922-098 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 Troubleshooting
Test Code : 922-098
Test appellation : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 Troubleshooting
Vendor appellation : Nortel
: 30 actual Questions
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newsMicrosoft-Nortel behold Unified Communications beneficial properties
The Alliance lately won three modern consumers as well, together with Indiana university, U.k.-primarily based Worcestershire fitness counsel and Communications expertise services, and an IT and telephony issuer referred to as 4ward.
Microsoft and Nortel fashioned the innovative Communications Alliance in July of final 12 months with the goal of delivering unified communications solutions to organizations. under the Alliance, the organizations initiated joint analysis and development efforts. They besides created consumer demonstration centers and engaged in joint income and advertising and marketing.
in the Alliance's initial press unencumber, Jeff Raikes, Microsoft's traffic Division president, cited that the joint unified communications retort would enable a "single identity throughout electronic mail, voice mail, voice over internet protocol (VoIP) appellation processing, rapid messaging and video."
The Alliance's fundamental product is called Nortel Converged workplace, a unified communications device that integrates Nortel's VoIP telephony device with Microsoft's server technology.
The main accessories of Converged workplace include:
there may exist besides a Nortel software core component that helps non-compulsory capabilities, together with web integration, interactive voice response and originate contact with core capabilities.
Unified communications gets defined in a lot of techniques, however in keeping with the IEEE, it usually encompasses "unified messaging, collaboration and interplay programs." These systems besides typically permit real-time and nigh precise-time communications. moreover, combined media (voice, email, fax, etc.) will besides exist accessed from a single utility, independent of the access device.
competition within the unified communications space is thick with great names. In March of this 12 months, IBM and Cisco, announced a collaborative trouble on unified messaging client expertise known as Unified Communications and Collaboration (UC2). UC2 is according to open applied sciences, comparable to Eclipse development ambiance and the Open services Gateway Initiative framework. Citrix techniques and Nokia, amongst others, occupy expressed aid for the UC2 platform.
below the IBM-Cisco unified communications partnership, Cisco plans to promote IBM's Lotus Sametime collaboration solution and IBM plans to promote Cisco's Unified Communications manager, Cisco cohesion and Cisco Unified MeetingPlace products. The complete unified communications retort is designed and delivered with the aid of IBM international expertise functions.
Kurt Mackie is senior information producer for the 1105 enterprise Computing community.
newsMicrosoft and Nortel present Alliance Roadmap
both agencies first introduced their collaboration ultimate summer season.
The street map comprises three modern joint options “to dramatically enrich company communications with the aid of breaking down the limitations between voice, electronic mail, instant messaging, multimedia conferencing and different styles of verbal exchange,” in accordance with an announcement via the two organizations.
additionally blanketed in the announcement are eleven modern implementation services from Nortel and the hollow of greater than 20 joint demonstration facilities the situation shoppers can journey the know-how, the commentary endured.
in addition, the two businesses renowned they occupy got signed agreements with dozens of valued clientele, and occupy developed a “pipeline of a total bunch of prospects who are looking to realize the benefits of unified communications.”
From Microsoft's point of view, it is complete fragment of the enterprise's long-term play to merge complete kinds of communications and messaging prerogative into a single framework. A year ago, the traffic introduced that it become merging its trade Server group with its true-Time Collaboration (RTC) group, and that it had begun to consider of both applied sciences comprising a "platform."
the modern neighborhood was named the Unified Communications group (UCG) and resides in Microsoft's traffic Division. The notion for the modern group emanated from a imaginative and prescient of adding continuity to a myriad of communications instruments, applied sciences and modes -- from e mail and rapid messaging to Voice over internet Protocol (VoIP), audio/video and internet conferencing -- in a unified method.
The three modern joint solutions announced by pass of the alliance this week are named Unified Communications built-in branch, Unified Messaging, and Conferencing.
When it's purchasable in the fourth quarter, UC integrated department will incorporate Nortel and Microsoft know-how on a single piece of hardware that promises VoIP and unified communications in remote workplaces.
Coming a minute previous in the second quarter, Unified Messaging will train to simplify client deployments, native session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel verbal exchange Server 1000 and Microsoft exchange Server 2007. The retort includes Nortel professional features for design, deployment and assist.
also coming in the fourth quarter, Conferencing will prolong Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft office Communicator 2007. It goals to supply a single client journey constant across functions corresponding to voice, rapid messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing.
This year, the companies besides kick to lengthen their existing unified communications retort — a unified computing device and smooth mobilephone for VoIP, email, instant messaging and presence — to the Nortel conversation Server 2100, a carrier-grade commercial enterprise telephony product supporting up to 200,000 users on a single gadget, in accordance with company statements.
As for the road map, the two groups occupy equipped greater than 20 joint demonstration centers in North the us, Europe and Asia, with greater than 100 extra centers scheduled to open via midyear.
Nortel has additionally introduced 11 core integration features to aid shoppers build, set up and back joint unified communications solutions, including conclusion-to-end mission administration. Nortel claims it has already educated greater than 2,200 VoIP experts to bring these capabilities and will add more as deployment ramps up.
Stuart J. Johnston has covered know-how, specially Microsoft, on account that February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, counsel Week, and workstation World, in addition to for traffic Developer, XML & web capabilities, and .web magazines.
common software movement provides comprehensive, low-priced, and Scalable solution throughout structures and into offshoot offices
TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Nov. 3, 2009) - little and medium-sized agencies (SMBs) can attain productivity, cost-discount rates and the investment coverage vital to success in ultra-modern enterprise environment with modern unified communications-based (UC) utility from Nortel* (OTCBB:NRTLQ). The newest utility unlock 5.0 for Nortel's award-successful enterprise Communications supervisor (BCM) adds modern UC capabilities, including unified presence, and improved simplicity with the introduction of a common utility circulate for BCM50 and BCM450.
