A2010-578 exam Dumps Source : Assess: Fundamentals of Applying Tivoli Service Availability/Performance Ma
Test Code : A2010-578
Test name : Assess: Fundamentals of Applying Tivoli Service Availability/Performance Ma
Vendor name : IBM
: 120 real Questions
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CHICAGO, March 1, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- 360Quadrants powered via MarketsandMarkets™, the world's simplest evaluation platform that mixes knowledgeable analysis with crowdsourced insights has launched a quadrant on software modernization functions to uphold companies invent sooner and extra advised selections. the first release of the quadrant has IBM, Fujitsu, and Accenture sharing space as Visionary Leaders. 360Quadrants are generated post analysis of agencies (product portfolios and company approach). Quadrants may subsist up to date every three months, and the position of providers will mirror how patrons, trade consultants, and different providers expense them on different parameters.
50+ businesses offering application modernization features absorb been analyzed of which 31 groups were shortlisted and categorised on a quadrant under Visionary Leaders, Innovators, Dynamic Differentiators, and emerging Leaders.
IBM Cloud Migration factory, Fujitsu world software Modernization, Accenture software portfolio assessment services, Capgemini Collaborative business experience, Tech Mahindra application Modernization, Dell, CGI neighborhood, HCL Legacy Modernization, Avanade, Hexaware technologies, Virtusa, Cognizant swift Mobilization tool, Oracle Modernization service, Wipro, ATOS application Transformation and management, DXC know-how, Yash technologies, Infosys, Syntel, and Micro focus business application Modernization absorb been recognized as visionary leaders as they've based product portfolios and a robust market presence and business strategy.
Bell Integrator Language-to-Language Conversion, Macrosoft Legacy software Modernization, Sensiple, Nous Infosystems, superior desktop software, Asysco B.V., and UST world Legacy Modernization capabilities were identified as innovators as they absorb got focused product portfolios, however a mediocre company strategy.
Astadia and Cyber Infrastructure (P) confined absorb been identified as rising corporations as they've a gap product providing however spoiled company strategy. Idexcel and OSSCube absorb been identified as dynamic differentiators.
The 360Quadrants platform gives essentially the most granular utility modernization features assessment between providers.
The methodology used to rank utility modernization services companies concerned the exercise of wide secondary analysis to identify key vendors by artery of regarding annual studies, press releases, investor displays, white papers, and quite a few related directories and databases. 31 key companies absorb been shortlisted on the groundwork of their breadth of product choices, organization dimension, and other criteria. The ratings and weights for shortlisted providers against each and every parameter had been finalized post research. After the scores had been finalized, each dealer changed into positioned in respective quadrants based on their score in the product offering and company fashion parameters.
360Quadrants just about compares organizations in emerging technologies on 6 broad maturities: product maturity, company maturity, use-case maturity, investment maturity, expertise maturity, and enterprise result maturity. every company is reviewed via four stakeholders—patrons, trade consultants, other carriers, and MarketsandMarkets™ analysts—to invent it independent. 360 aims to simplify and de-possibility involved buy selections. consumers accumulate to customise their quadrant towards their specific needs. The combined insights from friends, analysts, consultants, and providers reduce the bias and helps the purchaser find the greatest robust answer. carriers accumulate to position themselves to win most efficient recent consumers, customize their quadrants, promote to a decision key parameters, and position themselves strategically in a gap space, to subsist consumed by giants and start-usaalike. experts accumulate to develop their own company and enlarge their thought management. The 360 platform aims the constructing of a gregarious community that hyperlinks trade consultants with corporations worldwide.
360Quadrants has additionally launched quadrants in fields fancy Cognitive Analytics solutions, AI in Fintech solutions, and Predictive Analytics application.
MarketsandMarkets™ provides quantified B2B analysis on 30,000 immoderate boom niche alternatives/threats so that they can influence the revenues of 70% to 80% of businesses worldwide. MarketsandMarkets™ presently capabilities 7500 shoppers international including eighty% of international Fortune 1000 corporations. practically seventy five,000 properly officers across eight industries global strategy MarketsandMarkets™ for their twinge facets around revenues selections.
Contact:Mr. Manoj Singhvimanoj.firstname.lastname@example.orgMarketsandMarkets™ research private Ltd.Tower B5, workplace a hundred and one, Magarpatta SEZ,Hadapsar, Pune - 411013, IndiaPhone: +1-888-600-6441
View customary content material:http://www.prnewswire.com/information-releases/ibm-fujitsu-and-accenture-listed-as-visionary-leaders-via-360quadrants-for-software-modernization-300804898.html
Copyright (C) 2019 PR Newswire. totality rights reserved
Onapsis, the international leaders in ERP cybersecurity and compliance, announced IBM safety’s crew of veteran hackers, X-drive crimson, will exercise its ERP know-how to uphold companies identify exploitable vulnerabilities of their company-vital applications.
X-drive crimson will exercise Onapsis’ ERP expertise when performing vulnerability assessments and penetration testing against SAP and Oracle applications to befriend immediately find widely used and unknown vulnerabilities.
clients can access X-force purple’s services during the X-force red Portal, the team’s cloud-based mostly communications and collaboration platform. the usage of the X-drive purple Portal, clients can register for exams and assessments, investigate their popularity, view findings as they are uncovered, view remediation recommendations, and communicate at once with X-force crimson testers, doing away with time-ingesting back and forth and the manual sharing of spreadsheets.
