DP-023W exam Dumps Source : Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0
Test Code : DP-023W
Test cognomen : Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0
Vendor cognomen : Veritas
: 86 true Questions
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Sep 18, 2018Stephanie Simone
Veritas applied sciences, provider of enterprise statistics insurance fashion and utility-described storage solutions, is getting into a government-huge shrink for the U.S. time-honored capabilities Administration (GSA), providing federal agencies with records governance and cloud information management software.
below the contract, executive organizations may acquire entry to Veritas facts protection and cloud solutions at negotiated fees to permit for more desirable facts management.
The shrink is derived from the GSA IT schedule 70 and utterly supports the Federal suggestions expertise Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Enhancement software.
The settlement brings Veritas’ enterprise statistics management portfolio to grievous eligible federal, state, local, and tribal govt companies.
These groups can build upon the statistics insurance policy basis of Veritas NetBackup and add extra records administration capabilities to accelerate their cloud initiatives.
one of the most initial choices include:
For extra assistance about this news, visit www.veritas.com.
MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif., Sept. 12, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Veritas applied sciences, the worldwide market participate chief within the enterprise facts coverage and utility-described storage market, has entered into a government-large agreement for the U.S. accepted features Administration (GSA) to give federal agencies with statistics governance and cloud facts administration utility.
under the contract, govt groups may acquire entry to Veritas information insurance fashion and cloud options at negotiated costs to allow for improved records administration. The shrink is derived from the GSA IT time table 70 and fully supports the Federal tips expertise Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Enhancement software.
The agreement brings Veritas' award-successful traffic data management portfolio to grievous eligible federal, state, native and tribal executive groups. These corporations can construct upon the data insurance policy groundwork of Veritas NetBackup and add additional facts management capabilities to accelerate their cloud initiatives. one of the initial offerings consist of:
"The IT agenda 70 FITARA Enhancement software will give executive groups with greater flexibility in getting access to the imaginitive application solutions they want at a more robust price to taxpayers," stated Alan Thomas, GSA Federal Acquisition provider (FAS) Commissioner. "providing these solutions through a govt-wide, commercial enterprise-degree shrink is a very profitable approach to Cut back duplication in their procurement procedure."
"With the upward propel of cybercrime, the introduction of latest information laws, an upturn of records augment and escalation of digital privacy, federal businesses nowadays should breathe organized to create strategic decisions around statistics collection, facts storage, the location of that facts—and how it will also breathe safeguarded," talked about Tom Kennedy, vp and accepted supervisor, Veritas Public Sector. "as the undisputed chief in information coverage and utility-defined storage, Veritas is providing govt corporations convenient entry to solutions that assist combat these pressures – to engage note facts, maintain it included, ameliorate information availability, free up the vigour of assistance and garner insights to coerce improvements in executive classes."
in regards to the IT time table 70 FITARA Enhancement ProgramThe Federal assistance technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) is a GSA program designed to create it less complicated and extra inexpensive for federal corporations to purchase utility. FITARA changed into passed by Congress in 2014 and the workplace of management and funds (OMB) implemented counsel in 2016. It aims to Cut back fees and bring imaginative technology to the federal executive.
About VeritasVeritas applied sciences is the chief in the international enterprise facts insurance policy and application-defined storage market. We aid essentially the most essential agencies on earth, including 86 percent of the international Fortune 500, returned up and rep well their statistics, preserve it comfy and obtainable, guard in opposition t failure and obtain regulatory compliance. As corporations modernize their IT infrastructure, Veritas supplies the technology that helps them Cut back dangers and capitalize on their data. breathe taught more at www.veritas.com or follow us on Twitter at @veritastechllc.
Veritas and the Veritas brand are trademarks or registered logos of Veritas applied sciences LLC or its associates in the U.S. and different nations. other names could breathe logos of their respective homeowners.
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“a robust enforcement and compliance assurance software is basic to reaching nice public health and environmental results,” Susan Bodine, assistant administrator of the workplace of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, pointed out in an announcement.
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Three of the Big headlines so far this year acquire been data growth, the economy and data deduplication in backup. The first headline, relentless data growth, is the root understanding of most issues in the backup environment. In an application to meet service-level agreements (SLAs) for data backup and recovery, more and more organizations are deploying disk in the backup process. With disk, IT organizations can better meet backup windows and recovery objectives. But as IT "modernizes" its backup infrastructure with disk-to-disk backup, original problems emerge -- specifically, the cost of managing copies stored on disk, and the feasibility of taking disk-based backup copies and making them portable for offsite and/or long-term storage.
