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920-331 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 5.0 Database Administrator

Test Code : 920-331
Test appellation : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 5.0 Database Administrator
Vendor appellation : Nortel
: 55 actual Questions

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Nortel Communication Server 1000 Rls.

Microsoft-Nortel survey Unified Communications features | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps


Microsoft-Nortel survey Unified Communications features
  • by Kurt Mackie
  • 07/18/2007
  • A one-12 months-historical partnership between Microsoft and Nortel on unified communications know-how, accepted because the inventive Communications Alliance , is bearing fruit. the two organizations introduced this week that they absorb got offered more than 430,000 joint-solutions licenses to this point.

    The Alliance currently gained three modern consumers as smartly, together with Indiana school, U.okay.-based Worcestershire health suggestions and Communications expertise functions, and an IT and telephony company called 4ward.

    Microsoft and Nortel formed the imaginitive Communications Alliance in July of remaining yr with the goal of offering unified communications solutions to agencies. beneath the Alliance, the corporations initiated joint analysis and construction efforts. They moreover created customer demonstration facilities and engaged in joint earnings and advertising.

    within the Alliance's prefatory press unencumber, Jeff Raikes, Microsoft's company Division president, stated that the joint unified communications solution would enable a "single identity across email, voice mail, voice over internet protocol (VoIP) muster processing, immediate messaging and video."

    The Alliance's principal product is known as Nortel Converged office, a unified communications system that integrates Nortel's VoIP telephony gadget with Microsoft's server know-how.

    The leading components of Converged workplace encompass:

  • Microsoft office Communicator 2005 fine customer
  • Microsoft office are animate Communications Server 2005, and
  • Nortel conversation Server one thousand unlock 4.5 or higher IP PBX.
  • there's moreover a Nortel software hub piece that helps optional capabilities, including internet integration, interactive voice response and contact middle functions.

    Unified communications receives described in a lot of methods, but according to the IEEE, it typically encompasses "unified messaging, collaboration and interaction systems." These techniques moreover usually permit true-time and proximate precise-time communications. furthermore, blended media (voice, e mail, fax, and many others.) may moreover exist accessed from a separate utility, impartial of the entry device.

    competitors in the unified communications area is thick with gigantic names. In March of this 12 months, IBM and Cisco, announced a collaborative effort on unified messaging client expertise referred to as Unified Communications and Collaboration (UC2). UC2 is in keeping with open technologies, corresponding to Eclipse construction environment and the Open capabilities Gateway Initiative framework. Citrix systems and Nokia, among others, absorb expressed back for the UC2 platform.

    below the IBM-Cisco unified communications partnership, Cisco plans to sell IBM's Lotus Sametime collaboration solution and IBM plans to sell Cisco's Unified Communications supervisor, Cisco solidarity and Cisco Unified MeetingPlace products. The total unified communications respond is designed and delivered through IBM global technology functions.

    about the creator

    Kurt Mackie is senior information producer for the 1105 business Computing neighborhood.

    VoIP certification tracks - Nortel's back certifications | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    As mentioned in a former tip, businesses are imposing IP telephony greater generally on their statistics infrastructures. The increased deployment has created a exigency for licensed IP telephony engineers to supply confirmed, most suitable-of-breed technology.

    The IP telephony certifications Nortel presently presents are divided into 4 classes: assist specialist, Design professional, back professional, and Design skilled. This tip discusses the Nortel back tune.

    guide specialist

    The aid professional certifications are intended to reveal an individual's means to attach into effect, operate, and troubleshoot a Nortel Networks IP Telephony answer. The back specialist certification displays a candidate with three to six months of suffer that may address activities technical issues of a typical Nortel IP Telephony answer.

