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922-101 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Linux Platform Architecture
Test Code : 922-101
Test name : Communication Server 1000 Linux Platform Architecture
Vendor name : Nortel
: 110 actual Questions
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Nortel executive options has accomplished the core network for the U.S. sociable security Administration's VoIP equipment, which is engineered to aid more than a hundred,000 phones.
Nortel govt options, a U.S. company absolutely owned by pass of Nortel, this week announced it accomplished the core network for the U.S. sociable safety Administration VoIP gadget.
The traffic says it accomplished the assignment inside a hundred and eighty days of preparatory buy orders as a share of the SSA's 10-year, $300 million telephone programs replacement mission (TSRP). the brand new gadget is expected to become one of the crucial largest enterprise VoIP deployments on earth, and is already aiding greater than one hundred twenty five places of toil and greater than 33,500 calls day by day.
to this point, the system has dealt with greater than 1.6 million calls. With as many as 16 places of toil brought each week, approximately 500 workplaces should subsist delivered per year until total 1,526 offices are on-line.
Nortel govt solutions has engineered the apparatus to assist greater than 100,000 phones.
The core implementation protected establishment of redundant, geographically dispersed carrier delivery aspects for tall survivability; an indication facility in Columbia, Md.; and a network operations center, assist desk, and company peer at various facility in Woodlawn, Md. Nortel govt options has moreover implemented a VoIP purposes suite that contains an information mart and management suggestions apparatus for custom reporting, and contours to enhance habitual name-dealing with efficiency.
All components gain been validated and accepted before rollout to SSA box places of toil begun, Nortel govt solutions says.
TSRP is anticipated to advocate functions for an predicted inflow of latest clients, together with retiring child boomers. The SSA additionally expects its VoIP community to advocate consolidate monthly public network provider costs, lower working and preservation expenses, and set up a platform for future capabilities.
The SSA VoIP community points Nortel's verbal exchange Server one thousand switching, Contact seat management Server, Media Processing Server 500 IVR, unified messaging solution with Unified Messaging 2000 core platform and CallPilot, and IP mobilephone 1100 collection handsets.
The Nortel executive solutions TSRP group includes universal Dynamics, Black field network services, Shared applied sciences, York Telecom, excessive Wire Networks, NetIQ, NETCOM technologies, Attivasoft and friend-Tech.
Nortel govt solutions says it is moreover worried in a number of principal VoIP transitions for U.S. govt customers global, together with the department of Veterans Affairs, the branch of energy, the U.S. Senate, the department of Transportation, the U.S. Air compel and other features of the department of protection.be taught extra about this subject
Nortel lands great VoIP win
Six burning VoIP questions
Nortel buys gov't capabilities company for $448 millionjoin the network World communities on facebook and LinkedIn to paw upon topics that are confiscate of mind.
IBM enterprise, headquartered in Armonk, ny, ranks among the many few businesses that has created computing and communications innovations for over a century.
incorporated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording enterprise (C-T-R), the firm's predecessors will moreover subsist traced to the Eighties with innovations equivalent to time clock to checklist a employee's arrival and departure time on paper tape, and the punched card system that become used to tabulate census information.
Thomas J. Watson, Sr., a former executive at national cash Register enterprise, joined C-T-R in 1914 and famously insisted on "well-groomed, darkish-perfect salesmen," and a company seat of attention on "big-scale, customized-constructed tabulating solutions for giant corporations".
His son, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., converted the traffic from maker of tabulating gadget and typewriters privilege into a pioneer of the computing business, introducing the system/360 mainframe in 1964.
these days, that focus has broadened extensively, with products that latitude from laptops to these tremendous mainframe systems, and an organization that serves both consumers and little to tremendous corporations. IBM employs over 386,000 people worldwide, and, total through 2007, recorded $ninety eight.6 Billion in income.
To boost their assist of the Token-Ring networking expertise, IBM delivered NetView/workstation in 1986, which accelerated the community management capabilities of IBM's methods network architecture.
IBM's network management assist toil become further improved in 1996 with the merger of IBM and Tivoli methods, Inc., a leading issuer of systems administration software for allotted client/server networks. IBM's acquisition of Tivoli prolonged its network administration capabilities beyond the mainframe to multi-platform, allotted systems. These initiatives gain been extra reinforced with IBM's 2006 acquisition of Micromuse, Inc., and its Netcool line of traffic network management solutions.
The Tivoli software options provided integrated visibility, control, and automation throughout distinct enterprise and expertise property, accordingly maximizing those property in aid of community operations. These products tackle a wide selection of network management challenges, together with:
another Important enviornment it truly is supported by pass of the Tivoli suite of utility is the Netcool application for carrier providers, which gives actual-time efficiency and service management for service suppliers. IBM claims that over 1,000 carrier suppliers, together with the entire proper 20, matter on this community management solution. This apparatus helps telecommunications, instant, cable, and web service suppliers in meeting both their latest and future service start challenges.
Of particular interest is the provider VoIP service management solution, which is designed to assist total layers within the network and total links across it-from the core network to the client's premises-as a consequence simply managing VoIP features and maintaining a top character of adventure (QoE) for the client.
