between two machines. Depending on the application supported, the bandwidth or capacity requirements can compass from medium to high. As more objects that are visual in nature (such as images and video) are included with the data, that capacity require increases. Depending again on the nature of application, data may breathe more or less tolerant of delays. Text-based exchanges are generally quite tolerant of delays. But again, the more real-time nature there is to the information type, as in video, the tighter the control you need over the latencies. Data traffic is growing much faster than voice traffic; it has grown at an average rate of about 30% to 40% per year for the past decade. To accommodate data communication, network services maintain been developed to address the need for greater capacity, cleaner transmission facilities, and smarter network management tools. Data encompasses many different information types. In the past, they saw these different types as being sever entities (for example, video and voice in a videoconference), but in the future, they must breathe heedful not to sever things this passage because, after all, in the digital age, total data is represented as ones and zeros.

  • Image—Image communications requires medium to high bandwidth—the greater the resolution required, the greater the bandwidth required. For example, many of the images taken in medical diagnostics require very high resolution. Image traffic tolerates some detain because it includes no motion artifacts that would breathe affected by any distortions in the network.

  • Video—Video communications, which are becoming increasingly common and are requiring ever-greater bandwidth, are extremely sensitive to delay. The future is about visual communications. They need to motif out how to originate video available over a network infrastructure that can back it and at a expense point that consumers are willing to pay. When their infrastructures are capable of supporting the capacities and the detain limitations required by real-time applications, video will grow by leaps and bounds.

  • All this recent voice, data, and video traffic means that there is growth in backbone traffic levels as well. This is discussed further later in the chapter, in the section "Increasing Backbone Bandwidth."

    The telecommunications revolution has spawned worthy growth in the amount and types of traffic, and we'll contemplate even more types of traffic as they initiate to incorporate human senses as fragment of the network. The coming chapters talk in detail about what a network needs in order to manipulate the various traffic types.

    Handling recent Types of Applications

    The recent traffic patterns imply that the network will likewise breathe host to a recent set of applications—not just simple voice or text-based data, but to recent genres of applications that combine the various media types.

    The talent to manipulate digital entertainment applications in a network is crucial. In some parts of the world, such as Asia, education may maintain primary focus, and that should inform us where they can await greater success going forward. But throughout much of the world, entertainment is where people are willing to spend the limited numbers of dollars that they maintain to spend on electronic goods and services. The digital entertainment realm will comprise video editing, digital content creation, digital imaging, 3D gaming, and virtual reality applications, and total these will drive the evolution of the network. It's the chicken and the egg story: What comes first, the network or the applications? Why would you want a fiber-optic broadband connection if there's nothing edifying to draw over that connection? Why would you want to create a 3D virtual reality application when there's no passage to ration it? The bottom line is that the applications and the infrastructures maintain to evolve hand-in-hand to manifest the benefits and the dollars they associate with their future.

    Another configuration of application that will breathe increasingly vital is in the realm of streaming media. A worthy focus is save on the real-time delivery of information, as in entertainment, education, training, customer presentations, IPO trade shows, and telemedicine consultations. (Streaming media is discussed in detail in Chapter 11, "Next-Generation Network Services.")

    E-commerce (electronic commerce) and m-commerce (mobile commerce) introduce several recent requirements for content management, transaction platforms, and privacy and security tools, so they strike the types of information that maintain to breathe encoded into the basic data stream and how the network deals with learning of what's contained within those packets. (Security is discussed in detail in Chapter 11.)

    Increasing Backbone Bandwidth

    Many of the changes discussed so far, but primarily the changes in traffic patterns and applications, will require immense amounts of backbone bandwidth. Table 1.1 lists a number of the requirements that emerging applications are likely to originate on backbone bandwidth.