Deduplication addresses the first issue -- it changes the economics of disk-based backup, allowing more data to breathe stored in a smaller footprint. The second problem is the original stitch point for quit users that acquire adopted disk. How can they rapidly, securely, cost-effectively, and efficiently rep data offsite for disaster recovery (DR) or long-term retention? Sure, most target devices with deduplication can replicate copies, but is the backup application's catalog sensible of the copy? That's where Symantec Corp. Veritas NetBackup OpenStorage (OST) technology comes in.
Symantec announced its NetBackup OpenStorage initiative a few years ago. It is designed to allow NetBackup users to utilize third-party storage solutions without the requisite for tape emulation.
Available as an option for NetBackup 6.5 and higher, NetBackup OpenStorage gives NetBackup a common interface for third-party disk targets. NetBackup sees OST-enabled appliances as disk, enabling features such as intellectual capacity management, media server load balancing, reporting, and lifecycle policies. It also delivers optimized duplication. Without OST, NetBackup media servers acquire to manage grievous duplicate backup copies, which means that data must breathe transferred across the LAN, WAN, or SAN from the primary site secondary storage to a NetBackup media server and then to the disaster recovery site storage medium (i.e., another appliance of the selfsame nature or tape media). With OST, the OST-enabled device is doing the replication and the data path does not comprehend NetBackup media servers. This means that only changed segments are replicated, creating savings in bandwidth and, importantly, time. NetBackup is sensible of grievous copies and those copies follow established retention policies.
Symantec Technology Enabled Program (STEP) partners -- such as Data Domain, EMC Corp., FalconStor Software, and Quantum Corp. -- leverage the NetBackup OpenStorage technology API to create plug-ins for their storage systems. OST allows for backup data to breathe stored on disk with whatever protocol the target device uses, such as a Fibre Channel or TCP/IP. Based on NetBackup policies or commands, the OST-enabled device will create, duplicate or delete copies.
One of the more thoughtprovoking byproducts of the exercise of the NetBackup OpenStorage interface is the performance improvement in backup. Several STEP partners with an OST-enabled solution claim 50% to100% improvement in backup performance. Richard Nosal, a server administrator for elevated Point Regional Health System in Greensboro, N.C., implemented the NetBackup OST option with a Data Domain DD660 and saw his pre-OST 10-hour backup window with a virtual tape library Cut in half.
Since the NetBackup catalog is sensible of grievous copies, recovery of data from a NetBackup OpenStorage-optimized duplicate copy is the selfsame as recovery from another duplicate. Through NetBackup's Backup-Archive-Restore GUI, the OST-optimized duplicate copy can breathe designated as the primary copy and then a plenary or granular recovery can breathe initiated. The potential time savings over recovery from a non-OST-optimized duplicate could breathe significant.
About this author:Lauren Whitehouse is an analyst with Enterprise Strategy Group and covers data protection technologies. Lauren is a 20-plus-year veteran in the software industry, formerly serving in marketing and software evolution roles.
NAS Advantages: A VAR`s View
Potential benefits of network-attached storage (NAS) comprehend faster data access, easier administration, and no-brainer configuration.
Don Schrenk, a storage consultant with Direct Connect Systems, a value-added reseller in Marietta, GA, has specialized in providing network storage solutions to Fortune 1000 clients for more than four years. InfoStor recently talked with Schrenk to rep his thoughts about the advantages of NAS and how it can breathe implemented in a compass of environments.
Why is NAS gaining popularity?
Network administrators are always on the lookout for dependable, expandable, and easy-to-install options to alleviate server storage overload. NAS fills the bill. Basically, NAS removes the file-server office from overloaded general-purpose servers. It does this via a specialized, high- performance network-attached file server, sometimes referred to as a "filer."
On a network, data-access time determines how rapidly you can carry out your job. For instance, how quickly securities traders process orders, how quickly product designers can rep their wares to market, and how promptly corporate intranet users can download a file depends, in part, on data-access time. NAS devices ensure users quickly and dependable access to data.
What are some of the factors to consider before implementing NAS?
The first thing you inspect at is how many users you acquire on the system. Are there enough users to warrant [buying a NAS device]? Next, you inspect at what the users are doing when they log onto the server, because if you acquire 50 clients and grievous 50 requisite to log onto the selfsame Unix machine, they acquire to evaporate through seven million lines of code essentially to rep to their data. What that does is location an undue overhead on that machine. It`s reputed to breathe number-crunching, but it can`t because you acquire clients trying to access their data. That`s when you consider using a NAS device to offload those clients.
When is NAS not a profitable idea?
If a customer tells us they requisite absolute 100% failing tolerance, I may not recommend NAS. Instead, I`d probably exercise dual-redundant servers with more than one network interface so there is no sole point of failure.
What makes NAS devices so light to install?
It`s a specialized dedicated appliance designed to execute one office only--file access and storage--so it`s not a complicated device. At Direct Connect Systems, we`re most close with Network Appliance`s NetApp Filer because we`ve used it as a storage solution for a number of their clients, but grievous NAS devices are similar in this respect.