The system screens key performance and high-quality indicators in precise time, for metrics including utilization (busy-hour summon makes an attempt, minutes of use, and come by in paw with destinations); VoIP first-rate (MOS), name readability index, and speech endeavor); name signaling (name completion cost, grade of provider, and post-dial extend); provider first-rate (availability, resound lengthen, and establish up-dial delay); and subscribers (normal earnings per person, situation of carrier events, and open tickets), as shown in determine 1.
A 2d Tivoli answer, the Netcool commercial enterprise VoIP manager, consolidates the administration of VoIP applications, servers, and the underlying networking infrastructure, from PBXs to gateways. This gadget is designed to meet the necessities of each medium and massive firms-as well as managed provider providers.
This providing is packaged with the Tivoli Netcool OMNIbus and Tivoli Monitoring products, and allows community managers to extend their existing monitoring capabilities to the administration of VoIP technologies. This respond can scale to assist traffic environments of as much as one hundred,000 IP endpoints, and offers out-of-the-container assist for each Cisco and Nortel VoIP environments.
For Cisco environments, the commercial enterprise VoIP supervisor helps Cisco name manager and Cisco cohesion, plus facet routers, gateways, and gatekeepers. For Nortel environments, the product supports communique servers, traffic communication managers, media gateways, faraway gateways, and signaling servers.
The system comprises true-time shows with numerous charts that demonstrate community utilization, ability, availability, and performance metrics, plus customizable historical experiences. it's designed to operate with purple Hat enterprise Linux, Microsoft windows Server, or Microsoft home windows XP expert operating techniques.
further particulars on the IBM structure and products can moreover subsist discovered at 'http://www-306.ibm.com/utility/tivoli/solutions/voip/" trend="text-ornament:none">http://www-306.ibm.com/software/tivoli/options/voip/. Their subsequent tutorial will continue their examination of carriers' network administration architectures.
creator's BiographyMark A. Miller, P.E., is President of DigiNet traffic enterprise, a Denver-primarily based consulting engineering firm. he is the writer of many books on networking applied sciences, including Voice over IP applied sciences, and cyber web technologies instruction manual, each published by John Wiley & Sons.
Article courtesy of traffic VoIP Planet, © 2008 DigiNet corporation, total Rights Reserved
Mark A. Miller, P.E. is President of DigiNetB. company, a Denver-based consulting engineering firm. he is the author of many books on networking technologies, including Voice over IP applied sciences, and information superhighway technologies handbook, each published through John Wiley & Sons.
A virtual inner most community (VPN) is a device that permits the relaxed transmission of facts over untrusted networks such as the web. VPNs commonly are used to connect local enviornment networks (LANs) into wide enviornment networks (WANs) using the web. possibly you need to build a VPN between two offices however don't appear to subsist inevitable if the vast infrastructure fees linked to an enterprise-level VPN solution are justifiable. The efficiency of functions which are meant for expend over LANs (as an sample folks that expend community file sharing) severely will moreover subsist degraded over WAN connections. Likewise, subside bandwidth and longer latency in WAN connections can gain an result on adversely the reliability and performance of groupware and skinny-customer purposes. perhaps you gain got a house office and would enjoy to expend your high-speed cyber web access to connect seamlessly and securely to your workplace LAN through an IPSec-competent router. Or possibly you are only interested in VPNs and IPSec in regular and want to test.
The VPN firewall mentioned listed here will hasten on virtually any 486-or-more desirable workstation that has 16MB or extra leading reminiscence and two Linux-compatible Ethernet community playing cards. The thought is to provide a starting point from a single, self-contained package for you to permit you to create robust, cozy, scalable and extremely configurable VPNs that are moreover interoperable with many regular commercial VPN implementations. if you need to experiment on a low-renovation firewall-VPN gateway, then the apparatus discussed here should subsist would becould very well subsist ultimate for you.
this article indicates you how to set up, at minimal rate, a working VPN gateway that makes expend of the IETF's (web Engineering assignment drive) IPSec (information superhighway protocol safety) specification. IPSec is an open habitual and is supported via practically total most Important firewall utility and hardware companies, such as Lucent, Cisco, Nortel and investigate factor. This kit will give you a commonly interoperable IPSec that makes expend of the de facto habitual 3DES encrypted, MD5-authenticated web page-to-website or factor-to-website VPN. subsist positive to subsist capable of finish that with out resorting to a complete Linux distribution or recompiling a standard Linux kernel with a kernel IPSec module.
The VPN device they assess here is according to FreeS/WAN (www.freeswan.org), a conveyable, open-source implementation of the IPSec specification. FreeS/WAN has been confirmed to interoperate, to a number of levels, with Cisco IOS 12.0 and later routers, Nortel Contivity Switches, OpenBSD, Raptor Firewall, verify point FW-1, SSH Sentinel VPN 1.1, F-at ease VPN, Xedia entry element, PGP 6.5/PGPnet and later, IRE SafeNet/SoftPK, Freegate 1.three, Borderware 6.0, TimeStep permit/Gate 2520, Intel Shiva LanRover, sun Solaris and windows 2000. The reputable FreeS/WAN net site has a frequently updated compatibility list with the latest version of its online documentation. FreeS/WAN edition 1.5 is covered in this kit.