    NNCSS - VoIP Succession BCM 3.0

    This certification assessments the means to attach into effect, function, and troubleshoot the business Communications manager 3.0. This certification covers hardware, beginning-up, facts and voice networking, purposes, and troubleshooting the BCM. To flow the certification, two tests absorb to exist effectively completed: technology requirements and Protocols for IP Telephony options, and Succession BCM 3.0. The expertise necessities and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions examination is an silhouette of convergence technologies.

    NNCSS - CallPilot Rls. 2.0

    This certification exams the skill to attach in force, function, and troubleshoot the VoIP CallPilot 2.0. This certification covers hardware, administration, interoperability with Meridian 1 switches, and safety of a separate web site CallPilot gadget. To pass the certification, two assessments must exist efficaciously achieved: Meridian Database and CallPilot 2.0.

    NNCSS - Symposium muster middle Server or Symposium appellation hub Server installing and protection

    These two certifications check the capability to attach in force, operate, and troubleshoot the Symposium muster hub Server. each certifications cowl hardware, software installation, administration, and maintenance of Symposium muster hub Server four.2, Symposium web customer 4.0, and Symposium express 3.0. however, the Symposium muster core Server certification moreover checks the structure, customized configuration and integration of the server. To flow both of these certifications, one examination exigency to exist efficiently achieved: Symposium muster core or Symposium muster core setting up and maintenance, respectively.

    NNCSS - Symposium appellation core TAPI/Agent or appellation hub TAPI/Agent installation and protection

    These two certifications test the capability to enforce, function, and troubleshoot the Symposium muster core TAPI/Agent. both certifications cover hardware, application installing, administration, and maintenance of Symposium TAPI 2.3 and Symposium Agent 2.three. however, the Symposium muster middle TAPI/Agent certification moreover assessments the architecture, integration, and custom configuration of the TAPI/Agent. To pass either of these certifications, one exam must exist correctly completed: Symposium muster middle TAPI/Agent or Symposium appellation middle TAPI/Agent Inst/leading, respectively.

    NNCSS - Symposium categorical appellation core or Symposium categorical appellation middle setting up and protection

    These certifications test the skill to attach into effect, function, and troubleshoot the Symposium express muster center. both certifications cowl hardware, software installing, administration, and renovation of Symposium categorical muster hub 4.2. besides the fact that children, the Symposium express muster middle certification moreover checks the structure and integration of the muster middle. To flow both of the certifications, one exam must exist efficiently achieved: Symposium specific muster middle or Symposium specific muster hub Inst and Maint respectively.

    NNCSS - VoIP Multimedia conversation Server (MCS) 5100 2.0

    This certification exams the capability to attach into effect, function, and troubleshoot the VoIP Multimedia verbal exchange Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. This certification covers installation of the hardware and software, configuration, maintenance, and management of the Multimedia communique Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. To high-tail the certification, two checks exigency to exist correctly achieved: know-how standards and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions, and VoIP Multimedia communication Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. The technology standards and Protocols for IP Telephony options examination is an silhouette of convergence technologies.

    NNCSS - VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 DB Administrator

    This certification tests the capacity to preserve and troubleshoot the VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 DB Administrator. This certification covers the structure, configuration, preservation, and management of the Meridian 1, Succession 1000 Rls. three.0, and Succession 1000M Rls. three.0 the usage of basic Alternate Route option (BARS) and network Alternate Route alternative (NARS). To flow the certification, two checks must exist correctly accomplished: know-how necessities and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions, and Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 DB Administrator.

    NNCSS - VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 installation and protection

    This certification tests the capability to set up, configure, and maintain the VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0. This certification covers the setting up, structure, configuration, maintenance, and management of the Meridian 1, Succession a thousand Rls. three.0, and Succession 1000M Rls. 3.0, internet Telephones i2xxx, and Optivity Telephony manager (OTM) 2.1. To flow the certification, three exams should exist successfully accomplished: expertise necessities and Protocols for IP Telephony options, and Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0 for Technicians, and Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0.

    guide professional

    The assist expert certifications construct on the professional's capabilities via demonstrating their skill to enforce, operate, and troubleshoot an superior Nortel Networks IP Telephony answer. The pilot professional certifications mirror a candidate with six to 12 months of arms-on adventure with the means to pilot or assist intermediate-degree personnel to preserve complicated Nortel IP Telephony options.