Filers Come with their own circuit boards, embedded software, and power supplies. The NetApp Filer simply plugs into a 10-BASE-T, 100-BASE-T, FDDI, ATM and/or Gigabit Ethernet LAN. Once installed, the applications never notice it.
How carry out you rep it going?
It`s almost automatic in a Unix, Windows, or combination environment. Once plugged in, you wait a few minutes for the embedded software to detect and configure to your existing system. Then, it looks enjoy any other server on your network. We`ve institute that NAS servers easily integrate into LANs as an extension of the main servers` hard-disk capacity. Because the NetApp filer does not acquire proprietary hardware (it`s based on Alpha or Intel processors and an EISA bus), has a simplified operating system designed just for file serving, includes a RAID storage configuration and component redundancy, its reliability approaches 100% uptime.
You mainly work with Fortune 1000 clients. What are these companies most concerned with once the NAS server is up and operating?
The questions they most often rep concern backup, administration, and various application issues.
What are the appliance`s backup capabilities?
Reliable data backup is essential to any disaster prevention fashion and is a major concern to their clients. The NetApp Filer supports three file backup methodologies: the filer`s "dump" command, advocate for NDMP [Network Data Management Protocol], and backup across NFS or CIFS platforms. The "dump" command is similar to the close Unix "dump" command. NDMP is a standard by which an enterprise backup system--such as Veritas` Netbackup, IBM`s ADSM, or Legato`s Networker--can direct the backup of the NetApp Filer. The third backup fashion supported is a straight NFS or CIFS backup. Here, the Filer is backed up as if it were local disk space to the NFS or CIFS client station.
How does a NAS server ease system administration issues?
This is another understanding why these devices are so popular. As an instance of their simplicity, the NetApp Filer they install has just 39 commands and a wee group of configuration files, making it extremely light to maintain and administer. Filer administration can breathe accomplished through the serial console connection, a telnet connection across the TCP/IP network, or through the FilerView GUI using a Java-capable Web browser. Administrators usually require less than a half day to learn how to fully operate and administer the Filer.
Sounds easy, but are there risks to running user applications?
The NAS server provides file service--that`s all. The application actually runs locally to a compute server that has accessed the filer using NFS mounts or CIFS shares. Now, there are some applications that prevent their data from being stored on a network-attached drive. But if your application can utilize disk space accessed across the network, it will Run on the NetApp Filer or other NAS devices.
Because you`re most close with the NetApp Filer, what are some of its key features?
-The WAFL (write anywhere file layout) file system, which reduces drive bottlenecks.
- The Data ONTAP operating system, which contains only 300,000 lines of code. This is extremely efficient compared to Unix or NT with millions of lines of code.
- plenary read-ahead caching on files less than 100K in size.
- native multi-protocol support. The NetApp filer currently supports NFS (Unix), CIFS (NT and Windows), and HTTP, allowing for file sharing across LANs.
- RAID-4 configuration to ensure data protection.
What`s an instance of a recent NAS installation you`ve done for a client, and what were the advantages?
One client of ours, ADTRAN Inc. in Huntsville, AL, is a designer and manufacturer of transmission products. They had a network storage problem, and the NetApp Filer provided the flawless solution. The huge CAD files used by the company`s engineers were negatively impacting overall network performance and were close to utilizing plenary network storage capacity. Not only was a network storage bottleneck near, but exacerbating the problem was the fact that Unix and Windows NT users could not participate files. What they needed was a common pool of disk storage that would retain more files on-line and allow plenary file sharing across the enterprise. NAS provided added capacity for grievous users across the network, and it`s also extremely reliable; a lost CAD file is something that ADTRAN can`t tolerate.
The key benefits for ADTRAN were file sharing, reliability, high-speed performance, and ease of administration. And because it supports multiple-protocols, Unix and NT users can participate stored files without using any emulation software on the clients. They installed a NetApp Model F520 Filer with 80GB in a RAID-4 configuration. Since then, ADTRAN has added another 80GB. The additional drives were light to install--just slither them into the drive shelf and execute a sole command. In seconds, the usable disk space was doubled. Today, ADTRAN has about 40 users accessing the Filer over a quickly Ethernet LAN--mostly engineers storing large CAD files and backup file indices on the NAS device. The filer, which is available 24 hours a day, also supports remote access.
Click here to enlarge image
NetApp`s multiprotocol architecture provides native advocate for NFS, CIFS and HTTP, which eliminates the overhead and compatibility issues sometimes associated with emulation software.
Ron Levine is a freelance writer in Carpenteria, CA, and a regular contributor to InfoStor. Direct Connect Systems can breathe contacted at (770) 933-9327 or by visiting their Web site at www.directconnect.com.