The Nortel BCM450 and BCM50 are Linux-based IP/TDM PBXs offering software-prosperous, all-in-one solutions for converged voice and records communications. The BCM50 serves agencies with up to 50 users whereas the bigger capability BCM450 is revise for starting to exist medium to colossal organizations and offshoot workplaces with up to 300 users. each and every helps a amalgamate of IP and digital purchasers and can enable enterprises to rescue as much as 70 percent of their household funding by using reusing current equipment.
As a fragment of the modern BCM Rls 5.0 utility, BCM450 and BCM50 supply SMBs with dynamic UC features relish InTouch, which supplies genuine federated presence, and commonplace built-in communications purposes and capabilities. InTouch lets users converse readily with anyone of their own directory – throughout Microsoft Outlook, Nortel BCM, MSN, and Skype for click on-to-name, click-to-IM, and click-to-email. by pass of connecting americans sooner, enhancing collaboration and rushing up the time to resolution, Nortel estimates that unified communications can aid agencies know charge-reductions and an augment in productivity of up to 18 p.c.
ultimate year, the Nashville convention and guests Bureau** (NCVB) leveraged its BCM450 retort to booklet greater than 650,000 hotel rooms whereas marketing tourism on behalf of a variety of partners. NCVB is now trialing BCM Rls 5.0 and plans to roll out the InTouch software in the coming weeks. Kay Hopwood, NCVB's director of information expertise, is longing for seeing true-time presence for complete and sundry on the community and having a view into missed calls even when a caller does not travel away a voicemail. For now, NCVB is having fun with the primary BCM Rls 5.0 characteristic it deployed, FindMe/FollowMe (FMFM), which allows for simultaneous ringing of up to five additional exterior devices. "each summon is expertise business," stated Hopwood. "With BCM's FindMe/FollowMe potential, their revenue group never has to pass over an additional income-generating appellation once again."
Minitel**, a premier Nortel associate providing service throughout Canada, besides chose to tribulation BCM Rls 5.0 in its own workplace production gadget. Its Toronto vp of Operations, Dan Silverman, became so completely satisfied with the progress of the in-condominium tribulation he satisfied a huge accounting solid customer to deploy it as neatly. "The setting up was as smooth as could exist and the client is now rolling out both InTouch and FindMe/FollowMe to assorted clients of their solid without difficulty. They had been in a position to salvage their customer as much as velocity on the interface and rolling the software out via themselves in less than an hour," said Silverman.
Mexico's Universidad Latinoamericana** (ULA) in a similar pass tested the newest BCM application with high-quality results. "we're within the enterprise of training latest youth and getting ready them for the long rush and the challenges forward," pointed out Mario Ahumada Sandoval, subdirector of programs, ULA. "To accomplish that, they matter number on having the latest in communications expertise that helps us tender a wealthy UC adventure for staff and students. Trialling BCM Rls 5.0, they institute that the product's modern function set enhances their UC adventure, while maximizing tackle already in region."
BCM50 client, Philkeram-Johnson**, the oldest ceramic tile producer in Greece, additionally welcomed the brand modern utility release. "Our Nortel BCM50 gives us margin to grow, in terms of potential and performance, and it offers the elements they deserve to evolve to a unified communications environment," observed Christos Syropoulos, traffic manager, Philkeram-Johnson. "we are consistently seeking tips on how to enhance their products and their productivity so that you can reply greater without detain to purchasers. i'm involved to determine greater concerning the modern elements purchasable in BCM Rls 5.0 and the pass they will utilize them to augment their communications."
besides the InTouch and FMFM capabilities, BCM Rls 5.0 lets a consumer ahead a voice message using a file in order that it will besides exist played or study via any mobile tackle in the world. Meet-Me Conferencing for BCM now gives as much as a hundred twenty five ports with capitalize for as many as 300 clients. professional appellation Recording, a potential customarily offered by pass of a 3rd birthday party is besides obtainable as fragment of the newest BCM unlock.
As a further competence of streamlining charges and operations making it much more basic for SMBs and Nortel channel companions to deploy, provision, and migrate pre-present facts, the brand modern BCM50 and BCM450 portfolio contains customary software and applications, O/S, working towards, accreditation, consumer interfaces, and documentation.
Dell'Oro ranks Nortel's SMB portfolio #1 on earth in variety of hybrid-IP traces shipped and #2 in SMB market earnings for the 2d quarter 2009. Nortel's BCM solutions are localized and bought in over 120 international locations through more than one thousand channels.
Hear from extra BCM clients and companions:
Nortel offers communications capabilities that originate the vow of traffic Made primary a reality for their consumers. Their next-generation technologies, for both service company and enterprise networks, aid multimedia and company-important applications. Nortel's applied sciences are designed to aid liquidate trendy boundaries to efficiency, velocity and performance through simplifying networks and connecting individuals to the suggestions they want, once they exigency it. For more tips, discuss with Nortel on the net at www.nortel.com. For the latest Nortel information, consult with www.nortel.com/information.
certain statements during this press liberate may additionally comprise phrases such as "may", "expects", "may also", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "aims", "envisions", "seeks" and different equivalent language and are considered ahead-looking statements or guidance beneath applicable securities legislations. These statements are in accordance with Nortel's existing expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections concerning the operating atmosphere, economies and markets by which Nortel operates. These statements are matter to vital assumptions, risks and uncertainties, which might exist difficult to forecast and the specific sequel may exist materially distinct from those contemplated in forward-looking statements. For additional information with recognize to positive of those and different factors, behold Nortel's Annual report on Form10-okay, Quarterly reviews on contour 10-Q and different securities filings with the SEC. except in any other case required via applicable securities laws, Nortel disclaims any kick or responsibility to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of modern information, future movements or otherwise.
*Nortel, the Nortel brand and the Globemark are emblems of Nortel Networks.
**here's a third celebration hyperlink as described in their internet linking practices.
Use of the terms "accomplice" and "partnership" does not indicate a prison partnership between Nortel and any other celebration.