I actually gain created a single-diskette distribution that installs the groundwork configuration of a VPN firewall based on the Linux Router undertaking (LRP, www.linuxrouter.org), a compact Linux distribution that can hardy on a single, bootable floppy diskette. The distribution privilege here is pretty much Charles Steinkuehler's Eiger disk picture with Steinkuehler's IPSec-enabled kernel and LRP IPSec equipment. Firewalling is carried out through Linux ipchains. This selected edition is in accordance with the 2.2.16 kernel of Linux. This distribution is called DUCLING (Diskette-based mostly ultra Compact Linux IPSec community Gateway). Compact Linux distributions gain a twisted history. LRP technically refers to Dave Cinege's compact distribution. there are lots of variations around, including Charles Steinkuehler's distribution (EigerStein) of Matthew grant's defunct Eiger version (lrp1.steinkuehler.internet). a different such distribution is David Douthitt's Oxygen (leaf.sourceforge.net/content.personal home page?menu=900&page_id=1). also, there's LEAF (Linux Embedded appliance Firewall), a developer's umbrella that tries to coordinate releases and documentation, profile of enjoy a one-cease shop for compact Linux distributions (leaf.sourceforge.web). i heave advantage of the time period LRP to check with the compact Linux distribution offered here, however some may additionally reckon this terminology wrong.
when you are operating MS home windows 9x, the distribution self-extracts and installs itself onto a standard 3.5", high-density floppy diskette. You can moreover write the photograph to a boot floppy if you gain a gadget working Linux. as soon as the extraction is done, you're going to should boot off the floppy disk you gain got created, reproduction the network drivers in your community playing cards over and edit the confiscate configuration data. it is it—no growing and formatting disk partitions or messing with boot managers in your tough power. if you are not jubilant with the distribution, simply pop the diskette out, throw it away (or reformat it) and reboot your computing device. examine the links on leaf.sourceforge.internet/devel/thc for more suggestions on these options.
background on the Firewall and the VPN
This distribution of LRP uses a standard ipchains-based mostly firewall. ipchains (changed via iptables within the 2.four sequence kernels—see David A. Bandel's “Taming the Wild Netfilter”, LJ, September 2001) is a freely dispensed packet filter for Linux. It is awfully instructive to appear through the ipchains HOWTO if you don't appear to subsist habitual with this firewalling tool. This will moreover subsist discovered at www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/IPCHAINS-HOWTO.html.
The VPN is supplied by means of FreeS/WAN's implementation of IPSec. FreeS/WAN's IPSec implementation is compliant with the IETF's IPSec specification. IPSec is an extension to the internet Protocol (IP) that offers for authentication and encryption. Three protocols are used to exploit encryption and authentication, namely ESP (Encapsulating security Payload), AH (Authentication Header) and IKE (the cyber web Key trade). total these accessories are covered in the FreeS/WAN implementation of IPSec and usually are pellucid to discontinue clients. ESP and AH deal with encryption and authentication, while IKE negotiates the connection parameters, including the initialization, coping with and renewal of encryption keys. The simplest encryption scheme at present supported by FreeS/WAN is 3DES (the triple DES or statistics Encryption typical—the latest de facto common for IPSec encryption). Authentication is conducted the usage of MD5 digests of a so-called shared secret (a shared key). The shared key generally is a jointly agreed-to personality string, RSA cryptographic key pairs or X.509 certificates. FreeS/WAN's KLIPS (kernel IPSec) part, which is compiled into the Linux kernel, implements AH, ESP and the managing of packets. IKE procedures exploit key negotiation, and renewals are carried out in FreeS/WAN's standalone pluto dæmon.
requirements and installation
First, you're going to need a pc with a floppy disk power (I even gain demonstrated simplest 3.5" disk drives) and two community cards in it. The calls for of LRP (the distribution) are minimal and don't require a powerful notebook. anything else that is Intel 486-type or better with greater than 8MB of RAM will do. You additionally will want two floppy disks. authentic, excessive-density three.5" floppy disks should still do, equivalent to promotional diskettes from AOL. I even gain never had any issues with prevalent floppy disk drives, however I actually gain institute some issues with writing the distribution to floppy disks with Imation USB U2 SuperDisk drives.
you will deserve to down load the confiscate DUCLING.tgz/zip distribution from ftp.cinemage.com/pub and extract the contents of the archive file. in case you gain a static IP address, then download the static version, and when you are assigned a dynamic IP address, you are going to want the distribution with a DHCP customer. if you're operating home windows 9x, download ducling-stat-W9x-1-0.zip or ducling-dyn-W9x-1-0.zip. Extracting the .tgz file with Winzip (www.winzip.com) will bear a file, ducling-dyn-1-0.exe or ducling-stat-1-0.exe and listing modules. The .exe file is a self-extracting photo that codecs a floppy disk and writes the photograph to that disk. hasten the ducling-stat-1-0.exe or ducling-dyn-1-0.exe file and Place a floppy disk into the floppy disk drive. notice that any facts on the disk will subsist overwritten.
if you are the usage of MS-DOS or home windows 3.1, the TSR utility FDREAD.EXE must subsist loaded on the DOS flat first if you want to read and write to the 1,722KB structure disk. FDREAD.EXE is a freeware application from Christoph H. Hochstätter.
if you are running Linux, down load ducling-dyn-1-0.tgz or ducling-stat-1-0.tgz, untar the photograph (the sample here is for the DHCP-enabled dynamic IP tackle distribution):tar xvfz ducling-dyn-1-0.tgz
and write the lifelike file, ducling-1-0.img, to a formatted floppy the usage of the Linux fdformat and dd commands:fdformat /dev/fd0u1722 dd if=ducling-dyn-1-0.ima of=/dev/fd0u1722 as soon as the floppy disk picture is created as outlined above, you can gain a bootable Linux floppy diskette.
