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920-468 exam Dumps Source : Nortel VPN Router Rls.7.0 Advanced Configuration & Management
Test Code : 920-468
Test title : Nortel VPN Router Rls.7.0 Advanced Configuration & Management
Vendor title : Nortel
: 56 actual Questions
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EUC with HCI: Why It concerns
Nortel has released a patch for a vulnerability in its VPN routers that may both trigger them to immediately reboot or reside down until a pilot reset is carried out.
security company NTA array screen referred to it discoved the denial of provider (DoS) vulnerability in Nortel VPN Router items (in the past known as Nortel Contivity) while performing a VPN protection verify for a consumer. The corporation described the vulnerability as "critical ... as a result of a separate malformed IKE packet motives the VPN router to crash. also it is not constantly workable to steer transparent of the malformed packet from attaining the router."
NTA computer screen mentioned that the vulnerability is triggered via sending an IPsec IKE packet with a malformed ISAKMP header. The corporation mentioned that receipt of the packet brought about a crash "each time such a malformed packet is distributed."
in response to the group, in assessments the affected router instantly rebooted about eighty percent of the time, however required a manual reboot 20 percent of the time. further, the routers tested did not log receipt of the packets, even when logging turned into set to optimum verbosity. The solid speculated that this turned into the influence of the routers crashing earlier than they may even log the packet.
further, the neighborhood argued that "safety through obscurity" is a very Dangerous mode during this case:
"it's workable for attackers to realize and fingerprint Nortel VPN routers the exercise of [...] IKE fingerprinting thoughts," the group eminent in its report. "therefore users may silent no longer signify on that their VPN router is invisible simply since it's not posted in the DNS and is not operating any TCP capabilities."
NTA pronounced that the issue influences Nortel VPN router models 1010, 1050, 1100, 600, 1600, 1700, 2600, 2700, 4500, 4600 and 5000.
Nortel shoppers with a telling login on the enterprise's website can access the Nortel bulletin on the vulnerability and down load a patch.
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Distributed and expanding companies are increasingly using VPN connections to access and partake information between offices and branches. They test ADSL firewall routers that are designed for this purpose.The routers in this review are designed to protect multiple machines on private networks. They are also designed to connect remote branches to a head office.
One of the more essential aspects of a firewall is to obscure ports used to exploit a system. Now with more than 65,000+ ports available on a system a firewall does a just bit of port blocking.
In order to test just how well these firewall routers obscure ports they used Nmap, which shows how many ports the firewall leaves open by default.
You also await a router/firewall to provide apt logs, back for virtual private networks (VPN), and exercise Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) with varying levels of encryption from DES, 3DES, and AES.
A firewall should also back blacklists -- databases of hacker or cracker friendly IP addresses and domain names that can subsist added to the firewall to explicitly obscure connections to and from these systems.
We invited every the major vendors to submit products and the ones that took us up on their present were Cisco/Linksys, Netgear, Nortel, Allied Telesyn, Dynalink, and D-Link.D-Link DSL-300GD-Link DFL-700
The D-Link solution was allotment of a two-piece solution, ie there was a separate ADSL modem and firewall device. every the other submissions used an all-in-one integrated solution. It does the same job as an all-in-one device but it does cost more.
There are also additional cables that collect in the artery and an extra device that you believe to configure.
You first believe to connect the DSL-300G to your phone line. They decided to configure the modem first so they connected a PC to the DSL-300G. They had to then install a minute utility which comes on the install CD.
From this utility you can elope a basic setup which will allow you to configure the modem using your PC's Web browser. Here you can configure your ADSL account user title and password and connect to your service.
Once completed, they tested the service and every seemed fine and unplugged the PC from the DSL-300G. They then ran a network cable from the Ethernet port of the DSL-300G to the WLAN port of the DFL-700. They also had to elope a network cable from the LAN port on the DFL-700 to their PC. Once they did this they were ready to configure the firewall.
Like most of the other units tested they had to open up a browser at 192.168.1.1 to configure the firewall. In this case there wasn't much to configure besides the WAN port. There was also a DMZ port on the back. After a few ping tests to behold who was around they were up and running.
This product may sound complext to set up, and indeed there is more involved than with the other devices tested, but overall it actually is not that bad.
After taking a closer watch inside the firewall they could behold that it's quite a capable firewall. Not only does it present firewall security but it also supports VPNs, content filtering, and bandwidth management, as well as having apt logs and reporting.Dynalink RTA770
The Dynalink was without a doubt the easiest router to setup. They plugged their phone line into the DSL port on the back of the unit. They then plugged a PC into one of the switch ports. From here every they had to achieve was find out its default IP address, which was 192.168.1.1. After launching a browser and logging into the unit every they had to achieve was enter their ADSL login title and password and that was it. every up it took us 30 seconds to collect online -- a distinguished result.