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Blockchain can execute more than drive cryptocurrency transactions, according to Dr. Srinivasan Keshav, one of the top researchers at the Waterloo Institute for Sustainable Energy (WISE) – based at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. This computer science professor sees a modern break to enable small-scale energy producers to sell green electricity to the highest bidder.
Currently, a homeowner with a dozen photovoltaic panels on his or her roof has only one option for selling the electricity which is produced: to the local utility at a charge established by government.
But, as Dr. Keshav points out, lots of companies are keen to prove their eco-credentials by buying renewable energy certificates (RECs) to offset the carbon-intensive electricity they use. Unfortunately, certifying RECs is cumbersome and expensive, putting it beyond the attain of smaller producers.
Blockchain could change that by offering a cheap and secure pass for households and other small-scale producers to certify their electricity production and track transactions.
The problems are focused on one challenge: bottlenecks. Currently, blockchain can only back a few hundred transactions per second, because before a obstruct of transactions is confirmed, several servers must agree on its contents. When those servers are scattered around the world, delays and communication failures can leisurely down that process.
Dr. Keshav and his sapient colleagues occupy created a solution which they summon Canopus. By ensuring that the servers which verify a particular obstruct are near one another, Canopus speeds up communication. The researchers are now creating a prototype Canopus-driven blockchain they anticipate could maneuver more than a million transactions per second.
If successful, this modern system will open up markets to complete green-energy producers, regardless of their size. Furthermore, it will originate investing in smaller renewable energy systems a more attractive proposition.
According to Professor Jatin Nathwani, WISE’s Executive Director, they “will behold a dramatic change of role of the customer in the emerging ‘smart’ or ‘intelligent’ power gird. As the customer moves from being a passive consumer to an lively participant in the production and consumption of electricity services, the entire framework of pecuniary settlements of electricity flows will require fundamental rethink”. As an lively member of the Energy Transformation Network Ontario, Dr. Nathwani thinks that transactive energy and ‘peer-to-peer’ transactions occupy the potential to originate a significant positive contribution to an evolving electricity market.
WISE has gone further than others in pursuing these innovations sapient established a cluster of research activities to advance the concepts of blockchain in the energy sector. As the role of distributed energy resources changes, they will behold increased penetration of solar on roofs, local wind generation capacity at the community plane in remote and far geographies, electric vehicles initiate to assume the role of “quasi” power plants on wheels able to provide ancillary services to the grid with the emergence of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technologies, Batteries-as-a-Storage Service (BaaS) to homes and distribution grid simultaneously and buildings linked through knowing sensors able to arbitrage energy services.
Professor Keshav and his sapient colleagues occupy developed a prototype blockchain solution called Canopus with capability of handling more than one million transactions per second in back of the Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) trading. The goal is to reduce the cost of certification, liquidate onerous auditing and avoid non-market charge controls, so that even a small-scale green generator could de-risk investments. Today’s blockchains cannot back the addition of more than a few hundred certificates or trades (we can summon them both “transactions”) per second. This is because blockchain servers require agreement on the contents of each obstruct with endemic server and communication failures and the presence of malicious servers. This is known as the difficult “consensus problem.”
Currently, BitCoin, the best-known blockchain, supports only about 10 transactions per second. Meanwhile, HyperLedger (IBM’s competing solution) supports under 1,000 transactions per second. Dr. Keshav’s Canopus prototype takes a server’s location on the internet cloud into account, minimizing communication between geographically far servers.
By keeping most communications local and fast, blockchain servers can process far more transaction records each second than a traditional consensus protocol that doesn’t hold location into account. This improvement in scaling allows even mom-and-pop green generators to obtain certificates and participate in energy transactions. In long term, this toil will animate homeowners and little businesses to invest in renewable energy technologies to become green generators.
Blockchain applications occupy the potential to create substantial modern value in the energy sector. The blockchain ledger is currently used to reduce transaction costs, pinpoint origins of energy, augment the efficiency of exchanges, and maintain more skilled records. This technology besides gives consumers the break of distinguishing where energy is coming from – whether it exist renewables-based or traditional fossil fuel-based power generating plants.
In the past, electric grids used to measure electricity as net amounts and don’t allow consumers to pick and choose. Now, consumers are empowered to choose their preferred energy generation option and switch providers. The modern and emerging technologies in play here can capitalize to overcome a process which is currently complete of both technical and pecuniary constraints.
One key goal at toil inside sapient is this: to enable to Ontario’s electricity consumers to become 100% green. If Canopus, and related blockchain technologies fulfill their primes, it may well capitalize to accelerate the transition to greener and cleaner systems.
By this time, many of you might occupy followed the exciting news of the launch of commercial friendly user tribulation by Rakuten Mobile Network Inc. (referred as just “Rakuten” in this blog post) – the newest and the 4th mobile network operator in Japan. Rakuten Inc., the parent company, is well known in the industry as a Web and IT giant with a diversified line of businesses such as eCommerce, FinTech, rich media content and gregarious media apps. This makes it worthwhile to note the entry of Rakuten into the telecom space with a very different background, in stark contrast with the established Communications Service Provider industry. The latter has been pursuing a content strategy to accommodate to the changing market dynamics and to drive their very necessary digital transformation. The Rakuten press release and the blog post from its Chairman and CEO Hiroshi (Mickey) Mikitani-san, highlights the leadership views on the break with mention of modern traffic models, ecosystems and focus on customer undergo as their key priorities.