The zipfile/directory named modules contain the required community driver modules as well as not obligatory modules for firewall masquerading. copy the contents of the module zipfile or directory onto a divorce second MS-DOS-formatted floppy diskette for the configuration portion of this dialogue (below). In Linux, structure a 2d floppy disk by means of runningfdformat /dev/fd0
adopted throughmkdosfs /dev/fd0 and mounting the floppy compel and copying the modules over. examine the documentation included in the README data, with the intent to provide you with details on configuring your firewall/router.
if you are unable to hardy the entire favored applications and modules onto a solitary floppy diskette, you are going to should verify preference setups that expend dual floppy diskettes (see the covered README files with the DUCLING distribution), a bootable CD-ROM or even a little complicated disk. consult with the on line sources of LRP documentation for further guidance.
The LRP Boot Floppies—The magnificent actuality
You can subsist stunned to discover that LRP uses DOS-formatted floppies. You can subsist much more stunned to find that the DUCLING distribution installs itself as a 1,722KB bootable disk image. The three.5" high-density floppy is technically a 2MB format medium, and you can observe these diskettes rated as 2MB “raw” or “unformatted” capability. The 1,440KB formatted potential is basically the result of a conventional structure that writes eighty tracks on the magnetic media with 18 sectors per track. With the confiscate equipment, which you can create diskettes which gain 80 sectors and 24 tracks per sector, giving 1,920KB per floppy. Floppies having 1,680KB (eighty/21 sector/tracks per sector) are used constantly for LRP distributions and appear to gain a legitimate track list; 1,722KB (eighty two/21), 1,743KB (eighty three/21) and 1,760KB (80/22) moreover are suggested to subsist in use. I gain institute the 1,722KB structure floppy to subsist official enough for checking out and haven't any problems to report to date.
I gain created and used huge-structure floppies of up to 1,920KB. extremely giant-layout floppies are typically nonbootable, apparently as a result of a affray between pc BIOSes and the nonstandard sector dimension on the diskette. It has been said that gigantic-structure floppies higher than 1,680KB can suffer from floppy disk hardware dependability problems. windows NT and windows 2000 are reported to gain reliability issues writing to massive-format floppies bigger than 1,680KB.
MS windows 9x operating programs frequently read universal in addition to giant-format floppy diskettes with no configuration adjustments. In Linux systems, it is frequently crucial to mount the floppy disk with the proper layout designated, i.e., /dev/fd0u1722, where fd0u1722 specifies floppy disk machine 0 (fd0) and the u1722 specifies a 1,722KB format. The commonplace floppy disk drive in Linux /dev/fd0 defaults to /dev/fd0u1440, the 1,440KB structure.
For growing and manipulating large-structure floppies, talk to the LRP Boot Disk HOWTO by Paul Batozech. you are going to find this, and different valuable articles, in the supplies listed at leaf.sourceforge.web/devel/thc. For MS home windows, I actually gain institute Gilles Vollant's WinImage (www.winimage.com) to subsist specifically positive and user pleasant. however, it is in some ways extra constrained than the Linux equipment, akin to fdformat, mkdosfs and the greater fresh superformat application. The self-extracting 1,722KBps photographs for MS windows mentioned privilege here had been created the usage of WinImage.
How the LRP Distribution masses
earlier than you start to toil with LRP it is constructive to word how the distribution works. if you assess the bootable diskette, you're going to observe a sequence of files, together with ldlinux.sys, linux, syslinux.cfg, root.lrp, and so forth.lrp, modules.lrp and local.lrp.
The file ldlinux.sys is the bootstrap loader that loads the kernel (the file named linux) and preparatory root.lrp kit into reminiscence. The kernel begins and creates a RAM disk and extracts the basis.lrp kit. A RAM disk is a component of reminiscence it really is allocated as a partition. In different phrases, the kernel creates an region in memory and treats it enjoy a read/write disk. The kernel then mounts the boot gadget designated in syslinux.cfg. The closing .lrp packages on the boot disk are extracted as targeted in syslinux.cfg and loaded to the RAM disk. The .lrp programs are in simple terms universal UNIX tarballs (tar-gzipped archives). once the .lrp programs are installed in the directory tree on the RAM disk, the system starts off a boot based on the universal Linux rc file boot hierarchy.