The Dynalink is not magnificient on features but that also explains the low cost of AU$199. Under the advanced menu is a firewall component that allows you to filter IP packets. Besides that there wasn't too much to converse of -- it allows for remote management which was good, however the system logs and traffic statistics only present basic reporting.Netgear DG834
The Netgear ADSL router represents excellent value for money. It certainly wasn't the least featured but happened to subsist the least expensive router in this review. Setup was straightforward -- only the Dynalink was easier. Physically they were every set up the same except for the D-Link, as already explained. Besides having to believe to enter the ADSL login details, with the Netgear device they had to select the encapsulation they were going exercise as well as the multiplexing mode that matches with their ISP.
The DG834 had a very simple GUI -- what made it stand out from the leisure was a cheer pane which explained what every setting does. It also featured some distinguished security features dote being able to obscure sites and setup rules to obscure or allow specific traffic. You can also schedule when rules are applied and you can believe the system logs e-mailed to you. There were some useful maintenance settings to cheer you manage the router.Nortel Contivity 251
The Nortel box was one of the more grave routers. It was also one of the easier routers to set up thanks to the included startup wizard. Again, dote the other units tested, the hardware setup was straightforward and the only situation where you might elope into a few setup issues is the software setup.
However, they didn't believe any of those problems with this one; they were guided through two Web pages which asked us to select their ISP parameters followed by their ADSL login details. Once they got passed this stage the setup program runs a test that checks your LAN connections as well as your WAN connections. If it returns every passes you know you are online.
As previously stated, the Nortel is a grave device which not only provides firewall security by setting rules for outbound and inbound traffic but also content filtering which can obscure Web sites that hold keywords. It can also create VPNs that create exercise of DES, 3DES, and AES. System logs can also subsist sent to administrators on specified days and times.Linksys WAG54G
The Linksys router was the only router that offered wireless capabilities. It supports both A and G wireless modes. Setting up this unit wasn't too hard, there are just a few things you believe to achieve such as select the encapsulation, multiplexing parameters as well as enter your ADSL login credentials. It takes a few moments to establish a link, something that they didn't really find with the other units. If you watch under the wireless menu you can set up WEP or WPA which uses stronger encryption.
Under the security menu you can configure the security settings of the firewall. You can filter Java Applets, Cookies, lively X objects, and Proxies. By default the router blocks anonymous Internet requests. They only create this option enabled on the Linksys which was a bit surprising. They actually had to disable this fine option because it was stopping us pinging the router from a public PC.
We encountered problems running nmap -- which in fact is a distinguished result because it means they couldn't exploit any open ports. However, they thought this was nonconforming so they disabled the firewall and they surprisingly they silent couldn't elope nmap. Unfortunately they didn't believe much time to collect to the bottom of this, with more time they could believe possibly got it to elope nmap but it most likely would've invovled tweaking the unit to create it less secure. So it really is to the device's credit they couldn't find any open ports.
The Linksys also has an integrated VPN server supporting DES and 3DES encryption. Not noxious for a device that only costs AU$249. The Linksys can subsist setup for remote management and has some decent reporting built in. It can also e-mail security alerts.Allied Telesyn AR440S
Setting up the hardware was smooth -- you basically believe to plug your phone line into the back of the unit then elope a network cable from the unit to your PC. DHCP wasn't enabled on this router so they couldn't behold the router until they manually set the IP address of their PC.
Once they could behold the router they followed the Quick Start menu to collect things rolling. You first believe to set the encapsulation and multiplexing parameters and from there you enter your ISP login and password details and then apply the settings. They actually thought this every would believe been enough to collect it running but not so! In fact they had to circle to contacting the vendor for cheer and only after a few attempts did they manage to collect it every working.
The quick install pilot fell well short of providing enough information to cheer us configure the router. By their understanding it's a new product so there may subsist some kinks that silent requisite to subsist ironed out by Allied Telesyn.
As for the leisure of the installation, they had set the interface to accept remotely assigned addresses, setup the firewall, NAT, set DHCP, and then create traffic policies so they could behold beyond the LAN. It sounds a bit painful and it was, especially compared to the other units, but then again how often would you believe to setup your firewall from scratch?
The AR44OS comes with traffic filtering capabilities, giving you control over traffic that passes through the unit. VPNs are supported using AES as well as DES and 3DES. Software quality of service and traffic shaping features were included in this release. In the district of monitoring, management, and diagnostics this unit is really well equipped. The diagnostics in particular can array traffic counters for layers 1, 2, 3, and 4.