Some things are inevitable. Death, taxes, and disk crashes. One day you will try to open an famous file, only to receive a dire error message. Or perhaps you’ll discover that an entire folder has vanished. Worse yet, maybe your Mac won’t even boot, thanks to some sort of disk corruption.
Fortunately, you acquire a plenary backup of grievous your data, so you just restore the missing data from your backup, and you’re back in business. What’s that you say? The last time you backed up was during the Reagan administration?
If an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, then surely the most efficient disk repair program is actually a dependable backup utility. My favorite is Dantz’s Retrospect. But whatever backup program you choose, you must exercise it regularly, so you acquire a current backup when your arduous disk is called to that Great spotless room in the sky. (See the TidBITS article series, "Have You Backed Up Today?" for more details on setting up a profitable backup strategy.)
Yet just as so many of us would prefer to lose weight by taking a magic pill rather than through diet and exercise, we’d rather fix a corrupted disk with a disk utility, rather than restoring from a backup, even when a recent backup is available. It can engage many hours to carry out a plenary restore from a backup, whereas a profitable disk utility can often fix minor disk errors in minutes.
Some of the Macintosh world’s favorite disk repair programs acquire recent upgrades, and here I’ll compare the Norton Disk Doctor appliance in Symantec’s Norton Utilities 8.0 ($100), Alsoft’s DiskWarrior 3.0 ($80), Micromat’s Drive 10 1.1.4 ($70), SubRosaSoft’s DiskGuardian 2.2 ($70), and Apple’s Disk Utility (free). Although these programs accommodate a wide variety of disparate features, I concentrate on their disk repair functions in Mac OS X. I chose not to comprehend Prosoft Engineering’s Data Rescue X, because it recovers files onto another disk and does not repair the damaged disk itself.
<http://www.symantec.com/nu/nu_mac/><http://www.alsoft.com/DiskWarrior/><http://www.micromat.com/drive_10/drive_10_ introduction.html><http://www.subrosasoft.com/><http://www.prosoftengineering.com/products/data _rescue.php>
The user interface and ancillary features of a disk repair program are secondary, because in the event of disaster you keeping about only one thing: will it rep my data back? So let’s concentrate on the heart of the issue: what are the most common disk errors you may experience, and which disk repair programs can rescue your bacon when you’re unfortunate enough to suffer disk corruption?
In my experience, most people Run into three universal categories of disk problems: hardware failure, evil sectors, and damaged directories. After a brief examination of how you rep started with these programs, given that you can’t repair an dynamic startup disk in Mac OS X, I inspect at the worst nature of problem – hardware failures, after which I examine the soft errors and compare the performance of the disk repair programs.
Booty call — One detriment of Mac OS X is that a disk repair program can’t safely check the startup disk. Despite this, and the fact that Apple’s official line is that checking startup disks is not supported, Norton Disk Doctor and DiskGuardian both allow checking of the startup disk, although they warn against doing so. I consider messing about with startup disks under Mac OS X dangerous, and I recommend you not to carry out it.
Fortunately, there is a simple solution. Restart in "single user mode" by holding down Command-S while the Mac is starting up. In sole user mode, you’re dropped into a command line version of Mac OS X, without windows or a mouse pointer. nature "fsck -y" to check (and repair, if necessary) the boot disk, after which you restart the Mac by typing "reboot" (sans quotes for both commands). Disk Utility and fsck rely on the selfsame engine, so running fsck in sole user mode is exactly the selfsame as running Disk Utility.
If you’re uncomfortable with the command line for even two commands, you acquire an alternative. If you boot your Mac using the Mac OS X Installer CD, you can Run Disk Utility from there. At the first screen in the Installer, elect Open Disk Utility from the Installer menu.
What about the other disk repair programs? grievous except DiskGuardian (for now, but a original version is expected soon) Come on bootable CDs. Insert the CD, swirl on your Mac, and hold down the C key to coerce the computer to boot from the CD. Bootable CDs are essential in the event that your arduous disk is so badly damaged that your computer won’t even start up.
It’s Dead, Jim — Let’s inspect at what can evaporate wrong now. Hardware failure can result from the electronics on the drive’s controller board burning out, or the heads or the arm developing mechanical problems. Sometimes a problem with the lubricating grease prevents the disk from spinning or the read arm from moving, causing a problem known as "sticktion."
These problems are caused by dropping the disk, by defective components, by static discharge, or even by sheer age. Usually the disk won’t even expose up on the Desktop. As far as the disk utilities go, Drive 10 can detect hardware errors with a "Unit Ready" test, which is just what it sounds like. Drive 10 asks the drive "Are you ready?" and the drive replies "No." This test is mostly helpful for confirming hardware errors you probably already suspect.