“we are very excited to subsist share of X-force red’s vulnerability assessment offering. within the visage of explosive growth in attacks to ERP methods, as evidenced with the aid of the USA offshoot of autochthonous land security releasing two essential alerts in the past three years, companies absorb realized they necessity to comprehend ERP perpetual vulnerability assessment and monitoring into their safety classes. With Onapsis’ patented ERP cybersecurity know-how, combined with X-force purple’s safety advantage and attacker mind-set, businesses can now perquisite away subsist vigilant their security posture, and accumulate hold of actionable counsel on the artery to subsist confident the core of their business is relaxed,” spoke of Mariano Nunez, CEO and Co-founder, Onapsis Inc.
“SAP and Oracle ERP are purposes that many corporations exercise for sensitive company tactics,” spoke of Charles Henderson, world accomplice and Head of X-drive purple. “on account of their magnitude and the sort of records they hang, it's critical these functions are scanned and confirmed continuously so that essential vulnerabilities can besides subsist remediated before attackers locate them. Their collaboration with Onapsis will invent that mission promote to fruition.”
X-force pink gives you vulnerability assessment and protection checking out programs that seat of attention on uncovering vulnerabilities throughout purposes, hardware, personnel, internet-connected contraptions, networks, cars, ATMs, blockchain and nearly every thing else.
The group is made out of veteran hackers who apply the identical tools, options, practices and attitude as attackers, uncovering exploitable vulnerabilities that may additionally lead criminals to the topped jewels.
This collaboration additional highlights Onapsis’ expanded pains on growing the international ERP safety associate ecosystem. Onapsis besides works closely with the IBM safety features neighborhood for protecting, continuous monitoring, addressing compliance and enabling cloud migrations of one of the world’s greatest agencies.
Harrisburg, NC -- (SBWIRE) -- 01/23/2019 -- international related HEALTHCARE MARKET measurement, reputation AND FORECAST 2019-2025
The record gives a valuable supply of insightful facts for company strategists and competitive analysis of linked Healthcare Market. It provides the linked Healthcare trade overview with boom evaluation and futuristic cost, revenue and many other features. The research analysts provide an elaborate description of the cost chain and its distributor analysis. This related Healthcare resolve gives finished facts which reinforces the knowing, scope and utility of this record.
in keeping with the file, global related healthcare market became valued at approximately USD 1,860.26 million in 2017 and is anticipated to generate profits of round USD 10,798.45 million through recess of 2025, growing at a CAGR of around 27.47% between 2018 and 2025.
The document gifts the market competitive panorama and a corresponding specific evaluation of the principal dealer/key avid gamers available in the market. proper groups within the world related Healthcare Market: Accenture, IBM, SAP, GE Healthcare, Oracle, Microsoft, Airstrip expertise, Medtronic, Allscripts, Boston Scientific, Athenahealth, Cerner, Philips, Agamatrix, Qualcomm, AliveCor and others.
click on the hyperlink to accumulate a free sample copy of the report:https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/reports/01181057103/international-related-healthcare-market-measurement-reputation-and-forecast-2019-2025/inquiry?source=releasewire&Mode=34
global connected HEALTHCARE MARKET split by artery of PRODUCT sort AND applications:
This report segments the global connected Healthcare market on the basis of types are:TelemedicineHome MonitoringAssisted LivingClinical Monitoring
On the foundation of software, the international related Healthcare market is segmented into:prognosis and TreatmentMonitoring ApplicationsEducation and AwarenessWellness and PreventionHealthcare ManagementOthers
REGIONAL evaluation FOR connected HEALTHCARE MARKET:
For complete knowing of market dynamics, the world related Healthcare market is analyzed across key geographies particularly: united states, China, Europe, Japan, South-east Asia, India and others. each and every of these regions is analyzed on foundation of market findings across main nations in these areas for a macro-level figuring out of the market.
have an outcome on OF THE linked HEALTHCARE MARKET document:-complete assessment of totality alternatives and possibility within the connected Healthcare market.- linked Healthcare market recent improvements and principal pursuits.-unique study of company thoughts for enlarge of the related Healthcare market-leading avid gamers.-Conclusive examine in regards to the growth plot of linked Healthcare market for impending years.-In-depth understanding of linked Healthcare market-specific drivers, constraints and predominant micro markets.-beneficial influence internal vital technological and market latest developments outstanding the connected Healthcare market.
The document has one hundred fifty tables and figures browse the record description and TOC:https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/experiences/01181057103/international-related-healthcare-market-size-fame-and-forecast-2019-2025?supply=releasewire&Mode=34
WHAT ARE THE MARKET elements that are defined in the document?
-Key Strategic tendencies: The study besides comprises the key strategic traits of the market, comprising R&D, recent product launch, M&A, agreements, collaborations, partnerships, joint ventures, and regional boom of the leading competitors working in the market on a world and regional scale.
-Key Market points: The record evaluated key market points, including profits, expense, means, skill utilization rate, gross, production, creation fee, consumption, import/export, provide/demand, charge, market share, CAGR, and extreme margin. additionally, the study presents a complete examine of the key market dynamics and their latest tendencies, together with pertinent market segments and sub-segments.
-Analytical equipment: The world connected Healthcare Market record contains the accurately studied and assessed statistics of the essential thing trade avid gamers and their scope available in the market by artery of means of a number of analytical tools. The analytical paraphernalia corresponding to Porter's 5 forces analysis, SWOT evaluation, feasibility glimpse at, and funding recur evaluation were used to resolve the boom of the essential thing avid gamers operating available in the market.