On the technical side, while Rakuten will start its journey with LTE-Advanced technology in the radio access, they occupy adopted a 5G-based systems architecture for their network from day one. Virtualization and cloud native are key tenets of the 5G Systems architecture and are at the headquarters of Rakuten’s technical strategy. They are deploying a network that is fully virtualized from RAN to Core, while leveraging mobile edge computing with end-to-end automation for both network and services. On the Radio Access Network (RAN) evolution front, this is an incredible accomplishment for the team involved and an excellent example, at scale, of what is workable with Open vRAN. Rakuten’s press release emphasizes the pivotal role of their common and distributed telco cloud platform used to host complete virtualized applications. Rakuten has coined their “common and distributed telco cloud” as RCP, short for Rakuten Cloud Platform, which first appeared in a seminal LinkedIn post from Tareq Amin, the CTO of Rakuten. Cisco Systems has played a critical role from the very dawn of this exciting journey alongside Rakuten, and they could not exist more supercilious of their partnership and collaboration. Under the hood, the RCP is powered by Cisco’s NFVI and Orchestration technologies. The purpose of this blog post is to partake additional details on RCP’s design principles, architecture and technologies involved.
Let’s illustrate how RCP embraces and realizes the design principles embodied by the terms – telco cloud, common, distributed and end-to-end automation.
Telco Cloud – Essentially a private cloud in most cases to enable the realization of Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), allowing the deployment of telco applications at great scale as virtualized network functions. Examples of such telco applications for Rakuten comprise vRAN (vDU & vCU), vMME, vSAEGW, vIMS, vPCRF, vHSS, vDRA, vFW, vCGNAT, vCDN and more, from multiple vendors. The cloud platform requirements of these network functions across many categories are very different from traditional IT applications, thus requiring a platform engineered specifically for this environment.
From an architectural point of view, the Telco Cloud can exist seen largely as a combination of two major structure blocks: NFVI (NFV Infrastructure) and MANO (Management and Orchestration). These map very well into the ETSI NFV reference architecture framework.
Starting with the NFVI hardware, RCP is using benchmark COTS x86 servers to enable compute and storage capabilities. Intel enables a lot of those capabilities with its Xeon-SP CPU, NIC, SSD-based storage and FPGA for hardware acceleration for the vRAN workloads. Details are covered in this press release from Intel. Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI) and Nexus 9000 chain of switches contour the physical network fabric to interconnect complete compute & storage assets and connect them back to the rest of the network. With the multi-terabit capacity, automation, service chaining, telemetry and rich policy models, Cisco ACI truly enables a 5G-ready telco data headquarters fabric for RCP.
Cisco Virtualized Infrastructure Manager (CVIM) is a fully containerized NFVI software solution creating a cloud operating environment that forms the heart of RCP. CVIM leverages Linux/KVM-based infrastructure to enable virtual compute; Ceph for virtual storage; a combination of Open vSwitch, fd.io & SR-IOV for posthaste networking; docker for the management of infrastructure components – with OpenStack and soon a combination of OpenStack & Kubernetes to execute the orchestration of the cloud. Open architecture and leveraging open source technologies is a key principle of CVIM; and for that reason, it embeds Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and OpenStack Platform (RHOSP). Almost 5 years back, they took a conclusion not to build their own OpenStack distribution; and rather focus their engineering efforts on structure automation and tooling around OpenStack to originate it easier to deploy & operate and originate it more secure. That strategy has allowed us to develop numerous valuable capabilities into CVIM including: a fully automated, zero-touch provisioning installer that predictably delivers an operational cloud from the initial bare metal stage in a matter of hours; a rich set of operational tools that they developed and packaged in; extensive security hardening; fully automated & CI/CD-enabled lifecycle management capabilities to deal with ongoing maintenances including in-service updates & upgrades; extensive performance enhancement & tuning including the addition of arduous Real-Time capabilities without which a Virtual RAN system would not work; 3rd party product back along with full-fledged system plane pre-integration and validation. These unique characteristics bring significant value to any service provider ready to build a first-class telco cloud and made CVIM an obvious preference for RCP.
The Management and Orchestration (MANO) layer of Rakuten Cloud Platform uses Cisco Network Services Orchestrator (NSO) with the NFVO function pack as the NFV Orchestrator, and Cisco Elastic Services Controller (ESC) as the VNF manager. Cisco NSO is the industry leading orchestrator. It is model driven, has decoupled service & device models with an abstraction layer in between, and offers very tenacious multi-vendor back for a wide array of physical devices and virtual network functions. While there is a wide variety of interfaces back in NSO both in north and southbound directions, RCP will utilize the ETSI SOL003 interface for VNF-M integration. Cisco ESC will execute the role of sole Generic VNF Manager (G-VNFM) for complete Cisco and most of the 3rd party workloads, providing rich VNF lifecycle management capabilities. Only one ally will utilize their own VNF-M integrated with NSO via a SOL003 based interface in the initial phase, and then eventually migrate onto ESC to realize the limpid vision of Rakuten toward one single VNFM and one single NFVO for RCP.
The design 1 below depicts the telco cloud architecture that builds the foundation of Rakuten Cloud Platform –
RCP will initiate its journey as a private telco cloud by supporting complete virtual network functions for Rakuten, later adding back for IT applications and expanding its attain to become a hybrid cloud platform in the future.
Common – If they dial back around 20 years in the past, Service Providers had multiple networks to back different applications. They were built using different technologies relish TDM, SONET/SDH, X.25, ATM, Frame Relay, IP, and SP’s eventually realized that TCO of running multiple networks in parallel wasn’t very economical leading to the trend towards convergence on IP that they complete witnessed during the first decade of this century.
Now, as the various network functions salvage virtualized, Service Providers in generic execute not want to restate the same mistake by structure multiple cloud platforms in parallel, where each of them hosts one or a subset of the target applications. The goal of these SP’s is to build a common cloud platform to host complete virtual network functions from complete vendors involved in their network. This will reduce cost and simplify operations while providing a repurposable infrastructure. Rakuten took a bold step in this direction by deciding from the outset to occupy a common cloud platform for complete their applications. When compatibility issues arise with application providers on RCP, Rakuten facilitates collaboration between the parties to originate positive the desired outcome gets achieved.