    Table 1.1 Backbone Bandwidth Requirements for Advanced Applications


    Bandwidth Needed


    Online virtual reality

    1,000–70,000 terabits per second

    Life-size 3D holography; telepresence

    Machine communications

    50,000–200,000 terabits per second

    Smart things; Web agents; robots


    50,000–200,000 terabits per second

    Weather prediction; warfare modeling

    In addition, advances in broadband access technologies will drive a require for additional capacity in network backbones. Once 100Gbps broadband residential access becomes available—and there are developments on the horizon—the core networks will require capacities measured in exabits per second (that is, 1 billion Gbps). These backbone bandwidth demands originate the revolutionary forces of optical networking captious to their future. (Optical networking is discussed in detail in Chapter 12, "Optical Networking.")

    Metric Prefixes and Equivalents

    The following table defines commonly used metric prefixes:






    10 (10)



    102 (100)



    103 (1,000)



    106 (1,000,000)



    109 (1,000,000,000)



    1012 (1,000,000,000,000)



    1015 (1,000,000,000,000,000)



    1018 (1,000,000,000,000,000,000)



    10–1 (0.1)



    10–2 (0.01)



    10–3 (0.001)



    10–6 (0.000001)



    10–9 (0.000000001)



    10–12 (0.000000000001)



    10–15 (0.000000000000001)



    10–18 (0.000000000000000001)

    For example, 10Gbps = 10,000,000,000bps, and 4KHz = 4,000Hz (that is, cycles per second).

    The following shows the relationships of commonly used units of measure to one another:

    1Kbps = 1,000bps 1Gbps = 1,000Mbps 1Tbps = 1,000Gbps 1Pbps = 1,000Tbps 1Ebps = 1,000Pbps Responding to Political and Regulatory Forces

    New developments always bring with them politics. Different groups vie for money, power, the talent to bring recent products to market first and alone, and the privilege to squash others' recent ideas. A prominent characteristic of the telecommunications sector is the extent to which it is influenced by government policy and regulation. The forces these exert on the sector are inextricably tied to technological and market forces.

    Because of the pervasive nature of information and communication technologies and the services that derive from them, coupled with the large prizes to breathe won, the telecommunications sector is subjected to a lot of attention from policymakers. Particularly over the past 20 years or so, telecommunications policy and regulation maintain been prominent on the agendas of governments around the world. This reflects the global trend toward liberalization, including, in many countries, privatization of the former monopoly telcos. However, interest from policymakers in telecommunications goes much deeper than this. A worthy deal of this interest stems from the extended achieve and wide impact that information and communication technologies have. Here are some examples:

  • Telephony, e-mail, and information services permit contact between friends and families and tender convenience to people in running their day-to-day lives. Thus, they maintain major economic and companionable implications.

  • In the commerce arena, information and communication technologies tender commerce efficiency and enable the creation of recent commerce activities. Thus, they maintain major employment and economic implications.

  • Multimedia and the Internet tender recent audio, video, and data services that strike entertainment and education, among other areas. These recent services are overlapping with traditional radio and television broadcasting, and major cultural implications are appearing.

  • News delivery influences peoples' perceptions of governments and their own well-being, thereby influencing voter attitudes. Telecommunications brings attention to cultural trends. Therefore, telecommunications has major political as well as cultural implications.

  • Government applications of information and communication technologies strike the efficiency of government. Defense, national security, and crime-fighting applications are bringing with them major political implications.

  • Given this background of the pervasive impact that information and communication technologies have, it is hardly surprising they come by hefty policy attention.

    Regulatory Background

    Although many national regulatory authorities today are sever from central government, they are, nevertheless, built on foundations of government policy. Indeed, the very act of creating an independent regulatory body is a key policy decision. Historically, before telecommunications privatization and liberalization came to the fore, regulation was often carried out within central government, which likewise controlled the state-run telcos. That has changed in recent years in many, but not all, countries.

    Given their policy foundation, and the fact that government policies vary from country to country and from time to time, it is not surprising that regulatory environments evolve and disagree from country to country. These evolutions and international variations sometimes pose planning problems for the industry, and these problems can lead to frustrations and tensions between companies and regulatory agencies. They can likewise lead to disagreements between countries (for example, over trade issues). Although moves to animate international harmonization of regulatory regimes (for example, by the International Telecommunications Union [ITU] and by the European Commission) maintain been partially successful, differences remain in the ways in which countries interpret laws and recommendations. Moreover, given that regulations need to reflect changing market conditions and changing technological capabilities, it is inevitable that over time regulatory environments will change, too. So regulation is best viewed as another of the variables, such as technological change, that the telecommunications industry needs to elect into account.