Customization of the report: This report can subsist customized as per your wants for further data up to 3 businesses or countries or 40 analyst hours.Please connect with their income crew ([email protected]).
ABOUT US:MarketInsightsReports provides syndicated market research on industry verticals together with Healthcare, suggestions and communication know-how (ICT), technology and Media, chemical compounds, substances, energy, heavy business, and many others. MarketInsightsReports gives world and regional market intelligence insurance, a 360-diploma market view which comprises statistical forecasts, competitive landscape, special segmentation, key developments, and strategic techniques.
CONTACT US: Irfan Tamboli (Head of revenue) - Market Insights ReportsPhone: + 1704 266 3234 | +ninety one-750-707-8687[email protected] | [email protected]
For more counsel on this press unencumber talk over with: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/linked-healthcare-market-2019-highlights-and-fundamentals-accenture-ibm-sap-ge-healthcare-oracle-microsoft-airstrip-technology-medtronic-1129108.htm
Irfan TamboliSales HeadMarket Insights ReportsTelephone: 1-704-266-3234Email: click to electronic mail Irfan TamboliWeb: https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/
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Citrix is a cloud-computing company that offers solutions for mobility, desktop virtualization, cloud networking, cloud platforms, collaboration and data sharing that enable users to work securely from anywhere on a variety of devices. The company's products drop into five main categories: secure digital workspace, app virtualization and VDI, Enterprise Mobility Management (EMM), file sync and sharing, and networking. common Citrix products comprehend XenApp, XenDesktop, XenMobile, NetScaler and ShareFile. More than 400,000 organizations and more than 100 million users hurry Citrix XenApp and XenDesktop products globally.
Citrix Systems started in 1989 and is headquartered in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Today, the company offers a number of professional certifications that are recognized globally.Citrix Certification Program Overview
Citrix certifications are solutions-based to reflect the needs of organizations and IT professionals. The three main Citrix certification topic areas are Desktop Virtualization, Networking and Enterprise Mobility Management. Citrix besides offers credentials for Enterprise File Synchronization and Sharing. Last, but not least, Citrix Cloud certifications were introduced in 2018.
Within the virtualization, networking and mobility certification topic areas, Citrix credentials are available at associate, professional and expert levels. These levels reflect the skills, learning and flavor required of professionals who deserve such Citrix certifications. Associate-level exams typically cost $200, whereas professional- and expert-level exams cost $300.
Here’s a summary of current certifications available from Citrix:
The Citrix Certified Associate – Virtualization (CCA-V) certification is for operators and administrators adept in installing, configuring, managing, maintaining, monitoring and troubleshooting XenApp and XenDesktop 7.15 solutions. There are no prereqs, but you must pass exam 1Y0-203 to deserve this certification.
The Citrix XenApp and XenDesktop 7.15 Administration exam (1Y0-203) covers 14 topics including an architectural overview, installation, provisioning, access, configuring, securing, monitoring, troubleshooting and more in a XenApp and XenDesktop 7.15 environment.CCP-V: Citrix Certified Professional – Virtualization
The Citrix Certified Professional – Virtualization (CCP-V) certification is for engineers and consultants who manage and uphold involved XenApp and XenDesktop 7.15 provisioning environments and solutions. To deserve the CCP-V certification, you must absorb attained CCA-V certification and pass exam 1Y0-311.
The Citrix XenApp and XenDesktop 7.15 LTSR Advanced Administrator exam (1Y0-311) covers 14 topics including advanced architecture, Virtual Desktop Agents (VDA), HDX and multimedia, provisioning (infrastructure, services, integrating and supporting), layering, vDisk streaming and more.CCE-V: Citrix Certified Expert – Virtualization
The Citrix Certified Expert – Virtualization (CCE-V) certification is geared toward solution designers who may subsist architects, engineers or consultants, and who assess and design comprehensive XenApp and XenDesktop 7.15 or XenDesktop 7.6 solutions. To deserve the CCE-V certification you must absorb already earned the CCA-V and CCP-V certifications and pass either of the 1Y0-402 or 1Y0-401 exams.
The Designing Citrix XenDesktop 7.6 Solutions Exam (1Y0-401) is divided into six sections, which cover designing and documenting infrastructure and security infrastructure, designing integrated virtualization solutions, analyzing existing environments, conducting planning and risk assessments, and assessing existing environments. The Citrix XenApp and XenDesktop 7.15 Assessment, Design and Advanced Configurations exam (1Y0-402) covers 11 topics including design methodology, cataclysm recovery, tall availability, access and security, store and resource design and more.
Citrix Certified Associate – Virtualization (CCA-V)
Citrix XenApp and XenDesktop 7.15 Administration (1Y0-203)
Citrix Certified Professional – Virtualization (CCP-V)
Citrix XenApp and XenDesktop 7.15 LTSR Advanced Administrator (1Y0-311)
Citrix Certified Expert – Virtualization (CCE-V)
Designing Citrix XenDesktop 7.6 Solutions (1Y0-401)
Citrix XenApp and XenDesktop 7.15 Assessment, Design and Advanced Configurations (1Y0-402)Citrix Virtualization Certification Ladder
Citrix's Virtualization certifications build upon one another. Once you deserve the Citrix Certified Associate (CCA-V) certification (exam 1Y0-203), you can retract the Citrix Certified Professional (CCP-V) exam (1Y0-311). Once you've passed that exam, you can retract either Citrix Certified Expert (CCE-V) exam: (1Y0-401) or (1Y0-402).