LRP is effortlessly a stripped-down typical Linux kernel with loadable modules and different software contained in units of .lrp packages. LRP is basically Linux; commonly, anything with a view to hasten on a commonplace Linux distribution should still hasten off the LRP diskette. regularly the impediment to extending LRP's functions and capabilities is the region constraint of a solitary diskette. in case you require additional capabilities, as an instance, remote administration through ssh, a DNS server and so on, you will need to study multidiskette, CD-ROM and even the entire disk drive distributions of LRP that can subsist found.
birth up and Configuration of Router/Firewalling VPN
as soon as the bootable floppy disk is created, profile positive the floppy is placed in the floppy disk drive of the computer on which you want to hasten the firewall/VPN. ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot from a floppy disk. Upon booting the firewall/VPN, you're going to observe the LRP splash monitor, messages from the Linux loader followed with the aid of a login on the spot.
when you've got made it this some distance, congratulations! you gain installed an LRP distribution efficaciously. Now which you can start to configure the firewall homes of the LRP as outlined within the bundled documentation.
as soon as any firewalling tweaks are completed, the VPN must subsist configured. The bundled DUCLING documentation discusses the particulars for configuring a subnet-to-subnet setup. This comprises configuring IPSec's authentication mode (/etc/ipsec.secrets), the IPSec network configuration (/etc/ipsec.conf) as smartly as the firewalling rules to enable access to ports 500 (UDP), 50 and 51 (TCP).
word that you needn't necessarily require a static IP tackle with the intent to hasten VPN hyperlinks. A “roadwarrior” configuration is described within the subsequent area, by which the one VPN customer has an undetermined static IP tackle. I gain hasten VPNs between pairs of nodes with dynamically assigned IP addresses. The administration of VPN nodes with DHCP-assigned IP addresses becomes intricate if each IP address assignments trade generally. privilege here region discusses a roadwarrior configuration the usage of DUCLING and a Microsoft-based mostly IPSec customer.
This instance shows an MS windows 9x/2000 customer element-to-site using SSH Communications safety Sentinel 1.1 (Public Beta 3). FreeS/WAN is interoperable with a vast sweep of IPSec implementations. the convenience of implementation and computability will sweep counting on the product. Many IPSec items that assist 3DES/MD5 encryption through IKE are interoperable with FreeS/WAN. despite the fact, I institute that legally acquiring entirely purposeful IPSec implementations that sheperd strong encryption can moreover subsist exhausting, especially in case you are living backyard of the united states.
Many companies present best confined capabilities of their freely purchasable IPSec implementations. as an example, a product may additionally handiest advocate fragile encryption (DES) or can moreover restrict VPN capabilities to transport mode only. it is vital to differentiate between the two VPN modes that are offered through IPSec: transport mode and tunnel mode. Transport mode encrypts and authenticates site visitors between two mounted discontinue features. Tunnel mode is more advantageous for connecting subnets and allows for tunneling through firewall and router parameters into different subnets. in reality, transport mode restricts site visitors to factor-to-point verbal exchange. Tunnel mode additionally permits aspect-to-web site (aspect-to-subnet) or web site-to-web page communications. as a minimum one dealer doesn't appear to enable its implementation of IPSec to hasten over a connection the expend of a static IP tackle.
The SSH Communications protection Sentinel product (www.ipsec.com) does not appear to endure from any of these issues, probably due to the fact that the traffic is primarily based outside of the U.S.. I downloaded and confirmed the 30-day crucible beta three liberate of Sentinel 1.1 and located it to subsist very effortless to configure on a windows 98 desktop computing device. The Sentinel documentation offers configuration examples for interconnectivity with a FreeS/WAN VPN gateway.
here is a summary of a roadwarrior configuration that allows for faraway clients with dynamically assigned IP addresses to connect transparently to a LAN behind a firewall. you are going to should open ports 50, fifty one (TCP) and port 500 (UDP) to the dynamic IP tackle or the ISP's DHCP tackle latitude. pattern 1 indicates the basic setup. you are going to need to edit /and so on/network.conf on the DUCLING FreeS/WAN firewall (go into lrcfg, choose 1), then 1) and seteth0_IP_SPOOF=NO
to disable the blocking off of tunneled packets. The bundled documentation includes the exact instructions on a pass to finish these initiatives.
determine 1. A Roadwarrior-to-site Configuration
The contents of the FreeS/WAN ipsec.conf file are given in list 1. The corresponding ipsec.secrets and techniques file consists of the entry1.2.three.4 0.0.0.0: PSK "Put your roadwarrior mysterystring privilege here"
the Place the phrase in fees is a shared-secret string. The IP exploit 0.0.0.0 denotes any IP address, so bethink to select a comfy shared-secret string. The rightsubnet and rightnexthop parameters are left immaculate and insinuate that the connection is some extent-to-subnet connection.
checklist 1. The FreeS/WAN conn listing for the Setup proven in pattern 1.
To installation the Sentinel IPSec carrier:
down load SSH Sentinel from www.ipsec.com and installation, following the instructions.
Go into the Sentinel coverage supervisor (determine 2).
determine 2. Sentinel coverage supervisor
select the Important thing management tab, Authentication Keys and choose Add (determine 3).
figure three. including a brand new Key
opt for Create a brand new preshared key then next (determine 4).
determine 4. Configuring Preshared Key
type on your preshared key. It gain to subsist identical to the shared-secret string you gain inserted in /and so on/ipsec.conf (devoid of the charges). (See pattern 5.)
determine 5. Typing in Shared Secret
On the leading console of SSH Sentinel policy supervisor, within the security policy pane, select VPN connections®Add.
Enter in the IP/hostname of the faraway VPN gateway; for their illustration, it's 1.2.three.4, and choose the preshared secret that you created in step 5 because the Authentication key (determine 6).
figure 6. entering Key and UP information
choose 3DES encryption, main Mode and MODP 1024 for IKE Mode and IKE group, respectively. The superior pane generally will moreover subsist left with the defaults.