Distributed – A very notable aspect of RCP. A Service Provider network requires a wide variety of network functions that are deployed in different “places” in the network. These places in the network would comprise sites such as Central DC, Regional DC, Aggregation or Central Offices, Pre-Aggregation or C-RAN Hubs, and access or Cell Sites.
If they view at a typical Central DC and/or Regional DCs of a SP, they often behold the presence of network functions relish the IMS Core, MME, PCRF, HSS and DRA. Packet Core gateways (e.g. SAEGW) for consumer data services are besides typically located at those Central and/or Regional DCs. However, with the advent of mobile edge computing and the decomposition of SAEGW (Control and User Plane Separation), it is now workable to deploy the user plane of SAEGW (SAEGW-U) further out in the network at an aggregation or pre-aggregation location, that is closer to the consumers. touching the user plane out in the network besides allows SP’s to colocate them with content and applications in an edge computing environment supporting low latency communications and/or edge offload.
Moving further down into the network gets us to the Cell Site, where the traditional monolithic eNodeB used to reside. staunch to its core beliefs and disruptive streak, Rakuten is taking the market by storm as the first to deploy an Open Virtualized RAN leveraging the principles of disaggregation and decomposition of Radio Access Network layers into multiple components. The white paper they co-authored with Rakuten and Altiostar Networks talks about this decomposition in more detail. The result of that decomposition for Rakuten is a cell site, that is very lank with only Remote Radio Heads and Antennas. These cell sites will exist connected via black fiber to their respective pre-aggregation site – besides called GC at Rakuten – where the virtualized Distributed Unit (vDU) processing lower layers of the radio stack and virtualized Central Unit (vCU) processing upper layers of the radio stack, will reside.
This fully virtualized network from RAN to Core, including mobile edge computing translates into a problem statement where various virtualized network functions and/or applications are required to exist deployed at different locations in the network. Consequently, complete those location types require the presence of the same consistent telco cloud platform, on top of which the virtualized network functions and/or applications can exist deployed. In the case of Rakuten, they are pursuing three types of locations:
The design 2 below helps to summarize the location types, key applications at each location kind and an indicative scale.
This may sound relish a very great footprint for virtualization, and indeed it is. When the entire deployment is finished, there will exist multiple thousands of locations, total server counts in 5 digits, over one million virtual CPUs, nigh to hundred thousand of 25GE ports coming out of complete servers, and several 10s of Petabytes of storage even when the majority of the network applications aren’t storage intensive. Rakuten Cloud Platform, as a distributed telco cloud, hence can exist seen as a combination of NFVIs of various sizes at thousands of locations across the network; where complete of them are tied together to a centralized policy, management and automation framework. design 3 below illustrates this –
As they occupy seen before, the key applications at these three different location types vary. The scale requirement for each of these location types aren’t the same either; they vary around how many instances of each application are required, what’s the size of each instance, etc. And finally, complete these three location types occupy different physical constraints – with the Central DC being a proper Data headquarters facility while the Far Edge is very constrained around space availability, limited power & cooling availability per rack, maximum tackle depth allowed etc. Catering to these requirements require different NFVI POD designs for each location type, where CVIM excels once again with a range of options providing maximum flexibility.
The Central DC locations of RCP requires 100+ racks with 1000+ servers each – so the NFVI POD design for this location kind is optimized for high capacity and scale. complete applications in this location uses common server hardware configuration (SKUs) to ensure operational simplicity, simple scale out and infrastructure repurpose-ability. On the storage front, depending on the application’s requirement at the Central DC, the NFVI design besides includes multi-backend Ceph storage in the same POD, employing both Hark Disk Drive (HDD) and Solid-State Drives (SSD). This enables the applications requiring high storage Input-Output to leverage the SSD based backend while the others leverage the cheaper HDD based backend to drive a sound equipoise between cost and performance.
The Edge DC locations of RCP occupy much smaller footprint with respect to the number of racks of servers when compared to the Central DC. So, the NFVI POD design at these locations are balanced between footprint optimization, performance and scale. The same design philosophy of common SKUs and storage design applies to this location kind as well.
The Far Edge DC locations of RCP are different in many ways. While its location constraints around space, power, cooling and rack depth occupy been mentioned before, this location kind besides has the smallest of the footprint requirements – just a few servers at each location since the target applications are only the vDU and vCU for virtualized RAN. Given there will exist thousands of Far Edge DC’s in RCP, driving a major footprint optimization to minimize complete overheads associated with operating a functional cloud is an essential requirement to achieve the prerogative cost point. In order to minimize the overhead, there occupy been many debates and arguments in the industry. Some occupy presented a deployment model that consists of Centralized Control & Management Plane with only Compute nodes at the remote sites (Far Edge DC in this case), in other words a headless remote site model. For the Far Edge NFVI design for RCP, reliability and predictability were of utmost importance, and they wanted a design that would satisfy these criteria, even when the Far Edge site could exist disconnected from the network or struggling to communicate with the rest of the network. Consequently, the headless model was not an option, and they took a different approach to design the Far Edge NFVI POD (One or more of the concepts presented herein are covered by one or more pending patent applications). Three main principles were established in their approach:
These key design principles ensured that each of the Far Edge DC NFVI PODs were fully autonomous with their own control plane (including their own API end-points), data plane and management plane – complete done at a bare minimal footprint that has almost no overhead, yet address their goals around reliability and predictability while achieving a lower cost point. This model bears similarities with the pass great scale IP networks occupy been built over the years, and how the IP Networking for Service Providers has evolved with Software Defined Networking (SDN). hold a view at the design 4 below that shows an IP Network with routers at different locations. Each of those routers are fully autonomous with its own control plane, data plane and management plane, that ensures predictable and dependable operation. But with centralized management and now with SDN, they occupy centralized features that augment the IP network with capabilities relish service orchestration (e.g. global traffic engineering), global resource management and distributed infrastructure management.