These Virtualization certifications are sound for three years from the date you obtain them. If a recent exam is released during this time, you must pass the latest exam for your plane before the previous exam’s expiration date to maintain certification currency.Citrix Networking Certifications CCA-N: Citrix Certified Associate – Networking
If you're a network or systems administrator who is an expert in app and desktop virtualization, and you want to expand your expertise to include NetScaler Gateway 12 for data, app and desktop solutions, the Citrix Certified Associate - Networking (CCA-N) certification is for you. Training is for administrators who absorb limited or no previous NetScaler experience.
You must pass either the Citrix NetScaler 12 Essentials and Unified Gateway (1Y0-230) or Citrix NetScaler 12 Essentials and Traffic Management (1Y0-240) exam to deserve the credential. Exam 1Y0-230 targets basic networking, Unified Gateway (including configuration), integration, managing client connections, load balancing, NetScaler platforms, AppExpert Expressions and policies, SSL offload, authentication and security. Exam 1Y0-240 covers basic networking, NetScaler platforms, tall availability, load balancing, SSL offing, security, troubleshooting, default policies, URL transformation, switching, optimization and load balancing for global servers.CCP-N: Citrix Certified Professional – Networking
The Citrix Certified Professional - Networking (CCP-N) certification is aimed toward network engineers and people with some networking flavor who implement, manage and optimize Citrix NetScaler Application Firewall in Citrix NetScalrer 12 environments, manage and optimize NetScaler application traffic, and manage NetScaler environments using NetScaler Management and Analytics System (NMAS).
The five-day training Citrix NetScaler 12.x Advanced Topics – Security, Management and Optimization (CNS-320) will befriend you achieve just that. It's for individuals with some understanding of NetScaler Essentials, traffic management and Unified Gateway.
In addition to earning the CCA-N, you must pass the Citrix NetScaler Advanced Topics – Security, Management and Optimization (1Y0-304) exam to achieve the CCP-N certification. The exam targets firewalls, expressions, attacks, optimization (tuning and front-end), caching, monitoring and troubleshooting, monitoring and managing NetScaler configurations, instances and weblogging.Citrix NetScaler SD-WAN Certified (CC-SDWAN)
The newest addition to the Citrix cert portfolio is the Citrix NetScaler SD-WAN (CC-SDWAN), which is for professionals who configure the technology and improve its performance and reliability.
To prepare for the credential, Citrix offers a four-module NetScaler SD-WAN hands-on workshop training course. Candidates must pass an exam at the recess of each module with a score of 80 percent or higher. The modules are SD-WAN Overview, SD-WAN Architecture, SD-WAN attribute of Service, and SD-WAN Deployment Modes and Configuration. Additional modules that focus on SD-WAN 9.0, 9.1 and 9.2 features are included in the training. Citrix awards the certification only after passing totality modules.
Citrix Certified Associate – Networking (CCA-N)
Citrix NetScaler 12 Essentials and Unified Gateway (1Y0-230)
Citrix NetScaler 12 Essentials and Traffic Management (1Y0-240)
Citrix Certified Professional – Networking (CCP-N)
Citrix NetScaler Advanced Topics – Security, Management and Optimization (1Y0-304)
Citrix NetScaler SD-WAN Certified (CC-SDWAN)
Four exams at the recess of each NetScaler SD-WAN training moduleCitrix Networking Certification Ladder
Candidates interested in a Citrix networking career should first obtain the CCA-N credential. From there, candidates will sprint to the CCP-N (which takes the CCA-N as a prerequisite). Candidates interested in pursuing a career path in NetScaler SD-WAN should pursue the CC-SDWAN credential. totality networking credentials are sound for three years, after which you must recertify by passing the then-current exam or attending an instructor-led training course.Citrix Mobility Certifications CCP-M: Citrix Certified Professional – Mobility
Mobility is a relatively recent certification category for Citrix. Of the three viable credential levels, only the professional certification is currently live. (Associate and expert certifications for mobility are still in development.) The Citrix Certified Professional – Mobility (CCP-M) certification is aimed at mobile designers and developers. Such professionals must subsist confidential with designing, installing, configuring and managing a Citrix XenMobile Enterprise solution, including mobile device management, mobile application management and secure productivity.
To obtain the CCP-M certification you must pass exam Designing, Deploying, and Managing Citrix XenMobile 10 Enterprise Solutions (1Y0-371) exam. The exam covers four areas: designing, installing, configuring and managing components of solutions using XenMobile 10 Enterprise.Enterprise File Synchronization and Sharing Citrix ShareFile Certified (CC-SHAREFILE)
The Citrix ShareFile Certified (CC-SHAREFILE) credential targets Enterprise File Sync and Sharing (EFSS) solution professionals who manage corporate data sharing, access, synchronization and security using Citrix ShareFile solutions.