Set the IKE SA lifetime (i.e., the interval between rekeying) to the identical cost as within the ipsec.conf file, customarily 480 minutes (eight hours).
save total settings and try to ping an internal node at the back of the firewall (try the inside interface, 192.168.x.254). you'll want to subsist related. try working Sentinel's diagnostics to profile inevitable you are linked. I even gain discovered that Sentinel's diagnostic mode can dangle the FreeS/WAN-home windows connections sometimes. If this occurs, disappear to the FreeS/WAN gateway and finish a restart of IPSec after which bring up the numerous connections.
determine 7. The VPN Connection homes Tab
once once more, if you deserve to restart the connection, log in to the LRP container and type#/and many others/initd.d/ipsec restart
to restart the IPSec components.
I moreover institute in home windows 2000 knowledgeable (however no longer home windows 98) that I needed to add the routing manually to the shared subnet 192.168.0.0/24 from the DOS console:route ADD 192.168.0.0 mask 255.255.255.0 1.2.three.4
(consult with the documentation for the Microsoft route command).
this article outlines the skill to establish in compel a firewalling VPN gateway from a solitary 3.5" floppy diskette. With a solitary floppy diskette, you should definitely subsist able to connect hosts and networks of a lot of topologies securely the expend of the information superhighway. The DUCLING distribution is a bare-bones distribution. when you are convinced that a FreeS/WAN VPN can fulfill your wants, you can examine either going to a greater full-featured LRP distribution or even a full-blown Linux gadget, implementing such things as far flung entry (by means of the relaxed shell, ssh, for instance) or a DNS server.
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AMD's newest embedded SoC competes with Arm-based systems for digital signage, microconsole, and other low-end platforms.
AMD is taking a second shot at the embedded market with this week's introduction of the Ryzen Embedded R1000 SoC (system-on-a-chip) series, which are touted as being compatible with AMD's existing (and comparatively higher-power) V1000 train platform. The Ryzen Embedded R1000 train are built on 14nm Zen and Vega cores, targeted for a TDP of 15-25W.
Two variants of the R1000 train were announced, both with a two-core, four-thread design—the key differentiator here being clock speeds. The R1505G runs at 2.4 GHz groundwork / 3.3 GHz turbo speed, while the higher-power R1606G runs at 2.6 GHz groundwork / 3.5 GHz turbo speed. The Vega GPU cores hasten at 1 GHz on the R1505G, and 1.2 GHz on the R1606G. complete benchmarks are available at 3DMark—oddly, from October 2018.
AMD is positioning the pair as having "3x generational performance improvement per watt, and 4x better CPU and graphics performance per dollar than the competition," which in this case is an Intel Core i3-7100U.
SEE: Hybrid cloud: A sheperd for IT pros (free PDF) (TechRepublic)
The R1000 train advocate up to 4K displays at 60 FPS, via DisplayPort 1.4 connections, with hardware-accelerated H.265 encode/decode and decode for VP9. The duo moreover integrate two 10GbE connections, and advocate the same security extensions institute on server-targeted EPYC CPUs, making the duo attractive for NAS and digital signage expend cases.
Atari is planning to expend the new CPUs for the Linux-powered Atari VCS microconsole, in Place of the originally announced (and lower-power) AMD APU, and they are expected to appear in other (not necessarily consumer-facing) embedded systems for digital signage and embedded systems in the near future. The R1000 would subsist an attractive option for a higher-end solitary board enthusiast computer, as the x86-64 architecture and UEFI advocate allows for easier deployment than Arm-powered devices.
For more, learn why falling NAND prices will drive PCIe SSDs to 50% market share in 2019, and Windows XP dies final death as Embedded POSReady 2009 reaches discontinue of life.Tech news You Can expend Newsletter
We deliver the top traffic tech news stories about the companies, the people, and the products revolutionizing the planet. Delivered Dailynote up today note up today
AMD CEO Dr. Lisa Su holding a production sample of a Ryzen 3 CPU during a CES 2019 keynote.
Screenshot: James Sanders/TechRepublic
MINNEAPOLIS, Feb. 20, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- via PRWEB - Calabrio, a leading provider of contact seat workforce optimization (WFO) and analytics software, has further expanded into the Avaya Marketplace by directly integrating its software with the Avaya IP Office™ (PBX) platform and Avaya Aura Contact seat Select (ACD).
"This latest integration is worthy news for the Avaya community and partners who resell Avaya apparatus to midsized organizations, which often struggle to provide multichannel customer keeping with technologies built for larger enterprises," said Calabrio President and Chief Executive Officer Tom Goodmanson.
"Avaya customers who expend the IP Office™ platform now can easily and seamlessly access Calabrio's Workforce Optimization applications, including summon Recording & character Management, Workforce Management (WFM) and Analytics (CAS), which present immediate opportunities for improving contact seat effectiveness through evaluation and coaching," he added.
Calabrio's direct integration with the Avaya Aura Contact seat and IP Office adds to an expanding list of available Calabrio ONE integrations, including the Avaya Aura summon seat Elite on the Communications Manager platform and the Avaya Aura Contact seat (ACCC) and Communications Server 1000 platform.
"We remain committed to the Avaya community and the concept of customer choice, both in terms of hardware and software applications," added Goodmanson.
Calabrio is a gold member of the Avaya DevConnect program and has been share of the Avaya program since 2008. The Avaya DevConnect program enables businesses to confidently add best-in-class capabilities to their network, accelerate deployment of new applications and reduce both network complexity and implementation costs.