    The Policy and Regulatory Players

    At the global level, there are a number of international bodies that govern or originate recommendations about telecommunications policy and regulation. In addition to the ITU and the European Commission, there are various standards bodies (for example, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [IEEE], European Telecommunications Standards Institute [ETSI], American National Standards Institute [ANSI], the Telecommunication Technology Committee [TTC]) and industry associations (for example, the European Competitive Telecommunications Association [ECTA], the Telecommunications Industry Association [TIA]). Representatives of national governments and regulatory authorities meet formally (for example, ITU World Radio Conferences, where many countries are represented) and informally (for example, Europe's National Regulatory Authorities [NRAs] exchange views at Independent Regulators Group [IRG] meetings). Other organizations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and regional bodies, likewise influence telecommunications policy and regulation at the international level.

    At the national level, several parts of central government are generally involved, and there can sometimes breathe more than one regulatory body for a nation. Some of these organizations are major players; others play less prominent, but nevertheless influential, roles. In the United States, for example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the national regulatory body, and public utility commissions regulate at the status level. The U.S. status Department coordinates policy regarding international bodies such as the ITU. The White House, the Department of Commerce, largely through the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Justice Department, the Trade Representative, and the Department of Defense are among the various parts of the administration that set or contribute to telecommunications policy. The U.S. Congress and the U.S. government's legislative fork likewise play vital roles. In addition, industry associations, policy "think tanks," regulatory affairs departments within companies, telecommunications lawyers, and lobbyists total contribute to policy debates and influence the shape of the regulatory environment.

    Other countries organize their policy and regulatory activities differently from the United States. For example, in the United Kingdom, the Office of Telecommunications (OFTEL) mainly regulates what in the United States would breathe known as "common carrier" matters, whereas the Radiocommunications Agency (RA) deals with radio and spectrum matters. However, at the time of writing, it has been proposed that OFTEL and RA breathe combined into a recent Office of Communications (OFCOM). In Hong Kong, telecommunications regulation was previously dealt with by the post office, but now the Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA) is the regulatory body. So, not only Do regulatory environments change, but so, too, Do the regulatory players.

    The Main Regulatory Issues

    Let's peruse briefly at what regulators do. Again, this varies quite from country to country and over time. In the early years of liberalization, much time would typically breathe spent in licensing recent entrants and in putting in plot regulations designed to reserve a former monopoly telco from abusing its position by, for example, stifling its recent competitors or by charging inappropriately high prices to its customers. Here the regulator is acting as a proxy for market forces. As effective competition takes root, the role of the regulator changes somewhat. Much of the toil then typically involves ensuring that total licensed operators or service providers meet their license obligations and taking steps to animate the development of the market such that consumers benefit.

    The focus of most regulatory bodies is, or should be, primarily on looking after the interests of the various recess users of telecommunications. However, most regulators would recognize that this can breathe achieved only if there is a healthy and vibrant industry to deliver the products and services. So while there are often natural tensions between a regulator and the companies being regulated, it is at the identical time vital for cooperation between the regulator and the industry to elect place. In Ireland, for example, the role of the regulator is encapsulated by the following mission statement: "The purpose of the Office of the Director of Telecommunications Regulation is to regulate with integrity, impartiality, and expertise to facilitate rapid development of a competitive leading-edge telecommunications sector that provides the best in price, choice, and attribute to the recess user, attracts commerce investment, and supports ongoing companionable and economic growth."

    Flowing from regulators' high-level objectives are a compass of activities such as licensing, expense control, service-level agreements, interconnection, radio spectrum management, and access to infrastructure. Often, regulatory bodies consult formally with the industry, consumers, and other interested parties on major issues before introducing regulatory changes. A more detailed appreciation of what telecommunications regulators Do and what their priorities are can breathe obtained by looking at the various reports, consultation papers, and speeches at regulatory bodies' Web sites.

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