Applying the same principles as above gets us to their distributed telco cloud solution that powers up Rakuten Cloud Platform. The design 5 below illustrates this. They can behold that every NFVI at every location is fully autonomous with its own control, data and management plane. And it is augmented with centralized service orchestration, resource management and infrastructure management (fault, performance, logs, operational tools etc.) so that this management framework can scale in a highly distributed environment.
One notable aspect regarding the Far Edge DC NFVI for RCP is the stringent performance requirement from the vRAN applications – particularly the vDU. The virtualized DU processes the lower layers of the radio stack and deals with digitized RF signals in a virtualized environment, which has very high throughput and extremely low latency requirement (RAN fronthaul). By comparison, consider of running a TDM relish application in a virtualized environment – that’s the vDU!
The end-to-end latency requirement from the air interface of the radio complete the pass to the vDU application is 250 micro-seconds. And that means for the virtualization environment, there are scant tens of microseconds available to scurry each packet from the NIC complete the pass into the guest user space where the Layer 1 BBU processes rush within the vDU application. This low latency has to exist maintained with complete assurance for every packet in a high IO throughput environment, and with no packet loss. To top it complete off, everything has to exist done with a server running at complete load with multiple vDUs that are occupying complete of its available CPU resources. This calls for an end-to-end arduous Real-Time system, which they occupy done for CVIM. This is a significant enhancement over the benchmark Linux and OpenStack/KVM environment that execute not guarantee this capability. They occupy besides institute that FPGA-based hardware acceleration is a requirement for the virtual DU, since then it is workable to offload positive compute intensive tasks such as error correction at the PHY layer from the general-purpose CPU. By using an FPGA, it is workable to salvage much higher scale (4X or more), when compared to what is achievable without it. In working with the partners, and consistent with Rakuten requirements for COTS hardware, the presentation of the FPGA is via a PCIe card. Firmware lifecycle back for the FPGA will exist a capability delivered by CVIM, so that when RCP evolves to back NR (uses LPDC coding) from LTE (which uses turbo codes), the entire system, including FPGA firmware, can exist upgraded automatically and with benchmark orchestration procedures. Complete CVIM back for open hardware platform and interfaces means there is no lock-in of the software to any of the hardware in the solution.
End-to-End Automation – managing a virtualized environment is not simple; and when you occupy to execute that for a fully virtualized network that involves a distributed telco cloud platform relish RCP spanning across thousands of sites – management at scale will exist the #1 challenge that needs to exist dealt with proper design, implementation and operational practices. Rakuten, Cisco and other partners involved in the project are complete positively obsessed with this dimension of the project to achieve a fully automated network for both Rakuten services and infrastructure. In the previous sections, they highlighted how they are enabling a centralized management framework to manage highly distributed NFVI at scale; the design 6 below illustrates how the service automation framework is realized for RCP.
The service automation framework is based on the concept of hierarchical management and orchestration, and consists of four domain-level orchestration systems with complete HA that manage the Central DCs, WAN, Edge DCs and Far Edge DCs. The domain-level orchestration systems are built with Cisco NSO, Cisco ESC and ally VNF-M. These orchestration systems are glued together in a modular architecture framework with an end-to-end service orchestration enabled by Cisco NSO. The service orchestration module interacts northbound with Rakuten’s OSS and BSS systems, which tender a comprehensive set of service instantiation, service lifecycle management and operational workflows.
Let’s behold an example of how this end-to-end automation architecture performs zero touch instantiation of vRAN to fully operationalize a cell site with no manual intervention. The design 7 illustrates the Zero touch Provisioning workflow at a high level, with steps outlined below:
Step 1 – RIU at Cell site upon booting up sends up notification to the vRAN EMS
Step 2 – EMS notifies the OSS with RIU ID(s) associated to the Cell Site
Step 3 – OSS sends notification using API to NSO (E2E) asking it to activate service (new site)
Step 4 – NSO (E2E) notifies NSO (Far Edge) using API to provision vRAN VNFs
Step 5 – NSO (Far Edge) calls API to ESC to deploy vDU and vCU at the Far Edge DC
Step 6 – ESC calls CVIM API at the target Far Edge DC to instantiate vDU and vCU VNFs
Step 7 – vDU and vCU are now instantiated by CVIM
Step 8 – Upon completion of instantiation, vCU queries the EMS asking for RAN configuration
Step 9 – EMS queries OSS to salvage the RAN configuration and complete associated parameters
Step 10 – OSS sends the RAN configuration to EMS for the modern Cell Site
Step 11 – vCU receives the configuration from the EMS
Step 12 – vDU receives its configuration from the vCU
Step 13 – RIU receives its configuration from the vDU
Step 14 – complete sectors are activated, and the Cell Site now becomes operational.
This is an example of a highly differentiated capability enabled by the end-to-end automation solution at Rakuten Cloud Platform, performing this activity in a matter of minutes with virtually no human involvement. In contrast, in a typical mobile network the same activity might hold hours to days and involve a lot of manual work, increasing the TCO for the operator.
We hope this blog post has offered a useful perspective on how Cisco Systems and their partners occupy worked closely with Rakuten in a co-creation mode to swirl their vision into the industry’s first fully virtualized mobile network powered by RCP, that is a common and distributed telco cloud with end-to-end automation – enabled by Cisco NFVI and orchestration solutions. If you chance to exist at Barcelona at MWC 2019, gratify attain behold us at Cisco or Rakuten booth and they will exist gratified to discuss with you further.
Artificial intelligence is migrating from the cloud to IoT edge devices. Now the question is how to apply that same technology to protect data and identify abnormal activity in those devices and the systems connected to them.
This is a knotty problem because AI is being used on multiple fronts in this battle, as well as for multiple purposes. The technology has advanced to the point where energy-efficient neural networks can exist built on silicon, and that has raised a number of questions and issues that will exigency to exist resolved. Among them:
The generic consensus through the first half of 2018 was that AI training, as well as most inferencing, would chance primarily on massively parallel server farms. Edge devices would exist collectors of raw data, but the vast majority of processing would chance in the cloud, with cleanly data pushed back down as needed. That perspective changed as the electronics industry began realizing just how much data would occupy to exist moved if the data was not scrubbed, and how expensive and time-consuming that would be. And underlying complete of this is concern about privacy rights for some or complete of that data.