About Calabrio, Inc.
Calabrio delivers workforce optimization (WFO) and analytics solutions that elevate the customer experience and drive strategic traffic growth. The company's integrated Calabrio ONE® software suite--including summon recording, character management, workforce management and analytics solutions--empowers contact centers of total sizes to optimize agent performance and liberate the data that provides suitable insight into the voice of the customer.
With more than 4,000 clients worldwide, Calabrio solutions are built on an intuitive, web-based architecture that positions and accelerates the contact seat as an epicenter for customer insight. A pioneer in its industry for more than two decades, Calabrio has been named a "Visionary" for three consecutive years by Gartner in its Magic Quadrant for Customer appointment seat Workforce Optimization (2012-2014)*. The company moreover is a member of the Cisco Developer Network (CDN), and a gold member of the Avaya DevConnect program.
Find news and information at http://www.calabrio.com
Follow @calabrio on Twitter.
Calabrio, Calabrio ONE and the Calabrio logo are registered trademarks or trademarks of Calabrio, Inc. total other trademarks mentioned in this document are the property of their respective owners.
*Gartner, Inc. "Magic Quadrant for Customer appointment seat Workforce Optimization" by Jim Davies, November 12, 2014. Gartner does not endorse any vendor, product or service depicted in its research publications, and does not counsel technology users to select only those vendors with the highest ratings. Gartner research publications consist of the opinions of Gartner's research organization and should not subsist construed as statements of fact. Gartner disclaims total warranties, expressed or implied, with respect to this research, including any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
This article was originally distributed on PRWeb. For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/02/prweb12531511.htmHaberman for Calabrio Tim Nelson +1 612-436-5543
Looking to improve the performance on your high-end Linux server? Is your Linux system connected to a high-speed network? Are your servers spending too much of their resources on processing the TCP/IP stack and Ethernet frames? These are just some of the problems in today's network environment. These problems arise because TCP/IP traffic on the Internet and on private enterprise networks has been growing dramatically for the past decade, and there is no note that growth will subsist slowing down any time soon. The widespread global adoption of the Internet and the evolution of new networking storage technologies such as iSCSI are driving networking speeds even faster. Although the processors being manufactured today are gaining accelerate at an astonishing pace, it is likely that network-related growth will continue to outpace the increasing processor speeds, slowing servers from their primary tasks to process network packets.
Intel has developed a prototype that offloads an entire TCP/IP stack from a Linux-based operating system onto an brilliant network interface card (iNIC).
The iNIC Design
The iNIC contains a real-time operating system (RTOS) and an entire TCP/IP version 4 stack. An I/O processor (IOP) on the iNIC processes total of the network packets allowing the host processor to process other tasks. To accomplish this division of labor, a thin layer of logic is needed on the host side to route total the network traffic through the iNIC.
This technology is based on the brilliant I/O (I2O) architecture, which is already incorporated into the Linux 2.4.x kernel. pattern 1 is an I2O primer for those who are not close with I2O. The I2O specification is a message-based communication mechanism between a host operating system (OS) and I/O devices that are sitting on an IOP. The IOP runs an brilliant RTOS (IRTOS), which contains device-driver modules (DDMs) for each connected device. To obtain portability, I2O uses a split-driver model. The specification defines a set of abstract messages for each supported device class (i.e., LAN, tape, disk). The host OS uses the abstracted message layer to communicate with DDMs running on an IOP. The DDM translates these I2O messages to hardware-specific commands. To communicate with an I2O device, the host OS must gain a driver that knows how to translate OS device commands to I2O device class commands. This module in the host OS is referred to as operating system module (OSM).
Figure 1. I2O Architecture
The solution is based on an extension of this architecture with the creation of the socket class. Changes were made to the I2O architecture to augment performance and minimize latencies usually associated with a split-driver model.
Figure 2. Socket Offload Architecture
The socket class defines messages needed for communication between the host OS and the DDM. The two drivers, OSM and DDM, communicate over a two-layer communication system. The message layer sets up the communication session, and the transport layer defines how information will subsist shared. The DDM is composed of two modules: intermediate service module (ISM) and hardware device module (HDM). The ISM provides the complete functionality of the TCP/IP version 4 stack. The HDM is the device driver for the iNIC. The socket OSM is unlike any other network device in Linux. habitual network card drivers are protocol-independent and interface with the Linux kernel at the network application program interface (API). The socket OSM, on the other hand, will interface directly below the socket API. This allows the necessary socket services to subsist offloaded onto the IOP running the socket class ISM. The socket OSM replaces the services that the TCP/IP stack provided to the kernel, thereby providing necessary interfaces to the Linux kernel. It moreover transmits and converts socket requests and data in the socket offload format to the iNIC running the TCP/IP offload stack.
The OSM is divided into the following subsystems: user interface, message interface, kernel interface and memory management.
The user interface replaces the af_inet socket layer in the kernel. It provides feedback to the users' programs exactly as the native (non-TCP/IP offloaded) kernel would provide.
The message interface provides the initialization and control of the socket offload system. It translates the user socket requests to the socket messages.
The kernel interface provides kernel services to the OSM. This is the point at which the OSM provides any services normally provided to the kernel by the TCP/IP stack. This subsystem was designed to minimize the modifications needed for the Linux kernel.