Hopefully there’s no vital data locked in the inanimate drive. No software program can repair a disk with hardware problems. If you desperately requisite to retrieve the data, your only option is a data recovery company such as DriveSavers, who I’ve institute to breathe professional, competent, and expensive. (Also descry Jeff Carlson’s report in "DriveSavers to the Rescue" in TidBITS-495.)
Extended Warranties — If your drive has just suffered a hardware failure, you’re probably checking the warranty and hunting for your receipt. Don’t despair, even if your computer or external arduous drive is out of warranty from the manufacturer. Many arduous drives, even those installed in computers, are also covered by longer warranties provided by the OEM (original apparatus manufacturer), the company that actually made the drive. If you’re willing and able to open a case and remove the drive mechanism, you can engage edge of this warranty.
Here’s the trick. Although you may acquire bought the computer from Apple, or the drive from VST, those companies don’t create drive mechanisms. Instead, your drive was probably made by IBM, Seagate, Maxtor, HP, Western Digital, or another arduous drive manufacturer. These companies often offer an independent warranty on their drives, and it’s often longer than the warranty on your Mac or external arduous drive. Drive mechanism warranties may breathe two years, and some Run as long as five years. Better yet, if you’ve lost the receipt, the company can sometimes inspect up a drive’s serial number to verify that it’s still under warranty.
Both HP and IBM acquire replaced inanimate drives for me, without a receipt, simply by checking my serial numbers. Even better, IBM didn’t create 14 GB drives anymore, so they replaced my inanimate one with a 20 GB unit.
SMART Stuff — Some modern arduous drives acquire a feature called SMART, which stands for Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology. Originally developed by IBM, SMART-compliant drives constantly execute diagnostics to monitor variables enjoy drive temperature, spin up time, and how well the heads stay on track. By noting when these physical parameters slip out of spec, SMART can call some types of drive failure before they happen, giving you time to back up your data and buy a original drive.
Unfortunately, most arduous drives acquire no artery to recommend you about an impending disaster; you requisite a program to query the drive’s SMART statistics. Both DiskWarrior and DiskGuardian can check the drive at regular intervals and alert you if they find trouble.
Using SMART works well if your disk has a factory defect that’s slowly getting worse, because it gives you time to budge your data to a original disk. But SMART doesn’t assist you deal with the occasional evil sector or corrupted directory, much less catastrophic hardware failures. Since I don’t acquire a drive with impending hardware failure, I was unable to test the SMART capabilities of DiskWarrior and DiskGuardian.
Unsavory Sectors — Now it’s time to budge from unadulterated hardware problems to problems that could breathe either physical (hardware) or rational (software). Disks are broken up into sectors. Each sector usually holds 512 bytes of data. There are two types of problems that lead to evil sectors: arduous errors and soft errors.
Hard errors are caused by physical damage to the disk surface. Dropping the disk and manufacturing defects are the most common causes of arduous errors. Although there’s no artery to repair arduous errors, they can breathe "fixed" by "sparing" the evil sector. Disks maintain a wee number of spare sectors in reserve; when a arduous error occurs, the drive controller maps out the evil sector and uses one of the spare sectors in its place.
How are these evil sectors spared? SCSI arduous disks provide a SCSI command – "reassign" – to spare a evil sector. A low-level format also spares any evil sectors. On pre-SCSI disks, a low-level format was the only artery to fix evil sectors.
Many modern disks, including many internal ATA, FireWire, and USB drives, automatically spare sectors with arduous errors the next time the sector is written. That’s helpful, but if data is stored on that sector, programs may breathe unable to read it successfully, causing problems and making it difficult to spare. Erasing the disk with Apple’s Disk Utility spares any evil sectors if you select the "Zero grievous data" option.
What about soft errors? In addition to the 512 bytes of data stored in each sector, a few additional bytes hold an error correction code (ECC). When the sector is written, the drive’s controller computes and records the ECC. When the file system later reads that sector, it checks the ECC to create certain the data hasn’t been corrupted. If the ECC doesn’t match the data, it’s called a soft error. The disk surface is fine, but the data on that sector has become scrambled.
Soft errors can breathe caused if the disk is jarred while it’s writing or if power is lost while writing, either of which can leave a sector half written. large magnets (such as can breathe institute in electric motors) next to arduous disks also attend to acquire evil effects on the data. As with arduous errors, most modern disks repair soft errors automatically the next time the sector is written.
Bad Sector Detector – Norton Disk Doctor, DiskGuardian and Drive 10 (but not DiskWarrior or Disk Utility) claim to detect evil sectors using a test called either a "defective media check" or a "surface scan." Using a proprietary appliance that creates soft errors on disks, I tested each program.