SpecificationsProduct Allied Telesyn AR440S D-Link DSL-300G/ D-Link DFL-700 Dynalink RTA770 Company Allied Telesyn International D-Link Australia Pty Ltd Askey Australia Phone 1800 228 595 1300 766 868 1800 653 962 Web Site www.alliedtelesyn.com.au www.dlink.com.au www.dynalink.com.au Price (inc GST) AU$907.50 AU$999.95 AU$199 Warranty 2 years 1 year 1 year Ethernet LAN 5-port 10/100Mbps can subsist used as LAN or DMZ 1-port 10/100Base-TX 4-port 10/100 Mbps Other Ports (USB, Serial) 1 x Async. serial, 1 x PIC expansion bay WAN port (10/100), DMZ port (10/100) and serial console port USB URL/ Content Filtering URL filtering performed using Firewall HTTP proxy Yes No Bandwidth management LLQ, PQ, WRR, DWRR, PQ with WRR/DWRR, 802.1P, IP TOS, IP DSCP, RSVP Yes No DoS protection A stateful inspection firewall provides protection against SYN and FIN flooding, ping of death, smurf attacks and port scans. Yes No VPN server Yes Yes Pass-through only Encryption standards supported DES, 3DES, AES AES, 3DES, DES, CAST128, Blowfish and Twofish NA Target market Home, SoHo, enterprise, service provider SME SOHO Product Linksys WAG54G Netgear DG834 Nortel Contivity 251 Company Cisco-Linksys Netgear Nortel Phone 1800 678 808 1800 502 061 02 8870 5000 Web Site www.linksys.com.au www.netgear.com.au www.nortel.com Price (inc GST) AU$249 AU$169 AU$775 Warranty 3 years 3 years 1 year Ethernet LAN 4-port 10/100Mbps 4-port 10/100Mbps 4-port 10/100 Mbps Other Ports (USB, Serial) None ~ RS232, DB-9f URL/ Content Filtering Yes Yes Blocks ActiveX, Java applets, and cookies, and disables Web proxies so that network administrators can tailor remote site access policies to subsist consistent with leisure of enterprise. Bandwidth management Yes No DoS protection Yes Yes Stateful packet inspection, beset logging and e-mail alerts VPN server Yes Pass-through only Yes Encryption standards supported DES, 3DES NA DES, 3DES, AES Target market ADSL users after a fully featured wireless home gateway for their home or minute industry network. Home & SME Enterprise How they tested
InteroperabilityWhat features are included that enable the device to play well with other equipment?
FutureproofingUpgrade paths and expansion capabilities?
ROIWhat features & performance achieve the $$$ get?
ServiceWhat is included, what isn't, and how long is the warranty?
Each firewall was initially setup and tested with the factory default or manufacturer recommended settings. Their test rig comprised of a target machine -- a generic Intel PC with Microsoft Windows XP Professional. This was placed initially on a fully open public IP address and they ran their tests across it from another Windows XP Professional PC running behind the firewall router.
We tested firewalls from a local network aspect, also from the outside in. The first of these testing tools was Nmap v3.10Alpha4 which was elope in a Windows environment and allowed us. while offline, to firstly configure their firewall and then, with no risk of blocking half the companies network traffic, test the box before setting it live on the network.
Nmap amongst other things has a very handy port scanning and reporting utility. bethink that port scanning is one of the first foot-printing tools a script kiddy would exercise to identify what ports are open on a system and thereby identify potential weaknesses in that box. So instead of sniffing from port 1 to 65,000 in a row simultaneously, Nmap in stealth mode scans random ports on the target machine at user defined intervals and builds up its report from there. For the purposes of this test they ran tests on the basic 1605 "common" ports.
The second test was from the inside out and uses a LeakTest v1.2 from the target machine back to itself, simulating a Trojan horse.
The third test was a simple throughput test. They basically downloaded and uploaded data to and from central sever located in a high-quality datacentre.
Data ThroughputWe initially decided to elope throughput tests on every the routers. But as they ran these tests over different times of the day they got inconsistent scores. It was piquant to note that they managed to collect throughput rates of 1249kbps down and 216kbps up when only using the Dlink ADSL modem. When plugging in the DLink firewall throughput rates had dropped to about 1000kbps for downloading. The other routers managed scores between 400 and 700kbps for downloads. Again they can't situation too much stress on these results as the tests were elope at different times of the day. But they at least give you an indication that a firewall will by a long shot reduce your throughput speeds.
Internet connectionAlpahlink Internet Services was used to connect every the routers to the outside world. The service that they employed uses a 1500kbps down and 256kbps up stream which Alphalink offers for AU$99.90 a month. Alphalink also back speeds of 256/64, 512/128 & 512/512. behold www.alphalink.com.au for more information.
Final notesWe decided there was no point in creating their own rulesets as it would subjugate the purposes of the test. bethink every firewalls can subsist customised by the user for their own purposes.Sample scenario
This company needs to install ADSL routers in its remote branches in order to partake content with the head office.