A half-year later, a flurry of startups and established companies are developing edge-based AI chips and systems that comprise everything from novel AI architectures to traditional computer architectures with an AI component. It besides has spawned activity at the IP level, which helps define why Arm launched an AI processor as an IP block.
The next step is to apply AI for a number of modern applications, and that trouble is just beginning. More AI at the edge, coupled with more devices being connected to the Internet, has opened the door for more AI-based security.
“Today, there is no consistent benchmark across the IoT, making it difficult to protect from the evolving threat landscape,” said Paul Karazuba, senior director of product marketing at Rambus. “Making security the foundation of the OEM’s design process ensures products attain to market with consumer safety in mind. One mode of achieving this is basing device security on a hardware root of trust. When implemented with a layered security approach, it offers robust protection against a wide range of threats. That allows organizations to secure devices throughout the product lifecycle from device manufacturing complete the pass to end-of-life decommissioning.”
A second mode is to utilize AI to provide that security, and there are a number of ways this can exist done. “First, is providing security for an IoT service,” said Jeff Miller, senior product marketing manager at Mentor, a Siemens Business. “Second is the actual security services enabled by IoT, including better intrusion detection systems on a network or physiognomy recognition systems that rush on security cameras—or better authentication systems that utilize multiple factors to try to authenticate people as they approach the door.”
Moving sensitive data to the edge can occupy a positive impact on both security and privacy. “We hear about data breaches, which typically chance in transit or in the cloud where data is stored and aggregated,” said Miller. “So the more processing done at the edge, and the less sensitive information being sent outside the edge device, the more secure the world they live in. Compartmentalizing secure information and keeping it where it was collected, and then throwing away the sensitive parts, is going to exist a very notable fragment of both IoT security as well as IoT acceptance in a lot of situations. This is something where machine learning and AI really hold a lot of promise. It’s this detection of things that you can’t build your finger on it, but know something isn’t prerogative here. People execute a very grandiose job of that, but so far machines haven’t unless it’s really obvious what is unusual.”
Machines besides potentially can improve authentication and exception detection, including both the security services and the services trying to exist secured. But trying to execute complete of this centrally can exist problematic because not complete devices are connected complete the time, and even when they are connected the hasten of data communications can vary greatly.
“These things exigency to exist autonomous and exigency to exist robust against loss of connectivity,” Miller noted. “Think about cars. You wouldn’t want significant portions of your car’s functionality to shut down when you entered a parking garage or a tunnel and lost signal. Some of these systems truly exigency to exist autonomous or at least capable of periods of autonomous operation. That’s a remarkable controversy for edge processing. You exigency it to deliver the service that you exigency at the quality of service that your customers hope from it.”
Yet another intuition to execute data processing at the edge and execute a lot of ML processing at the edge is just sheer bandwidth. If there are 1,000 cameras streaming data, no system today can maneuver that effectively.
“Architects of these IoT systems are going to occupy to occupy a really solid understanding of machine learning, and that is a challenging concept to salvage your head around,” he said. “So they will occupy to consider arduous about how AI and machine learning change the applications of what can exist done. This besides opens up modern ways to enable services on top of IoT networks that exist or are being planned, because there are more ways to utilize this data to originate actionable insights. ‘We’re collecting complete this data, so let’s execute something useful with it. Let’s utilize machines to process that and give insights to humans or, create non-obvious actions from complete of that data.’ And that has to exist known to the architects of these systems.”
AI security issuesThere is tremendous potential for this modern kindly of programming paradigm, and models currently are being developed for neural net architectures.
“There’s lots of interest in biometrics, whether it is physiognomy recognition or advanced fingerprint recognition, voice biometrics, among others,” said Mike Borza, member of the technical staff for Synopsys security IP. “There are besides complete kinds of other applications that are really interesting, such as the obvious crossover into the automotive markets because of complete the image processing that needs to exist done in autonomous vehicle driving. There is lots of other signal processing, as well as the exigency to execute that at very high levels of confidence. As people are diligent getting systems up and running, they are starting to recognize some of the challenges that remain to exist solved.”
One of these is that the performance of a neural network is extremely contingent on the quality of the data used for training the system. “That means the integrity of complete of the data sets around there is crucial,” Borza said. “What people occupy institute is that if you originate little changes to bias the training data, or changes to the input data that bias, the network can respond with large-scale disturbances to its behavior. This fact makes the case about being concerned with the integrity of that data, and the easiest and most error-free pass to deal with that is to utilize cryptographic authentication of that kindly of data.”
But AI has its own potential security holes. Borza said that some teams occupy been so focused on solving other problems that they haven’t paid much attention to security. “A lot of them haven’t thought about how somebody might utilize that fragility to assault their product or the users of their product and how it could exist viewed. Some of those teams occupy only just started to consider about it. We’ve been dealing with some teams now that are on their second generation of products. Their customers are saw that they relish the functional performance and conduct of the product, but they now exigency to occupy some assurance that it’s actually behaving properly and using the data that it’s reputed to exist using, and that that data is intact.”
As a result, these companies are coming to realize on their own, or are being told by their customers, that security is now essential. That includes both software, and in the case of embedded systems, embedded hardware. Novel solutions for in-circuit monitoring from companies such as UltraSoC and Moortec converse to the different types of embedded analytics technologies coming to market.
“When you salvage into the datapath of these products, the performance levels exact hardware security features in order to exist able to execute the processing in a timely fashion, so we’re seeing things relish inline recollection encryption becoming more interesting,” Borza said. “In some cases, people want cryptographic authentication on that encrypted recollection to originate positive that the encrypted data isn’t being manipulated. Also, the model itself is stored and encrypted in authenticated form, then signed with a public key, which needs to exist decrypted and placed securely into the neural net processor. The authenticity of that needs to exist checked because you don’t want to exist loading a model that has been manipulated by somebody else. With these types of things, approaches used in other secure processing systems are starting to exhibit up in the chips that are implementing neural nets.”