The memory management module provides the buffer pools needed for data transfer to and from the user-space applications. memory management was designed to 1) minimize the number of data copies and DMA requests, 2) minimize the host interrupts, 3) avoid requiring costly physical-virtual address mappings and 4) avoid overhead of dynamic-memory allocation at runtime. Two pools of DMA-capable data buffers are maintained in the OSM. The transmit buffer contains the data headed for the iNIC; the receive buffer receives the data into the kernel from the socket device.
Figure 3. Linux TCP/IP Stack
As shown in pattern 3, Linux network components consist of a layered structure. User-space programmers access network services via sockets, using the functions provided by the Linux socket layer. The socket structure defined in include/linux/net.h forms the basis for the implementation of the socket interface. Below the user layer is the INET socket layer. It manages the communication discontinue points for the IP-based protocols, such as TCP and UDP. This layer is represented by the data structure sock defined in include/net/sock.h. The layer underneath the INET socket layer is determined by the sort of socket and may subsist the UDP or TCP layer or the IP layer directly. Below the IP layer are the network devices, which receive the final packets from the IP layer.
The socket OSM replaces the INET socket layer. total socket-related requests passed from the socket layer are converted into I2O messages, which are passed to the ISM on the IOP.
The embedded system software consists of the messaging layer, TCP/IP stack, device driver and RTOS.
The messaging layer is the portion of the software that takes messages from the OSM, parses them and makes the socket summon into the TCP/IP stack. This layer moreover takes replies from the network stack and sends the confiscate reply to the OSM. To improve performance and minimize the effects of latency inherent in split-driver systems, the messaging layer batches, replies and pipelines requests.
The embedded TCP/IP stack is a zero copy implementation of the BSD 4.2 stack. It provides total of the functionality of a networking stack to the messaging layer. enjoy total the software that runs on the IOP, the stack has been optimized for running on the Intel 80310 I/O processor chipset with Intel XScale microarchitecture (ARM-architecture compliant). Benchmarks were performed on the TCP/IP stack during optimization to ensure that it would effect well across total sizes of data traffic.
The HDM was written to heave advantage of total the offloading capabilities of the NIC hardware. This includes TCP and IP checksums on transmit and receive, segmentation of great TCP packets (larger than 1,500 bytes) and interrupt batching supported by the chip. The NIC silicon chips supported were the Intel 82550 swiftly Ethernet Mu.pngunction PCI/CardBus Controller and the Intel 82543GC Gigabit Ethernet Controller.
The RTOS is a proprietary OS that has been designed for the demands of complicated I/O operations. This OS is fully I2O-compliant. It was chosen in share because of the willingness of the designers to profile modifications to the OS for the prototyping efforts.
As described before, the socket calls made by the application layer are converted into messages that are sent across the PCI bus and to the I/O processor. This embedded system is a complete computer for performing I/O transactions. It consists of a processor, memory, RTOS and a PCI bus. Because it is designed for I/O, it will minimize the effects of context switching. Once a message reaches the IOP, it is parsed. The socket summon that was requested by the application is then called on the embedded network stack. A reply message is sent to the OSM once the socket operation is completed.
The benchmark tests that were hasten using the prototype showed that the offloading of the TCP/IP stack significantly reduced both CPU utilization and the number of interrupts to the host processor. With a heavily loaded machine, the offloaded stack was able to maintain overall network performance and host CPU cycles were able to remain dedicated to the workload applications. In a native machine, the host processors were interrupted far more frequently, and the network application suffered from CPU resource starvation resulting in the network performance degradation.
Figure 4. Benchmark Results
As the topic of iSCSI (storage over IP by encapsulating SCSI in a TCP/IP packet) starts to heat up, crave for minimizing network overhead will continue to grow. Efforts used in touching the TCP/IP stack to an IOP quickly could shift to providing a full-featured TCP/IP stack at the back discontinue of an brilliant iSCSI adaptor. This would minimize the repercussion of iSCSI to a Linux platform by making it available via the habitual SCSI API. To compete with Fibre Channel, iSCSI must provide comparable performance.
Another future enhancement is that embedded Linux will subsist used for the RTOS. At the start of this prototyping effort, an Intel i960 RM/RN processor was used, and embedded Linux was not available. Since then, the Intel XScale microarchitecture has been introduced, enabling the adoption of the embedded Linux that is available for Intel StrongARM core. Porting of Linux-based StrongARM Linux to the XScale microarchitecture will subsist completed by the discontinue of the year.
There were several goals behind this prototype effort: 1) to demonstrate that the enhanced performance achieved by offloading network tasks from the host processor reduces the host processor cycles otherwise consumed by processing of network data, 2) to prove that the expend of specialized software on the iNIC performs the same networking tasks while maintaining overall network performance and 3) to enable the expend of I/O processors to toil in conjunction with the host processors to exploit the network traffic, thereby maximizing performance of a Linux-based server at minimal cost.
Offloading the TCP/IP protocol to a specialized networking software environment using embedded processors is an efficacious pass of improving system performance. With the advancement of high-speed network deployments and adoption of network storage, TCP/IP will inevitably play an Important role.
Technical contributors: Dave Jiang, Dan Thompson, Jeff Curry, Sharon Baartmans, Don Harbin and Scott Goble.
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