Approximate budget: Under AU$1000Requires: One simple remote office solution that includes the following features: firewall, VPN, Web filtering, bandwidth management, and a Web-based interface.Best solution: Nortel Contivity 251
Because ADSL routers partake a common telephone line with benchmark analog phones, you requisite to install a line filter and you are going to believe to achieve this to each phone or phone device that shares the same line as the ADSL service. Anyone could install one of these filters but if you believe more than four phones you will requisite to install a central filter which should subsist installed by a technician.
What these line filters achieve is chop out the towering pitched noises the ADSL router makes. It also enables you to exercise your phone line to create benchmark phone calls.
Nmap v3.75 against the firewall from the outside WANRouter Ports Detected Name Leak Test Dlink 23 telnet Fail 80 http Pass 113 auth Pass 443 https Pass Dynalink 80 http Fail 443 https Pass Netgear 21 ftp Fail 22 ssh Pass 80 http Pass 256 FW1-secureremote Pass 443 https Pass 554 rtsp Pass 636 ldapssl Pass Nortel 80 http Fail 443 https Pass Linksys Did Not Run Fail Allied Telesyn 80 http Fail 113 auth Pass 443 https Pass
Editor's choice: Nortel Contivity 251
The Nortel Contivity 251 is their pick for both the scenario and the Editor's option award. It included every of the features asked for in the scenario except for bandwidth management. It was smooth to setup and manage, and the cost tag was very apt considering what you get. The Linksys also deserves a worthy mention for offering wireless.
This article was first published in Technology & industry magazine.Click here for subscription information.About RMIT IT Test Labs
RMIT IT Test Labs is an independent testing institution based in Melbourne, Victoria, performing IT product testing for clients such as IBM, Coles-Myer, and a wide variety of government bodies. In the Labs' testing for T&B, they are in direct contact with the clients supplying products and the magazine is answerable for the replete cost of the testing. The findings are the Labs' own -- only the specifications of the products to subsist tested are provided by the magazine. For more information on RMIT, gladden contact the Lab Manager, Steven Turvey.
A virtual private network (VPN) is a appliance that enables the secure transmission of data over untrusted networks such as the Internet. VPNs commonly are used to connect local district networks (LANs) into wide district networks (WANs) using the Internet. Perhaps you requisite to build a VPN between two offices but are not confident if the great infrastructure costs associated with an enterprise-level VPN solution are justifiable. The performance of applications that are intended for exercise over LANs (for case those that exercise network file sharing) seriously can subsist degraded over WAN connections. Likewise, lower bandwidth and longer latency in WAN connections can impress adversely the reliability and performance of groupware and thin-client applications. Perhaps you believe a home office and would dote to exercise your high-speed internet access to connect seamlessly and securely to your office LAN through an IPSec-capable router. Or perhaps you are just nosy about VPNs and IPSec in general and want to experiment.
The VPN firewall discussed in this article will elope on just about any 486-or-better PC that has 16MB or more main remembrance and two Linux-compatible Ethernet network cards. The credit is to provide a starting point from a single, self-contained package that will allow you to create robust, secure, scalable and highly configurable VPNs that also are interoperable with many common commercial VPN implementations. If you wish to experiment on a low-maintenance firewall-VPN gateway, then the package discussed here might subsist model for you.
This article shows you how to set up, at minimal expense, a working VPN gateway that uses the IETF's (Internet Engineering task Force) IPSec (internet protocol security) specification. IPSec is an open benchmark and is supported by virtually every major firewall software and hardware vendors, such as Lucent, Cisco, Nortel and Check Point. This package will give you a widely interoperable IPSec that uses the de facto benchmark 3DES encrypted, MD5-authenticated site-to-site or point-to-site VPN. You should subsist able to achieve this without resorting to a replete Linux distribution or recompiling a benchmark Linux kernel with a kernel IPSec module.
The VPN system they examine here is based on FreeS/WAN (www.freeswan.org), a portable, open-source implementation of the IPSec specification. FreeS/WAN has been demonstrated to interoperate, to various degrees, with Cisco IOS 12.0 and later routers, Nortel Contivity Switches, OpenBSD, Raptor Firewall, Check Point FW-1, SSH Sentinel VPN 1.1, F-Secure VPN, Xedia Access Point, PGP 6.5/PGPnet and later, IRE SafeNet/SoftPK, Freegate 1.3, Borderware 6.0, TimeStep PERMIT/Gate 2520, Intel Shiva LanRover, Sun Solaris and Windows 2000. The official FreeS/WAN web site has a regularly updated compatibility list with the latest version of its on-line documentation. FreeS/WAN version 1.5 is included in this package.