    NNCSE - CallPilot 2.0 Unified Messaging options

    This certification tests the skill to attach into effect, operate, troubleshoot and optimize the VoIP CallPilot Unified Messaging solution 2.0. This certification covers the installation, administration, interoperability, protection, upgrade techniques and feature utilization for a multi web page CallPilot device. To high-tail the certification, the candidate ought to first achieve their NNCSS - CallPilot Rls. 2.0. as a result, the CallPilot 2.0 Unified Messaging options should exist efficiently completed to acquire this certification.

    NNCSE - Contact center

    This certification assessments the capacity to implement, function, troubleshoot and optimize the Contact core products. This certification covers the candidate's capabilities on the Symposium muster middle Server (SCCS)/Symposium categorical muster middle/Symposium net customer, Symposium TAPI provider company (TAPI SP), Symposium Agent, and the Symposium internet core Portal. To flow the certification, the candidate exigency to first acquire their NNCSS - Symposium muster core Server and the NNCSS - Symposium appellation middle TAPI/Agent certification. as a result, the Contact core exam absorb to exist correctly completed to obtain this certification.

    NNCSE - IP Convergence Succession 1000/1000M Rls. 3.0

    This certification checks the capacity to installation, configure, keep, and optimize the VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0. This certification covers the configuration, succession branch workplace (BO), far off office, operation, and Meridian 1 to Succession 1000M 3.0 migration strategies for the Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0, information superhighway Telephones i2xxx, faraway office 91xx, and Optivity Telephony manager (OTM) 2.1. To pass the certification, the candidate absorb to first acquire their NNCSS - VoIP Succession CSE one thousand Rls. 2.0 or the VoIP Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 setting up & maintenance certification. subsequently, one other greater complicated version of the Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 examination ought to exist efficiently achieved to achieve this certification.

    within the IT business, certifications are a means to validate someone's capabilities within a precise area. The above Nortel IP Telephony certifications are one of the crucial apparatus that may demonstrate the capabilities of an IP Telephony aid professional. These certifications could not exchange years of business event, but they enact supply the basis to back and control Nortel Voice over IP solutions.

    The next tip will focus on Nortel's Design IP Telephony certification song.

    Richard Parsons (CCIE#5719) is a manager of professional services for Callisma Inc., a unconditionally owned subsidiary of SBC. He has constructed an excellent groundwork in networking ideas, superior troubleshooting, and monitoring in areas corresponding to optical, ATM, VoIP, routed, routing, and storage infrastructures. prosperous resides in Atlanta GA, and is a graduate of Clemson school. His background comprises senior and essential consulting positions at international community functions, Lucent, and Callisma.

    Microsoft and Nortel present Alliance Roadmap | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps


    Microsoft and Nortel present Alliance Roadmap
  • through Stuart J. Johnston
  • January 18, 2007
  • Six months after epigram a telecommunications alliance, Microsoft and Nortel this week introduced some early outcomes of their efforts and outlined a roadmap for future tasks.

    the two businesses first announced their collaboration remaining summer time.

    The highway map contains three modern joint options “to dramatically ameliorate enterprise communications by breaking down the boundaries between voice, e mail, quick messaging, multimedia conferencing and different styles of conversation,” in line with a statement by using the two corporations.

    also included in the announcement are eleven modern implementation functions from Nortel and the cavity of greater than 20 joint demonstration facilities the situation shoppers can event the technology, the observation continued.

    furthermore, the two agencies mentioned they absorb signed agreements with dozens of purchasers, and absorb developed a “pipeline of a total lot of prospects who want to recognise the merits of unified communications.”