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The Citrix Cloud Certified (CC-XAD-CC) credential targets professionals who exercise XenApp and XenDesktop Service to deliver apps and desktops using the Citrix Cloud platform. To deserve the CC-XAD-CC, candidates must retract one of the following training courses: Moving to the XenApp and XenDesktop Service on Citrix Cloud and Microsoft Azure (CXD-252) or poignant to the XenApp and XenDesktop Service on Citrix Cloud (CXD-250).XenApp and XenDesktop Service Integration with Microsoft Azure Certified (CC-XAD-MA)
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XenApp and XenDesktop Service on Citrix Cloud Certified (CC-XAD-CC)
Attend one of the following training courses:
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Moving to the XenApp and XenDesktop Service on Citrix Cloud (CXD-250
XenApp and XenDesktop Service Integration with Microsoft Azure Certified (CC-XAD-MA)
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Urban transportation systems are vulnerable to congestion, accidents, weather, special events, and other costly delays. Whereas typical policy responses prioritize reduction of delays under ordinary conditions to improve the efficiency of urban road systems, analytic uphold for investments that improve resilience (defined as system recovery from additional disruptions) is still scarce. In this effort, they picture paved roads as a transportation network by mapping intersections to nodes and road segments between the intersections to links. They built road networks for 40 of the urban areas defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. They developed and calibrated a model to evaluate traffic delays using link loads. The loads may subsist regarded as traffic-based centrality measures, estimating the number of individuals using corresponding road segments. Efficiency was estimated as the medium annual dilatory per peak-period auto commuter, and modeled results were organize to subsist proximate to observed data, with the notable exception of recent York City. Resilience was estimated as the change in efficiency resulting from roadway disruptions and was organize to vary between cities, with increased delays due to a 5% random loss of road linkages ranging from 9.5% in Los Angeles to 56.0% in San Francisco. The results demonstrate that many urban road systems that operate inefficiently under ordinary conditions are nevertheless resilient to disruption, whereas some more efficient cities are more fragile. The implication is that resilience, not just efficiency, should subsist considered explicitly in roadway project selection and justify investment opportunities related to cataclysm and other disruptions.INTRODUCTION
Existing roadway design standards emphasize the efficient movement of vehicles through a transportation network (1–4). Efficiency in this context may comprehend identification of the shortest or fastest route (1, 5–7), or the route that minimizes congestion (8). It is the primary criterion on which road networks are modeled and design alternatives are considered (6, 7, 9, 10). The Texas A&M Transportation Institute defines and reports traffic dilatory in urban areas as the annual dilatory per auto commuter (11). Other studies define efficiency as dilatory for the individual driver in terms of time spent poignant or stopped (7), or spell travel time between totality origin-destination pairs in the network (9). However, as the flavor of any motorist in large American cities can attest, conditions beyond the scope of the roadway design, including congestion, accidents, spoiled weather, construction, and special events (for example, a marathon race), can occasions costly delays and frustrating inefficiencies that result in fuel waste, infrastructure deterioration, and increased pollution (12, 13). Evaluating road networks based only on efficiency under ordinary operating conditions results in diminutive to no information about how the system performs under suboptimal or disrupted conditions.
Infrastructure systems that exhibit adaptive response to stress are typically characterized as resilient (14–21). Given the essential role of transportation in emergency response, provision of essential services, and economic well-being, the resilience of roadway networks has received increasing policy attention. Nonetheless, scholars absorb yet to converge on a shared understanding of resilience suitable to usher design, operation, and reconstruction of roadway networks. Although resilience in infrastructure systems is characterized as a multidimensional concept (22, 23), in many engineering and civil infrastructure implementations, resilience is defined as the capacity of a system to prepare for, absorb, retrieve from, and reconcile to disturbances (16). Specific to transportation, resilience has been defined as “the capacity of the system to maintain its demonstrated plane of service or to restore itself to that plane of service in a specified timeframe” (24). Others record transportation resilience as simply the capacity of a system to minimize operational loss (25) or exercise the term synonymously with robustness, redundancy, reliability, or vulnerability (26–28).
Current efforts in transportation resilience research absorb focused on framework development and quantification methods. These efforts comprehend the specification of resilience indicators, such as total traffic dilatory (24), economic loss (29), post-disaster maximum flood (30), and autonomous system components (31). Practical concerns with this sort of resilience evaluation are that it relies on uncertain performance data and often omits indicators that are unquantifiable (19). Other resilience approaches apply traffic network modeling to identify locations for critical buildings (for example, hospitals and fire stations) (32), minimize trip distance for individual passengers (33), and minimize travel time across the system (12). One drawback of existing network resilience methods is that they are data-intensive, often requiring limited information about resources for unusual road system repair (26, 28) or network conduct following a disruptive event (34). Moreover, existing resilience quantification approaches necessity calibration and testing across a ambit of transportation systems. Because many disruptive events, and their associated consequences, are difficult to predict, resilient road systems must subsist characterized and evaluated by the capacity to reconcile to a variety of different stress scenarios. Partly because of these obstacles, joint consideration of efficiency and resilience has yet to subsist implemented for transportation networks.
Here, they study the interconnections between resilience and efficiency (20) among road transportation networks in 40 major U.S. cities. They develop an urban roadway efficiency model, calibrate it on the basis of the observed data (11) of annual dilatory per peak-period auto commuter, and apply the model to compute efficiency in 40 cities. Then, they model traffic response to random roadway disruptions and recalculate expected delays to determine the sensitivity of each city to loss of roadway linkages. The results may expose essential considerations for assessing proposals for improvement of roadway infrastructure that maintain efficiency under stress conditions.METHODS
The Methods section appears here to befriend clarify the subsequent sections. To develop the urban roadway efficiency model, they defined the urban district boundaries, constructed the road networks, and evaluated the population density within cities using the Census Bureau data sets (35, 36) and OpenStreetMap (OSM) data sets (37). They relied on these data to assess commuter patterns, which they used to measure efficiency and resilience of road networks.