I believe created a single-diskette distribution that installs the base configuration of a VPN firewall based on the Linux Router Project (LRP, www.linuxrouter.org), a compact Linux distribution that can felicitous on a single, bootable floppy diskette. The distribution here is essentially Charles Steinkuehler's Eiger disk image with Steinkuehler's IPSec-enabled kernel and LRP IPSec package. Firewalling is carried out through Linux ipchains. This particular version is based on the 2.2.16 kernel of Linux. This distribution is called DUCLING (Diskette-based Ultra Compact Linux IPSec Network Gateway). Compact Linux distributions believe a twisted history. LRP technically refers to Dave Cinege's compact distribution. There are many variants around, including Charles Steinkuehler's distribution (EigerStein) of Matthew Grant's defunct Eiger version (lrp1.steinkuehler.net). Another such distribution is David Douthitt's Oxygen (leaf.sourceforge.net/content.php?menu=900&page_id=1). Also, there is LEAF (Linux Embedded Appliance Firewall), a developer's umbrella that tries to coordinate releases and documentation, sort of dote a one-stop shop for compact Linux distributions (leaf.sourceforge.net). I exercise the term LRP to refer to the compact Linux distribution presented here, even though some may consider this terminology incorrect.
If you are running MS Windows 9x, the distribution self-extracts and installs itself onto a benchmark 3.5", high-density floppy diskette. You also can write the image to a boot floppy if you believe a system running Linux. Once the extraction is done, you will requisite to boot off the floppy disk you believe created, copy the network drivers for your network cards over and edit the appropriate configuration files. That's it—no creating and formatting disk partitions or messing with boot managers on your arduous drive. If you are not satisfied with the distribution, just pop the diskette out, throw it away (or reformat it) and reboot your PC. Check the links on leaf.sourceforge.net/devel/thc for more information on these options.
Background on the Firewall and the VPN
This distribution of LRP uses a benchmark ipchains-based firewall. ipchains (replaced by iptables in the 2.4 progression kernels—see David A. Bandel's “Taming the Wild Netfilter”, LJ, September 2001) is a freely distributed packet filter for Linux. It is very instructive to watch through the ipchains HOWTO if you are not familiar with this firewalling tool. This can subsist create at www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/IPCHAINS-HOWTO.html.
The VPN is provided by FreeS/WAN's implementation of IPSec. FreeS/WAN's IPSec implementation is compliant with the IETF's IPSec specification. IPSec is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that provides for authentication and encryption. Three protocols are used to ply encryption and authentication, namely ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload), AH (Authentication Header) and IKE (the Internet Key Exchange). every these components are included in the FreeS/WAN implementation of IPSec and generally are transparent to discontinue users. ESP and AH ply encryption and authentication, while IKE negotiates the connection parameters, including the initialization, handling and renewal of encryption keys. The only encryption scheme currently supported by FreeS/WAN is 3DES (the triple DES or Data Encryption Standard—the current de facto benchmark for IPSec encryption). Authentication is carried out using MD5 digests of a so-called shared stealthy (a shared key). The shared key could subsist a mutually agreed-to character string, RSA cryptographic key pairs or X.509 certificates. FreeS/WAN's KLIPS (kernel IPSec) component, which is compiled into the Linux kernel, implements AH, ESP and the handling of packets. IKE processes ply key negotiation, and renewals are implemented in FreeS/WAN's standalone pluto dæmon.
Requirements and Installation
First, you will requisite a PC with a floppy disk drive (I believe tested only 3.5" disk drives) and two network cards in it. The demands of LRP (the distribution) are minimal and achieve not require a powerful PC. Anything that is Intel 486-class or better with more than 8MB of RAM will do. You also will requisite two floppy disks. Reliable, high-density 3.5" floppy disks should do, such as promotional diskettes from AOL. I believe never had any problems with generic floppy disk drives, but I believe create some problems with writing the distribution to floppy disks with Imation USB U2 SuperDisk drives.
You will requisite to download the appropriate DUCLING.tgz/zip distribution from ftp.cinemage.com/pub and extract the contents of the archive file. If you believe a static IP address, then download the static version, and if you are assigned a dynamic IP address, you will requisite the distribution with a DHCP client. If you are running Windows 9x, download ducling-stat-W9x-1-0.zip or ducling-dyn-W9x-1-0.zip. Extracting the .tgz file with Winzip (www.winzip.com) will produce a file, ducling-dyn-1-0.exe or ducling-stat-1-0.exe and directory modules. The .exe file is a self-extracting image that formats a floppy disk and writes the image to that disk. elope the ducling-stat-1-0.exe or ducling-dyn-1-0.exe file and situation a floppy disk into the floppy disk drive. Note that any data on the disk will subsist overwritten.
If you are using MS-DOS or Windows 3.1, the TSR utility FDREAD.EXE must subsist loaded at the DOS flush first if you wish to read and write to the 1,722KB format disk. FDREAD.EXE is a freeware program from Christoph H. Hochstätter.