Although Norton Disk Doctor claims to breathe able to find and repair evil sectors, its defective media check didn’t detect the evil sectors on my test disk, erroneously giving it gave a spotless bill of health.
DiskGuardian detected the evil sectors, although it took several hours to Run a plenary check. Unfortunately, it didn’t recommend me which files used the evil sectors, so I had no artery of finding out which files were damaged and would thus requisite to breathe restored from backup. DiskGuardian lacks the capability to repair evil sectors.
Like DiskGuardian, Drive 10 detected the evil sectors, but didn’t identify which files were damaged. Confusingly, Drive 10’s report describing the damage claimed it could fix the evil sectors, but I couldn’t find a command to fix them. Micromat tech advocate confirmed the report was wrong; Drive 10 can’t fix the evil sectors it finds. It’s too bad, since Drive 10 could fix the evil sectors merely by writing zeros to them.
Although Disk Utility cannot scan for evil sectors, it can fix evil sectors on modern disks if you expunge the disk with the "Zero grievous data" option selected.
I must rate grievous these products unacceptable in dealing with evil sectors. Even though two could detect evil sectors, no one at all of them could recommend you which files accommodate evil sectors, making it impossible to learn which files you should restore from your backup. Only Disk Utility successfully fixed the evil sectors, but at the price of erasing the entire disk.
Ripping the Yellow Pages — We’ve now looked at unadulterated hardware failures, and evil sectors, which can breathe either arduous errors or soft errors, and so far, their disk repair utilities don’t assist much at all. Now it’s time to budge on to problems that exist entirely in software, the most common nature of which are errors in the directory, which tracks the files and folders on the disk. In the case of directory errors, there is nothing wrong with the drive mechanism or the disk surface; instead, the directory information that’s necessary to locate your data on the disk has simply become scrambled. Often your data is intact, if it could just breathe located.
As an aside, people with famous data sometimes exercise mirrored disks or RAID arrays, which faithfully duplicate each byte on the main disk to a backup disk. If the main disk suffers a hardware failure or develops a evil sector, the backup disk can rescue the day. However, it’s worth noting that this strategy provides absolutely no protection against directory damage. That’s because the RAID faithfully records grievous data to the backup disk, whether or not that data is good, which results in both the main disk and the backup disk containing debauch data. I may sound enjoy your mother telling you to ingest your vegetables, but the best protection really is regular backups.
The most common understanding of directory damage is crashing. If the computer crashes while a file is being created or saved, causing only section of the change to breathe written to disk, the directory will accommodate incompatible information. Mac OS X crashes far less often than Mac OS 9, but directory-corrupting crashes can and carry out still occur. Both Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X automatically check and repair the startup disk after a crash, which reduces the incidence of disk damage dramatically.
A original feature in Mac OS X 10.3 Panther that should reduce directory errors even more is the journalled file system. You can enable it in Disk Utility, and it’s usually turned on for disks onto which you install Panther. Here’s how journalling works. Before the file system changes the directory, it leaves a note on the disk saying, "I’m going to create this change in the directory." Then the file system makes the change, and once it finishes, it clears the note. If the file system ever sees an incomplete change note on the disk during startup, it knows something evil happened and "rolls back" the directory to its previous state. You will lose your last change, but the directory won’t suffer any damage.
Other causes of damaged directories comprehend buggy programs that write evil data to disk, buggy programs that overwrite cached data waiting to breathe written to disk, and even bugs in the file system itself. The first two are much less likely in Mac OS X than in Mac OS 9 because of its file privileges and remembrance protection, respectively. Bugs in the file system are extremely rare but acquire occurred at times in the past.
It’s worth noting that directory damage is not always readily apparent. A damaged disk may materialize to operate perfectly, but regular exercise can understanding minor errors to grow into solemn problems. Most directory problems are light to fix if they’re caught early but can breathe difficult, if not impossible, to fix later. That’s why checking and repairing startup disks automatically after a crash is so important, and why it’s essential to leave the Check Disk option turned on in Mac OS 9’s universal Controls control panel (the disk check isn’t optional in Mac OS X).
To test how the disk repair utilities execute with different types of directory errors, I created an HFS+ disk image, copied an assortment of files and folders to it, and then used a low-level disk editor to damage various directory data structures. I then duplicated the damaged disk image, and let each utility try to repair its own copy. Each utility repaired an identical disk image, with identical damage.
Errors speak Volumes — For my first test, I started with relatively simple damage in the volume bit map, which is also known as the allocation file. The volume bit map tracks which blocks on the disk accommodate files, and which are unused. grievous five utilities fixed my damaged volume bit map easily.