Alternative approaches to transportation absorb been offered and comprehend those based on percolation theory and cascading failures (38–40), human mobility pattern studies (41–43), queueing (44, 45), and the exercise of historical data to prognosticate traffic. They review these approaches in the Supplementary Materials and note that the main capitalize of their model is that it relies solely on readily available public data, rather than on particular data sets that may or may not subsist practical to obtain for any particular region. The model’s algorithmic simplicity allows us to consider spatial topologies of cities in tall resolution including tens of thousands of nodes and links. They did not create a more accurate transportation model than the existing ones, but they were able to obtain measurable characteristics of transportation systems (average delays) using their model.Geospatial boundaries and population density
To define geospatial boundaries for the transportation infrastructure networks, they used the U.S. Census Bureau geospatial data set (35) for urban areas—densely developed residential, commercial, and other nonresidential areas (46). They approximated the exact urban district polygon with a simplified manually drawn one (Fig. 1A) and included totality roadways within 40 km (25 miles) of it in the network. For each of the links, they calculated its length on the basis of the polyline defining the link and assigned a number of lanes m and the FFSs (see the Supplementary Materials).Fig. 1 Definition of urban areas and assignment of nodes’ population.
(A) Boston, MA-NH-RI urban district as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau shapefiles (gray background). To simplify the model and the algorithms calculating the distance from network nodes to the city boundary, they approximate each of the urban areas shapefiles with a ribald manually drawn polygon (pink outline). (B) Assignment of the number of people departing from each of the network nodes. Population distribution (color polygons; red corresponds to higher population density), Voronoi polygons (black outline), and network nodes (dots) in Downtown Boston.
We next estimated population in vicinity of each intersection i using the Census Tract data (36). To this end, they split the map into Voronoi cells centered at intersections and then evaluated the population of each cell Ni as
Above, Nt is the population of Census Tract t, and Pi and Pt are the polygons of the cell and the tract, respectively (Fig. 1B and table S2).Transportation model
We built on the gravity model to generate commuting patterns. The gravity model (47) is a classical model for trip distribution assignment and is extensively adopted in most metropolitan planning and statewide travel demand models in the United States (48–51). Other trip distribution models include, for example, destination option models (52, 53). However, these models are not as widely used in large scale, because the detailed data required by these models are frequently unavailable (48).
We assumed that (i) the flood of commuters from root region o to destination region d is proportional to the population at the destination Nd and that (ii) the flood of commuters depends on the distance xod between the root and destination and is given by a distance factor, P(xod). Using these assumptions, they assessed the fraction of individuals commuting from region o to destination region d, fod, as
Then, the commuter flood from root region o to destination region d is
Although individual driving habits may vary (54), they assumed that totality drivers tended to optimize their commute paths such that their travel time was minimized. This assumption allowed us to compute commute paths for every origin-destination pair using inferred FFSs. To compute commuter flows between totality pairs of intersections, they estimated distances xod as the distance of the shortest time path from o to d. Furthermore, in plot of the distance factor P(xod), they used the distribution of trip lengths from the U.S. Federal Highway Administration National Household Travel Survey (55, 56), which they approximated with the exponential function (Fig. 2A and table S3).Fig. 2 Model details.
(A) Distance factor P(xod) (Eq. 2) of trips given the distance between nodes (solid line) and the statistical data (bars). (B) Dependency of hurry on density for V = 100 km/hour.
Next, they defined the commuter load on each road segment as
(4)where θod(ij) is a binary variable equal to 0 when the link ij is not on the shortest path connecting nodes o and d, and 1 otherwise. Note that in Eq. 4, they only considered origins that were not farther than 30 km from the urban district border polygon. The nodes farther than 30 km from the border were only used as destinations to evaluate the fraction of commuters not going toward the urban district (Eq. 2).
Because most commuters travel during peak periods, commuter loads Lij can subsist regarded as traffic-based centrality measures estimating the number of individuals using corresponding road segments. Then, the cumulative time lost by totality commuters is
(5)where Vij and vij are, respectively, the FFS and the actual traffic hurry along the ij road segment, lij is its length, l0 is the length correction due to traffic signals, and β is the proportionality coefficient selfsame for totality urban areas. The summation in Eq. 5 includes only links, whose origins and destinations are within the border polygon. A similar equation was obtained for the poignant dilatory in the study of Jiang and Adeli (45), where the authors looked at the dilatory induced from road repairs.
The actual traffic hurry vij depends on many factors including the hurry limit, the number of drivers on the road, and road conditions. Although there exist a number of approaches to rate actual traffic hurry (57, 58), they chose to exercise the Daganzo model (59) to derive the traffic speed, as shown in the Supplementary Materials
(6)where vmin is the minimum hurry in the traffic, vveh is the correction for the finite size of the car, and α is the proportionality coefficient (Fig. 2B). Efficiency and resilience metrics
We measured efficiency as the medium annual dilatory per peak-period auto commuter. In practice, lower dilatory means higher efficiency. There are multiple ways to map from delays to efficiency, such as taking the inverse values of delays, taking negative values of delays, etc. To avoid ambiguity and facilitate the interpretation of results, they used the delays themselves to quantify the transportation efficiency of urban areas.