If you are running Linux, download ducling-dyn-1-0.tgz or ducling-stat-1-0.tgz, untar the image (the case here is for the DHCP-enabled dynamic IP address distribution):tar xvfz ducling-dyn-1-0.tgz
and write the image file, ducling-1-0.img, to a formatted floppy using the Linux fdformat and dd commands:fdformat /dev/fd0u1722 dd if=ducling-dyn-1-0.ima of=/dev/fd0u1722 Once the floppy disk image is created as mentioned above, you will believe a bootable Linux floppy diskette.
The zipfile/directory named modules hold the required network driver modules as well as optional modules for firewall masquerading. Copy the contents of the module zipfile or directory onto a separate second MS-DOS-formatted floppy diskette for the configuration portion of this discussion (below). In Linux, format a second floppy disk by runningfdformat /dev/fd0
followed bymkdosfs /dev/fd0 and mounting the floppy drive and copying the modules over. Read the documentation included in the README files, which will give you details on configuring your firewall/router.
If you are unable to felicitous every the desired packages and modules onto a separate floppy diskette, you will requisite to examine alternative setups that exercise dual floppy diskettes (see the included README files with the DUCLING distribution), a bootable CD-ROM or even a minute arduous disk. refer to the on-line sources of LRP documentation for further information.
The LRP Boot Floppies—The Surprising Truth
You may subsist surprised to discover that LRP uses DOS-formatted floppies. You may subsist even more surprised to discover that the DUCLING distribution installs itself as a 1,722KB bootable disk image. The 3.5" high-density floppy is technically a 2MB format medium, and you may behold these diskettes rated as 2MB “raw” or “unformatted” capacity. The 1,440KB formatted capacity is merely the result of a conventional format that writes 80 tracks on the magnetic media with 18 sectors per track. With the appropriate tools, you can create diskettes that believe 80 sectors and 24 tracks per sector, giving 1,920KB per floppy. Floppies having 1,680KB (80/21 sector/tracks per sector) are used regularly for LRP distributions and seem to believe a answerable track record; 1,722KB (82/21), 1,743KB (83/21) and 1,760KB (80/22) also are reported to subsist in use. I believe create the 1,722KB format floppy to subsist answerable enough for testing and believe no problems to report so far.
I believe created and used large-format floppies of up to 1,920KB. Extremely large-format floppies minister to subsist nonbootable, apparently as a result of a affray between PC BIOSes and the nonstandard sector size on the diskette. It has been reported that large-format floppies larger than 1,680KB can suffer from floppy disk hardware dependability problems. Windows NT and Windows 2000 are reported to believe reliability problems writing to large-format floppies larger than 1,680KB.
MS Windows 9x operating systems generally read benchmark as well as large-format floppy diskettes with no configuration changes. In Linux systems, it is often necessary to mount the floppy disk with the revise format specified, i.e., /dev/fd0u1722, where fd0u1722 specifies floppy disk device 0 (fd0) and the u1722 specifies a 1,722KB format. The benchmark floppy disk drive in Linux /dev/fd0 defaults to /dev/fd0u1440, the 1,440KB format.
For creating and manipulating large-format floppies, consult the LRP Boot Disk HOWTO by Paul Batozech. You'll find this, and other useful articles, in the resources listed at leaf.sourceforge.net/devel/thc. For MS Windows, I believe create Gilles Vollant's WinImage (www.winimage.com) to subsist particularly useful and user friendly. However, it is in some ways more limited than the Linux tools, such as fdformat, mkdosfs and the more recent superformat application. The self-extracting 1,722KBps images for MS Windows discussed here were created using WinImage.
How the LRP Distribution Loads
Before you originate to work with LRP it is useful to note how the distribution works. If you examine the bootable diskette, you will behold a progression of files, including ldlinux.sys, linux, syslinux.cfg, root.lrp, etc.lrp, modules.lrp and local.lrp.
The file ldlinux.sys is the bootstrap loader that loads the kernel (the file named linux) and initial root.lrp package into memory. The kernel starts and creates a RAM disk and extracts the root.lrp package. A RAM disk is a portion of remembrance that is allocated as a partition. In other words, the kernel creates a space in remembrance and treats it dote a read/write disk. The kernel then mounts the boot device specified in syslinux.cfg. The remaining .lrp packages on the boot disk are extracted as specified in syslinux.cfg and loaded to the RAM disk. The .lrp packages are merely benchmark UNIX tarballs (tar-gzipped archives). Once the .lrp packages are installed in the directory tree on the RAM disk, the system begins a boot based on the benchmark Linux rc file boot hierarchy.
LRP is simply a stripped-down benchmark Linux kernel with loadable modules and other software contained in sets of .lrp packages. LRP is truly Linux; generally, anything that will elope on a generic Linux distribution should elope off the LRP diskette. Often the hindrance to extending LRP's applications and capabilities is the space constraint of a separate diskette. If you require additional capabilities, for example, remote administration through ssh, a DNS server and so on, you will want to watch at multidiskette, CD-ROM or even the replete disk drive distributions of LRP that are available.