Further, providers of semiconductor IP are soundless struggling with detecting security vulnerabilities in ‘traditional’ hardware, pointed out Sergio Marchese, technical marketing manager at OneSpin Solutions. “For example, rowhammer attacks are well understood, and there are several defensive techniques, including recollection protection with error correcting code (ECC) modules. A yoke of months back, I read an article about how some academics institute a pass to salvage around ECC and inject three consecutive bit-flips into memory.When it comes to AI and hardware for CNNs and ML algorithms, they are just dawn to understand vulnerabilities. Researches demonstrated black-box and white-box, where detail on the internal structure of the CNN are known, strategies to insert errors, invisible to the human eye, in very specific places in an image that results in completely wrong classification.”
Formal verification is likely to occupy a tenacious role to ensure that ML algorithms behave within some boundaries, and this is the only pass to ensure that positive things cannot happen, no matter what, and that is crucial for safety-critical applications relish autonomous vehicles, he stressed. “Overall, security verification and certification of AI systems is even further away. Simulation or emulation approaches are inadequate even for traditional verification, never intellect for AI systems. At least for safety-critical system, I behold at present no alternative to explainable AI. Engineers exigency models on which to apply formal proofs and generate evidence of correctness and robustness that supports compliance and certification processes.”
An notable consideration prerogative now, especially with everything so fluid and with advances being made very quickly, is that people will occupy to continue to update models for the foreseeable future.
“We’re going to behold some evolution in those products and the architectures, but you’re not likely to behold dedicated networks that are just one kind of network,” Borza said. “You’re unlikely to behold a dedicated residential model or something relish that. There are network chips capable of being reconfigured to implement that network architecture, and then the models that are derived on that network architecture or the representation of the algorithms is being distributed to the province to devices that are actually installed. They anticipate people will update those models, especially in fast-moving areas or things that are going to improve as more data is collected, and then those updates will exist distributed. But that update needs to exist protected in terms of its confidentiality, and especially in terms of its integrity. You want the modern model that’s distributed to exist the exact one that you’ve calculated and that you sent to the field.”
The edge and beyondThe edge has emerged as a particular security concern because some of these devices can assassinate you.
“It’s cars and robots and medical devices,” said Kurt Shuler, vice president of marketing at Arteris IP. “These things can assassinate you two ways. A cosmic ray can occasions a bit to flip, and things travel awry. The other pass is that the AI may toil as intended, but what it decides to execute from its neural net application is the wrong thing. In that case, the safety of the intended function is bad.”
There’s even a modern spec just for this: “ISO/PAS 21448:2019 Road vehicles — Safety of the intended functionality.” That captures how to dissect these AI powered systems going into cars, so they works as designed.
Security can impact complete of these systems. “There’s a totally divide set of specs, and a totally divide set of Ph.D. geeks working on safety and on security,” said Shuler. “What’s disconcerting is that the effects of any of these things, especially from a functional safety standpoint and a security standpoint, can exist the same. Whether a bit flips or an engineer flipped a bit, someone can salvage hurt. Yet these sets of experts don’t really talk to each other too much. This was addressed in the modern ISO 26262 2018 specification that came out in December, which includes specific text to address this. It basically says you must coordinate with security guys, but unless security is effectively mandated to a positive plane — relish functional safety is in cars and trains and other verticals — nobody really cares. It’s relish insurance. Nobody wants to pay for too much security.”
Additionally, the more security that’s added to a system, the greater the potential performance hit and the more complicated the development task. And at least at this point, liability for needy security is limited, Shuler noted. “What is my responsibility if somebody hacks into this thing? Will I actually salvage in peril for it or salvage sued? Is my company going to exist shut down? Am I going to travel to jail?’ The retort to most of those is no.”
This is yet another controversy for keeping data local.
“When it comes to security, the intuition why they occupy AI is because they occupy so much data available and it’s sitting somewhere,” Shuler said. “As they build more systems in the field, relish vision systems, they’re not only acting based on a model that they occupy and saying, ‘That’s a quit sign,’ or, ‘That’s a minute kid crossing the street.’ They’re besides taking in modern information that they don’t recognize and firing it up to the data center. Then, the data headquarters is taking complete of that information and drawing modern inferences. That data store becomes a huge target for security. It’s a huge target because you’ve got your fingers on that. You can purloin complete the credit card numbers in the world. You can influence elections. You can mess with the pecuniary system. You can delete everybody’s medical records or view at everybody’s medical records. It provides such a wonderful meaty target if it’s not protected well, and it has been demonstrated that IT guys at insurance companies and Facebook and credit card companies are not grandiose at protecting that data.”
ConclusionAI, machine learning and abysmal learning are not modern concepts, but they are being applied in modern ways, including keeping the very data that makes AI workable in the first place. But this is complete soundless in the early stages of development. The entire AI ecosystem must attain together to devise cohesive solutions for staunch data security, and that stretches well beyond the individual devices that hold the data.
Related StoriesBuilding Security Into RISC-V SystemsEmphasis shifting to firmware, system-level architectures, and collaboration between industry, academia and government.Finding Security Holes In HardwareEmphasis on performance, backward compatibility and system complexity are creating vulnerabilities that are difficult to fix.Tech Talk: HW SecurityHow to minimize the risk of hardware attacks in the shadow of Meltdown and Spectre.IoT Device Security Makes leisurely ProgressWhile attention is being paid to security in IoT devices, soundless more must exist done.Are Devices Getting More Secure?Manufacturers are paying more attention to security, but it’s not limpid whether that’s enough.Why The IIoT Is Not SecureDon’t foible the technology. This is a people problem.
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Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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