We operationalized resilience through the change in traffic delays relative to stress, which is modeled as loss or impairment of roadway linkages. Looking at resilience from the network science perspective, they focused on topological features of cities, rather than on recovery resources available. Sterbenz et al. (60) evaluated a network’s resilience as a ambit of operational conditions for which it stays in the acceptable service region and highlighted that remediation mechanisms drive the operational state toward improvement. They are studying how availability of alternate routes helps remediate the consequences of the initial disruption to the network. In the traffic context, the immediate repercussion of a given physical disruption (and the time for it to unfold) in terms of closing lanes or reducing hurry limits on affected roads will not vary much from network to network, although the number and sort of these disruptions will. Likewise, the hurry of restoring full functionality (through action in the physical domain) is not so much relative on the road network as it is on the nature of the disruption (snow versus earthquake versus flood) and the resources that the city allocates to such repair. The plane of functionality that these repairs achieve ought to subsist the full predisruption functionality, that is, eventually totality roads can subsist fully cleared or restored. However, the immediate loss of function for a given traffic flood can very quickly subsist partially recovered after a disruption by action in the information domain, namely, rerouting of traffic. From the recent steady state at that plane of functionality, full functionality is gradually restored. Thus, their model proxies for resilience and is calibrated against the data that proxy for efficiency. At the selfsame time, they note that to fully capture resilience characteristics of a transportation system, it is required to resolve recovery resources available and the effectiveness of coordination between the relevant authorities. Lower additional dilatory corresponds to higher resilience, but using the selfsame reasoning that they had for efficiency, they quantified resilience through additional delays.RESULTS Efficiency
Together, their traffic model has three parameters (proportionality coefficient α, minimum hurry vmin, and finite vehicle size correction vveh) and is summarized in Eqs. 5 and 6. Given parameter values of the model, one can rate the total dilatory incurred by totality commuters in any given suburban district or, equivalently, the medium dilatory per commuter. They retract vveh = 9 km/hour and vmin = 5 km/hour and calibrate the model to determine the value of α to match the real data on the annual medium dilatory per peak-period auto commuter provided by the Urban Mobility Scorecard (11).
We divide the 40 urban areas into two equally sized groups for model calibration and validation, respectively. They absorb organize that for the 20 urban areas used for calibration, the R-squared coefficient took values in the ambit (−0.01 to 0.83) (Fig. 3 and Supplementary Materials). This allows us to set model parameters α and β (see Methods) as follows: α = 4.30 × 104 hour−1 and β = 10.59. These values correspond to the Pearson coefficient of 0.91 (P = 2.17 × 10−8).Fig. 3 Modeled and observed delays in 40 urban areas.
Pearson correlation coefficients and P values between observed and modeled delays are (0.91, 2.17 × 10−8) for the 20 cities used to calibrate the model and (0.63, 3.00 × 10−3) for the 20 cities used to validate the model. Observed delays were taken from the Texas A&M Transportation Institute Urban Mobility Scorecard (11).
To validate the model, they rate travel delays in 20 different urban areas. As seen from Fig. 3, the estimated travel delays are significantly correlated (R = 0.63, P = 3.00 × 10−3) with actual dilatory times (11), validating the transportation model. figure 4 is a Google Maps representation of real and modeled results for Los Angeles and San Francisco. Road conditions under real, medium traffic patterns at 8 a.m. provided by Google Maps are in Fig. 4 (A and D). Modeled conditions are given for comparison in Fig. 4 (B and E). Finally, Fig. 4 (C and F) shows the new, modeled traffic patterns that result from redistribution of travel in response to a disruption of 5% of the links.Fig. 4 Traffic distributions.
Typical congestion at 8 a.m. for Los Angeles (top) and San Francisco (bottom) as given by Google Maps (A and D), modeled with no disruptions (B and E), and modeled with a 5% link disruption (C and F). Notably, in Los Angeles, the disruption results in traffic redistribution to smaller roads, whereas in San Francisco, it results in increased congestion along the major highways.Resilience
Our approach to model stress is inspired by percolation theory. For every independent simulation of stress, they select a finite fraction of affected road segments r at random, with the probability of failure proportional to segment length. They collect statistics for 20 realizations of the percolation. On failed segments, free-flow speeds (FFSs) are reduced to 1 km/hour (representing near-total loss), and loads L and traffic delays are then recalculated using the updated FFSs. Low-stress scenarios (r < 0.1) might subsist caused by accidents or construction. Larger disruptions might occur during power failures that disrupt traffic signals or strict flooding that makes many roadways nearly impassable. Finally, widespread stress might subsist caused by snow, ice, or dust storms that strike nearly the entire roadway system. figure 5 displays the analysis of dilatory times in six representative urban areas for the full spectrum of adverse event severities, r ⋲ [0; 1]. In addition, fig. S5 shows the results for totality urban areas. Some routes within a lone urban district flavor longer delays than others. The inset of Fig. 5 shows the dilatory distribution for both Los Angeles, which is narrowly clustered, and Boston, where greater variability between roadways is evident. Traffic dilatory times grow rapidly as r increases and achieve saturation (all routes poignant at 1 km/hour) as r approaches 1. They determine the most resilient urban transportation network to subsist Salt Lake City, UT, whereas the least resilient among the 40 metropolitans is shown to subsist Washington, DC.Fig. 5 Dependency of the additional dilatory on the severity of the links disruption for six representative urban areas.
Error bars exhibit spell values ± SD. The inset shows distribution densities for two selected urban areas for 1000 realizations of 5% disruption. Note that San Francisco’s unique topology makes it susceptible to failures of a small number of discrete roadways, and this produces an anomalous repercussion at 5 to 15% disruption.
Figure 6 shows both the efficiency (in blue) and resilience response (additional delays due to 5% link disruption, in orange) for the 40 urban areas modeled. Some cities with tall efficiency under ordinary operating conditions (that is, low delays) nevertheless exhibit low resilience (that is, a sharp enlarge in traffic delays) under stress. Virginia Beach, VA; Providence, RI; and Jacksonville, FL totality drop into this category of urban areas in which traffic operates well under ordinary circumstances but rapidly become snarled under mild stress. On the other hand, Los Angeles is notorious for traffic delays under totality conditions—yet minor stress levels result in diminutive degradation of efficiency. By contrast, ordinary traffic delays in San Francisco are comparable to Los Angeles, but mild stress in San Francisco results in large increases in additional delays. These examples bespeak that resilience (that is, additional dilatory response to stress) is independent of ordinary operating efficiency.Fig. 6 Comparison of resilience and efficiency metrics.