Start up and Configuration of Router/Firewalling VPN
Once the bootable floppy disk is created, create confident the floppy is placed in the floppy disk drive of the machine on which you wish to elope the firewall/VPN. Ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot from a floppy disk. Upon booting the firewall/VPN, you will behold the LRP splash screen, messages from the Linux loader followed by a login prompt.
If you believe made it this far, congratulations! You believe installed an LRP distribution successfully. Now you can start to configure the firewall properties of the LRP as outlined in the bundled documentation.
Once any firewalling tweaks are completed, the VPN needs to subsist configured. The bundled DUCLING documentation discusses the details for configuring a subnet-to-subnet setup. This involves configuring IPSec's authentication mode (/etc/ipsec.secrets), the IPSec network configuration (/etc/ipsec.conf) as well as the firewalling rules to allow access to ports 500 (UDP), 50 and 51 (TCP).
Note that you requisite not necessarily require a static IP address in order to elope VPN links. A “roadwarrior” configuration is described in the next section, in which the one VPN client has an undetermined static IP address. I believe elope VPNs between pairs of nodes with dynamically assigned IP addresses. The management of VPN nodes with DHCP-assigned IP addresses becomes tricky if both IP address assignments change frequently. The following section discusses a roadwarrior configuration using DUCLING and a Microsoft-based IPSec client.
This case shows an MS Windows 9x/2000 client point-to-site using SSH Communications Security Sentinel 1.1 (Public Beta 3). FreeS/WAN is interoperable with a wide range of IPSec implementations. The ease of implementation and computability will vary depending on the product. Many IPSec products that back 3DES/MD5 encryption through IKE are interoperable with FreeS/WAN. However, I create that legally obtaining fully functional IPSec implementations that back stout encryption can subsist arduous, especially if you live outside of the United States.
Many vendors present only limited capabilities in their freely available IPSec implementations. For example, a product may only back debilitated encryption (DES) or may circumscribe VPN capabilities to transport mode only. It is essential to distinguish between the two VPN modes that are offered through IPSec: transport mode and tunnel mode. Transport mode encrypts and authenticates traffic between two fixed discontinue points. Tunnel mode is more useful for connecting subnets and allows tunneling through firewall and router parameters into different subnets. Basically, transport mode restricts traffic to point-to-point communication. Tunnel mode also allows point-to-site (point-to-subnet) or site-to-site communications. At least one vendor does not seem to allow its implementation of IPSec to elope over a connection using a static IP address.
The SSH Communications Security Sentinel product (www.ipsec.com) does not seem to suffer from any of these problems, possibly due to the fact that the company is based outside of the US. I downloaded and tested the 30-day tribulation beta 3 release of Sentinel 1.1 and create it to subsist very smooth to configure on a Windows 98 desktop PC. The Sentinel documentation provides configuration examples for interconnectivity with a FreeS/WAN VPN gateway.
Here is a summary of a roadwarrior configuration that allows remote users with dynamically assigned IP addresses to connect transparently to a LAN behind a firewall. You will requisite to open ports 50, 51 (TCP) and port 500 (UDP) to the dynamic IP address or the ISP's DHCP address range. pattern 1 shows the basic setup. You will requisite to edit /etc/network.conf on the DUCLING FreeS/WAN firewall (go into lrcfg, pick 1), then 1) and seteth0_IP_SPOOF=NO
to disable the blocking of tunneled packets. The bundled documentation contains the circumstantial instructions on how to achieve these tasks.
Figure 1. A Roadwarrior-to-Site Configuration
The contents of the FreeS/WAN ipsec.conf file are given in Listing 1. The corresponding ipsec.secrets file contains the entry188.8.131.52 0.0.0.0: PSK "Put your roadwarrior secret string here"
where the phrase in quotes is a shared-secret string. The IP address 0.0.0.0 denotes any IP address, so bethink to pick a secure shared-secret string. The rightsubnet and rightnexthop parameters are left blank and imply that the connection is a point-to-subnet connection.
Listing 1. The FreeS/WAN conn Listing for the Setup Shown in pattern 1.
To set up the Sentinel IPSec service:
Download SSH Sentinel from www.ipsec.com and install, following the instructions.
Go into the Sentinel Policy Manager (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Sentinel Policy Manager
Choose the Key Management tab, Authentication Keys and select Add (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Adding a New Key
Select Create a new preshared key then Next (Figure 4).
Figure 4. Configuring Preshared Key
Type in your preshared key. It must subsist identical to the shared-secret string you believe inserted in /etc/ipsec.conf (without the quotes). (See pattern 5.)