    From Microsoft's viewpoint, it's utter a piece of the business's lengthy-term play to merge every kindhearted of communications and messaging into a separate framework. A yr ago, the enterprise announced that it become merging its exchange Server community with its real-Time Collaboration (RTC) community, and that it had begun to assume of the two technologies comprising a "platform."

    the modern community became named the Unified Communications community (UCG) and resides in Microsoft's company Division. The theory for the modern community emanated from a imaginative and prescient of adding continuity to a myriad of communications gadgets, technologies and modes -- from electronic mail and rapid messaging to Voice over internet Protocol (VoIP), audio/video and web conferencing -- in a unified manner.

    The three modern joint options announced with the aid of the alliance this week are named Unified Communications built-in department, Unified Messaging, and Conferencing.

    When it is available within the fourth quarter, UC built-in department will involve Nortel and Microsoft technology on a separate piece of hardware that grants VoIP and unified communications in remote offices.

    Coming a bit of prior in the 2d quarter, Unified Messaging will purpose to simplify consumer deployments, aboriginal session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel verbal exchange Server 1000 and Microsoft change Server 2007. The respond comprises Nortel skilled functions for design, deployment and assist.

    additionally coming in the fourth quarter, Conferencing will prolong Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft workplace Communicator 2007. It aims to deliver a separate customer suffer constant across purposes akin to voice, speedy messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing.

    This year, the groups moreover blueprint to extend their present unified communications solution — a unified desktop and gentle cellphone for VoIP, email, speedy messaging and presence — to the Nortel verbal exchange Server 2100, a carrier-grade enterprise telephony product aiding up to 200,000 users on a separate device, in accordance with business statements.

    As for the highway map, the two agencies absorb outfitted more than 20 joint demonstration centers in North the usa, Europe and Asia, with more than one hundred further facilities scheduled to open through midyear.

    Nortel has moreover introduced 11 core integration capabilities to back consumers build, install and aid joint unified communications solutions, including conclusion-to-conclusion stint administration. Nortel claims it has already expert greater than 2,200 VoIP consultants to bring these features and should add greater as deployment ramps up.

    in regards to the author

    Stuart J. Johnston has lined expertise, mainly Microsoft, due to the fact February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, counsel Week, and pc World, as well as for commercial enterprise Developer, XML & internet capabilities, and .web magazines.

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    Communication Server 1000 Rls. 5.0 Database Administrator

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    Cisco Unified Communications Manager licensing | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    By: Dennis Hartmann

    Service provider takeaway: Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CUCM) is the muster routing and signaling component of the Cisco Unified Communications solution. This section of the chapter excerpt from the book Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager, piece 1 will focus on licensing procedures for CUCM.

    Download the .pdf of the chapter here.

    Licensing is implemented in CUCM nascence with Release 5.0. Administration of license management is done through CUCM GUI administration, allowing accurate tracking of lively device registrations compared to the license units that absorb been purchased. License enforcement occurs at the time of phone provisioning and CUCM service activation.

    The publisher is the only licensing server. The licensing server is the logical component that keeps track of the licenses purchased and the licenses used. If the publisher fails, no modern phones can register, and no configuration changes will exist allowed. Existing phones will continue to operate during a publisher outage.CUCM tracks the license compliance for devices, applications, and software as follows:

  • Device units licenses: The maximum number of provisioned devices in the CUCM database will exist tracked and enforced. Route points and CTI ports are not enforced.
  • Application licenses: Application licenses are required for every call-processing server running the CallManager service. Application licenses are tied to the MAC address of the network interface card (NIC) of the server.
  • Software licenses: Software licenses are tied to the major version of the software. Software licenses are required for upgrade to CUCM 6.
  • Licenses are created and distributed in accordance with the Cisco FlexLM process. Cisco product license registration is performed at https://www.cisco.com/go/license.