Annual repercussion of 5% disruption (additional delay) has a low correlation with ordinary annual dilatory per peak-period auto commuter (delay). Pearson R = 0.49, P = 1.18 × 10−3.DISCUSSION
The disturbances affecting the road infrastructure are often complex, and their repercussion on the structure and function of roadway systems may subsist unknown (28, 31). These disturbances might subsist natural and irregular, such as distributed road closures caused by an earthquake or homogeneous vehicle slowing down because of a snowstorm. The disturbances might besides subsist anthropogenic and intentional, such as a street impartial or marathon race. Whatever the disturbance, the results of this analysis allow several meaningful inferences to subsist made that may absorb essential implications for highway transportation policy. The first is that resilience and efficiency picture different aspects related to the nature of transportation systems; they are not correlated and should subsist considered jointly as complementary characteristics of roadway networks.
Second, there are characteristic differences in the resilience of different urban areas, and these differences are persistent at mild, medium, or widespread levels of stress (Fig. 5). Except for San Francisco, CA, which is the most delicate of totality cities represented in Fig. 5 at stress levels r < 20% but then surpassed by Boston, MA and Washington, DC, the rank ordering of urban district resilience is insensitive to stress levels. That is, cities that exhibit relatively low resilience under mild stress are the selfsame cities that exhibit low levels of resilience (relative to peers) under widespread roadway impairment. This suggests that the characteristics that impart resilience (such as availability or alternate routes through redundancy of links) are protective against both the intermittent outages caused by occasional car crashes and those caused by snow and ice storms. For cities without resilience, a widespread hazard such as snow may lead to a cascade of conditions (for example, crashes) that rapidly deteriorate into gridlock. This was exactly the case for Washington, DC 20 January 2016 under only 2.5 × 10−2 m or 2.5 cm of snow (61), and for Atlanta, GA 2 years earlier, which experienced 5.1 × 10−2 m or 5.1 cm of snow in the middle of the day that resulted in traffic jams that took days to disentangle (62). Whereas common explanations of these traffic catastrophes focus on the failure of roadway managers to prepare plows and emergency response equipment, Fig. 5 suggests that cities with similar climates (Memphis, TN and Richmond, VA) are less likely to subsist affected, regardless of the availability of plow or sand trucks.
The third inference follows from Fig. 6, which suggests that urban areas that invent capital investments to reduce traffic delays under ordinary operating conditions may nevertheless subsist vulnerable to traffic delays under mild stress conditions. Because these stressors are inevitable, whether from crashes, construction, special events, extreme weather, paraphernalia malfunctions, or even deliberate attack, investment strategies that prioritize reduction of ordinary operating delays may absorb the unintended consequence of exacerbating tail risks—that is, the risk of worse catastrophe under unlikely but viable conditions.
Finally, the exceptional position of recent York City in Fig. 3 calls attention to the fact that substitutes for roadway transportation are available in many cities and absorb an essential role to play in relieving traffic congestion. According to the Texas A&M Institute (63, 64), public transit reduces delays per peak-period auto commuter in the recent York urban district by 63 hours, in Chicago by 23 hours, and by less than 20 hours in other urban areas. Because their model considers only roadway transit, and recent York City contains a myriad of nonroad-based options to avoid roadway congestion, it is unlikely that their model can provide informative results for the recent York urban area.
Although interest has increased in policies that enhance roadway resilience, few analytic tools are available to usher recent investments in achieving resilience goals. It is widely understood that roadway infrastructure is expensive, both in acquiring land for rights-of-way and in construction of improvements, and thus, decisions regarding alignment, crossing, and access made over a period of decades may absorb long-lasting consequences that are observable in traffic data today. Consequently, urban areas exhibit different unintentional traffic characteristics, including delays under ordinary and random stress conditions. Investments motivated exclusively by expected efficiencies under ordinary operating conditions are unreliable safeguards against loss of efficiency under stress conditions. Therefore, recent analytic tools are required that allow designers to assess the adaptive capacity of roadway infrastructure and assess the potential of recent investments to provide enhanced resilience. The adaptive network-based model described herein is one such approach.SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS
Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/12/e1701079/DC1
Alternative approaches to model transportation
Mapping from OSM Foundation shapefiles to network nodes and links
Population assignment algorithm
Distance factor of the likelihood of travel between nodes
Estimation of the traffic hurry from the density of vehicles
Model calibration procedure
Sensitivity of the model to ramp speeds
Additional dilatory as a function of the severity of link disruption
table S1. Mapping original OSM types to network link types and assignment of the number of lanes.
table S2. The algorithm of the node population assignment.
table S3. Distance factor P(xod) of the likelihood of travel between nodes.
table S4. Model sensitivity to ramp hurry coefficient.
fig. S1. Effects of the removal of nodes of degree 2.
fig. S2. Density-flow relationship in the Daganzo traffic model.
fig. S3. Model calibration.
fig. S4. Modeled delays for ramp hurry coefficients of 1/3 and 1/2.
fig. S5. Dependency of the additional dilatory on the severity of the link disruption for totality 40 urban areas.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant exercise is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.REFERENCES AND NOTES
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Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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