Next up was damage to the volume header, which tracks vital information about the disk, such as the amount of used and free space, and the locations of the catalog and allocation file. The volume header is stored at the tower of the HFS+ partition. I erased the volume header’s signature, which makes the file system assume the volume header is debauch and refuse to exercise the disk. Fortunately, the file system keeps a backup copy of the volume header at the quit of the disk; it’s imaginatively called the alternate volume header. grievous five of their utilities successfully repaired the disk, although Drive 10 and DiskGuardian couldn’t motif out the cognomen of the damaged disk.
Catalog Catastrophe — The catalog b-tree tracks grievous the files and folders on the disk. It’s a vitally famous section of the directory, and many of my tests focus on it. The catalog is divided into nodes, and each node is divided into records. Most records track a file or folder on the disk, although some accommodate threads or indexes, which are used internally by the file system to inspect up files and folders.
The first node in the catalog is called the header node, which points to other key nodes. I erased the header node. Norton Disk Doctor, DiskWarrior, and Drive 10 recreated the header node properly; Disk Utility and DiskGuardian failed to fix it. Once again, Drive 10 couldn’t motif out the cognomen of the damaged disk.
The header node also contains a map which tracks which nodes are used and which are free. I corrupted this map, but my corruption didn’t faze any of the utilities, grievous of which successfully fixed the header node map.
The nodes in the catalog are linked together in a precise pattern of connections. Horizontal links connect nodes on the selfsame level, and downward links connect the levels. The file system relies on these links to inspect up files and folders. I damaged these links. As happened when I erased the catalog header node, Norton Disk Doctor, DiskWarrior, and Drive 10 fixed these links, but Disk Utility and DiskGuardian weren’t able to build the links back together.
File and folder records are stored in alphabetical order in the catalog. I rearranged these records, putting them in random order. grievous the utilities restored the alphabetical order.
Certain characters, such as a colon, are illegal in file and folder names. Normally, the operating system prevents you from typing an illegal character when saving a file or creating a folder, but it’s not inconceivable that unusual circumstances could understanding one to appear. I renamed a folder with a colon by inserting the colon directly into the folder record in the catalog. With this test, the results start to become more interesting. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian didn’t detect any problem. Drive 10 noticed the illegal character, but didn’t fix it. Norton Disk Doctor and DiskWarrior both fixed it properly by replacing the colon with a legal character.
More Catalog Corruption — Each catalog node ends with a map that points back to the records in that node. I damaged the map for one of the nodes, which sounds bad, but it’s still workable to find the records by calculating the size of each record to find the next record. Disk Utility and Norton Disk Doctor realized there was a problem, but they couldn’t fix it. Drive 10 and DiskGuardian both identified and fixed the problem, but in the process lost five and six files, respectively. Partial repair isn’t always better than complete failure, since you may believe the disk was repaired successfully and only later – potentially much later – realize that some files acquire been lost. DiskWarrior fixed the catalog node map properly.
Next, I changed a thread record to breathe an unknown nature of record, which creates two problems. A thread record that the file system relied upon was missing, and it was confronted by a record with an illegal type. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian detected the corruption, but couldn’t fix it. DiskWarrior fixed the problem but lost some of the data in one file. Only Drive 10 and Norton Disk Doctor managed to repair my damage properly.
Note that DiskWarrior moves any files it suspects may acquire problems into a folder called Rescued Items. In my tests, most of these files turned out to breathe fine. This approach has the edge that it’s limpid which files may breathe damaged. But if the Rescued Items folder contains many files, checking them and putting them away can breathe tedious. Norton Disk Doctor can optionally build aliases to damaged files in a folder, a potentially more helpful feature. But in my tests it didn’t work. Norton Disk Doctor also lists the names of damaged files in its report.
The most famous aspect of a file record is the location of the file’s data on the disk. One of the worst sorts of directory damage that you may descry happens when two files try to occupy the selfsame physical space at the selfsame time. Different utilities advert to this problem as "overlapping extents" or "cross-linked files." In the best case, one file has entirely overwritten the other, since then one file has sound data, while the other’s data is completely gone. In the worst case, the two files anyway manage to interleave their data, which results in both being damaged beyond repair. I cross-linked two files, thus damaging the files’ catalog records, as well as the volume header and volume bit map. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian repaired the catalog records, the volume header, and the volume bit map, but they didn’t actually divorce the two files. In contrast, Drive 10, DiskWarrior and Norton Disk Doctor fixed the damage and separated the files. It’s famous to realize that the data in the overwritten file couldn’t breathe recovered, but not through any failing of these repair programs. When one file overwrites another, the unlucky file has no chance of surviving the encounter.
I descry Fragged People — Some months ago, I wrote an article for TidBITS explaining why defragmenting disks generally isn’t worthwhile (see "Optimizing Disks Is a blow of Time" in TidBITS-686). Although fragmentation is totally typical and acceptable, solemn fragmentation requires additional directory structures, and they too can become corrupted and require repair.