Figure 5. Typing in Shared Secret
On the main console of SSH Sentinel Policy Manager, in the Security Policy pane, select VPN connections®Add.
Enter in the IP/hostname of the remote VPN gateway; for their example, it is 184.108.40.206, and pick the preshared stealthy that you created in step 5 as the Authentication key (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Entering Key and UP Information
Select 3DES encryption, Main Mode and MODP 1024 for IKE Mode and IKE Group, respectively. The Advanced pane generally can subsist left with the defaults.
Set the IKE SA lifetime (i.e., the interval between rekeying) to the same value as in the ipsec.conf file, typically 480 minutes (eight hours).
Save every settings and try to ping an internal node behind the firewall (try the internal interface, 192.168.x.254). You should subsist connected. Try running Sentinel's diagnostics to create confident you are connected. I believe create that Sentinel's diagnostic mode can hang the FreeS/WAN-Windows connections sometimes. If this happens, retreat to the FreeS/WAN gateway and achieve a restart of IPSec and then bring up the various connections.
Figure 7. The VPN Connection Properties Tab
Once again, if you requisite to restart the connection, log in to the LRP box and type#/etc/initd.d/ipsec restart
to restart the IPSec components.
I also create in Windows 2000 Professional (but not Windows 98) that I had to add the routing manually to the shared subnet 192.168.0.0/24 from the DOS console:route ADD 192.168.0.0 MASK 255.255.255.0 220.127.116.11
(refer to the documentation for the Microsoft route command).
This article outlines the means to implement a firewalling VPN gateway from a separate 3.5" floppy diskette. With a separate floppy diskette, you should subsist able to connect hosts and networks of various topologies securely using the Internet. The DUCLING distribution is a bare-bones distribution. Once you are convinced that a FreeS/WAN VPN can fulfill your needs, you can watch at either going to a more full-featured LRP distribution or even a full-blown Linux system, implementing such things as remote access (via the secure shell, ssh, for example) or a DNS server.
Consider the strengths and weaknesses of IPSec and SSL before picking the technology that's birthright for your virtual private network
The saga of the Labor Department's attempt to outfit Mine Safety and Health Administration employees with remote access through virtual private networks serves as a minihistory of the technology. In 2003, the agency tried VPNs based on the most Popular technology of the time: Internet Protocol Security, which essentially provides a direct pipe to the agency network. But administrators got bogged down in tech support. IPSec requires installing a tricky-to-configure program on every remote machine. Plus, firewall and other network conflicts can subsist substantive cheer desk nightmares.
The following year, the agency moved to Secure Sockets Layer VPNs. Touted as IPSec's heir apparent, SSL VPNs employ Web browser technology that requires cramped or no client software. The agency installed SSL VPN appliances from Juniper Networks and by spring 2005 had 2,200 employees using remote access'and a huge drop in service calls.
Many agencies, if they believe not already done so, will soon face the issue of what technology they should exercise to connect remote workers. While the propel for more telecommuting by federal employees is a major driver of VPN demand, experts also cite stout interest from agencies implementing cataclysm recovery plans.
'A lot of governments feel they requisite to believe fail-safes in situation so that if up to 75 percent of the employees believe to work at home, they will subsist able to ply that spike,' said Robert Whiteley, senior analyst at Forrester Research.
In fact, VPN sales are skyrocketing across every industries. According to International Data Corp., a market research firm, worldwide sales of just $75 million in 2003 nearly tripled to $200 million the following year and were estimated to near out 2005 at $325 million.
Pros and cons
In a nutshell, a VPN is a artery to link network nodes over the public Internet while keeping the connection private, using encryption and other security techniques.
Here's the censorious unlikeness between the two main technologies: IPSec essentially opens a fully functioning pipeline directly to the internal LAN, while SSL provides access to a select group of applications.
'IPSec is dote an extension of your LAN,' Whiteley said. 'It's a Layer 3 pipe, and pretty much every application will elope over it. SSL sits above that, in Layer 4 or 5, so it doesn't necessarily work with every applications.' Still, SSL vendors believe create ways around these limitations, Whiteley said.
In practice, the unlikeness in client-side software means IPSec may subsist preferable for securely linking two computers in different locations, called a site-to-site VPN. IPSec proponents also converse it is superior for transferring great files.
With its simple setup, SSL is generally better for quickly activating great numbers of remote users, even on an ad hoc basis.
'IPSec VPNs are the transparent option when you believe two dedicated endpoints,' said Tim Simmons, product marketing manager at Citrix Systems, a maker of SSL VPN appliances and remote-access servers for the Defense Department and other great agencies. 'SSL VPNs really exceed at the connections to multiple unknown clients.' Several SSL-oriented vendors converse they invested in the technology precisely to cheer organizations avoid problems they had getting IPSec to traverse network address translation and firewalls.
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Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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