Using another proprietary tool, I fragmented a disk very badly, which breaks files into so many pieces that the file record in the catalog b-tree can’t track them all. The file system responds by creating original records in the extents b-tree to assist track grievous the pieces. The extents b-tree is enjoy the catalog b-tree, but exists solely to assist track highly fragmented files. Again, strict fragmentation is not inherently a problem, but I had build the disk into a precarious, if legal, state. I then damaged two extent records so the file system couldn’t find grievous the pieces to two files, but I damaged each in a different way. Disk Utility, DiskGuardian, and Drive 10 grievous detected my damaged extent records, but weren’t able to repair the damage. DiskWarrior and Norton Disk Doctor performed better, fixing the problem but losing section of the data in one file. Considering the nature of damage I inflicted, they did as well as could breathe expected.
HFS+ volumes are enclosed in a "wrapper," which is actually a modest veteran HFS volume. The understanding for the wrapper is historical. Apple first released HFS+ with Mac OS 8.1. If you connected an HFS+-formatted disk to a Mac running Mac OS 8.0 or earlier – in other words, one that understood only the older HFS format, the wrapper kept the older system from deciding the HFS+ disk was damaged and offering to initialize it. For my next test, I damaged the catalog b-tree header node in the wrapper. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian didn’t notice anything wrong. Drive 10 and DiskWarrior detected the debauch wrapper, but didn’t fix it. Norton Disk Doctor identified the damage and fixed it properly.
Disks can accommodate multiple partitions, which are listed in a partition map at the tower of the disk. Since disk images don’t acquire partition maps, I used an external FireWire arduous disk for this test, in which I damaged the partition map, making the disk driver’s partition overlap the HFS partition. Of grievous these disk repair utilities, only Norton Disk Doctor claims to check partition maps, and indeed it was the only one to detect the problem, although even it proved incapable of fixing the overlapping partition map. Luckily, damaged partition maps are extremely rare, which may breathe why no one at all of the other utilities bother to check them.
The majestic Finale — Finally, I decided to recreate the worst damage I’ve ever seen on a Macintosh arduous disk. Starting with the badly fragmented disk above, I corrupted and overwrote various parts of the catalog and extent b-trees. In some nodes I corrupted the node header (not to breathe confused with the header node), in some I munged the data records, and in others I zapped the record offset map. A few lucky nodes suffered grievous three types of damage at the hands of my disk editor. Only DiskWarrior was able to bring the disk back to a usable state, although 35 files were either lost or partly damaged. That 35 files were lost or damaged is not an indictment of DiskWarrior; the program couldn’t acquire done any better, considering how much vital information had been destroyed. no one at all of the other utilities managed to repair the disk successfully.
And the Winner Is… Of my 15 tests, DiskWarrior fixed 12 successfully, Norton Disk Doctor fixed 11, Drive 10 fixed 9, DiskGuardian fixed 5, and Disk Utility fixed 4. "Fixed" includes cases where recovery may not acquire been perfect, but was profitable enough.
So what, in my professional opinion, should you carry out if your disk starts acting up? First, try Apple’s free Disk Utility. It may fix only a limited set of problems, but when Disk Utility finds a problem, it’s invariably correct, and it applies fixes only when it’s absolutely inescapable it knows the correct fix. I’ve never seen Disk Utility accidentally create a problem worse, something the other utilities can do, even if only very occasionally.
If Disk Utility doesn’t succeed, let DiskWarrior carry out battle with your damaged directory. It was their overall winner, and it deserves its excellent reputation. DiskWarrior can also expose you a preview of the repairs before you accept them, which lets you check that a damaged file or folder really was fixed before DiskWarrior makes the fix permanent.
If DiskWarrior fails, give Norton Disk Doctor a try, since it can address some problems that DiskWarrior misses. After that, try sacrificing chickens. Seriously, if the combination of Disk Utility, DiskWarrior, and Norton Disk Doctor can’t repair your disk, you can either restore your data from backup, or, if that’s not possible, decide if the data is sufficiently famous to pay DriveSavers for recovery.
I still mediate the most famous data protection utility you should own is a backup program. But sometimes a profitable disk repair program can rescue the day by repairing minor damage quickly so you don’t acquire to Run through the time-consuming process of reinitializing your arduous disk and restoring from backup.
[David Shayer was a senior engineer on Norton Utilities for Macintosh 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0. Before that he worked on Public Utilities, a disk repair program that won the MacUser Magazine Editor’s altenative Award, and on Sedit, a low-level disk editor.]
PayBITS: If David’s detailed and expert testing told you whichdisk utility you should rely on, reward his efforts via PayBITS!<http://www.amazon.com/paypage/P12NE4WQ7K8ODD>Read more about PayBITS: <http://www.tidbits.com/paybits/>
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