    These two types of product IDs are available:

  • Cisco device license units: Cisco device license units (DLU) are for Cisco devices only.
  • Third-party device license units: Third-party DLUs can exist converted to Cisco units, but not vice versa.
  • CUCM tracks the number of units required by each device, as shown in motif 1-7. Each device kind corresponds to a fixed number of units. The number of DLUs consumed per device depends on the device kind and capabilities of the phone.

    The number of units required per device can exist viewed from CUCM Administration. DLUs are perpetual and device independent. motif 1-7 displays the number of DLUs consumed in CUCM 6.0 by some Popular phones.

    The main components of the license file are as follows:

  • MAC address of the license server (publisher)
  • Version (major release) of the CUCM software
  • Number of node licenses (number of CUCM servers in cluster)
  • Number of DLUs
  • License files are additive. (Multiple license files can exist loaded.) The Cisco FlexLM process is used to obtain licenses, and integrity of license files is assured by a digital signature.

    When upgrading from Cisco Unified CallManager 4.x, the number of DLUs required is calculated during the CUCM migration process, and an intermediate XML file containing these license counts is generated. The number of devices and servers that are in the database at the time of migration is the basis for the number of DLUs and node licenses in the interim license file. No additional phones may exist added until the interim license file has been replaced by a actual license file.

    After upgrading to CUCM 6.0(1), expend the View File option in the License File Upload window to view the intermediate XML file. Copy and paste the intermediate license file into the CUCM License Upgrade window on Cisco.com to obtain the actual license file. Upload the actual license file to the publisher (license server).

    Existing device and node licenses from CUCM 5.x can exist used in CUCM 6.x.

    Significant fields are highlighted and described as follows:

  • INCREMENT PHONE_UNIT Cisco 6.0 indicates a phone unit license file for Cisco Unified CM 6.0. There is no expiration date for this license, as indicated by the keyword permanent.
  • This license file includes 1000 license units.
  • The MAC address of the license server is 000BCD4EE59D.
  • License File Request ProcessFigure 1-8 displays the license file request process, which includes these steps:1. The customer places an order for CUCM.2. The manufacturing database scans the Product Authorization Key (PAK) and records it against the sales order.3. The product (CD or paper pretension certificate) is physically delivered to the customer.4. The customer registers the product at https://www.cisco.com/go/license or a public web page and provides the MAC address of the publisher device that will become the license server.5. The license fulfillment infrastructure validates the PAK, and the license key generator creates a license file.6. The license file is delivered via e-mail to the customer. The e-mail moreover contains instructions on how to install the license file.7. The customer installs the license file on the license server (publisher).

    Obtaining Additional Licenses

    The process of obtaining additional DLUs and node licenses is as follows:1. The customer places an order for the additional licenses for a license server (publisherMAC address has to exist specified).2. When the order is received, Cisco.com generates a license file with the additional count and sends it to the customer.3. The modern license file has to exist uploaded to the license server and will exist cumulative.Consider this example. A CUCM server has an existing license file that contains 100 DLUs. Another 100 DLUs are purchased. The second license file that is generated will hold only 100 DLUs. When the modern license file with 100 DLUs is uploaded to CUCM, the 100 DLUs from the first license file are added to the devices of the second license file, resulting in a total of 200 DLUs.

    Licensing Components

    The key licensing components of CUCM licensing are the license server and the license manager.

    License Server

    The license server service runs on the publisher in the CUCM cluster and is accountable for keeping track of the licenses purchased and consumed. The MAC address of the publisher is required to generate a license file.

    License ManagerThe license manager acts as a broker between CUCM applications that expend licensing information and the license server. The license manager receives requests from the CUCM applications and forwards the requests to the license server. The license manager then responds back to the application after the request has been processed by the license server. The license manager acts a licensing proxy server.

    An administration subsystem and alert subsystem complete the functional diagram. Details of these two subsystems are as follows:

  • The administration subsystem provides the following capabilities:
  • Keeps information about the license units required for each phone type. The customer can view his information using a GUI.
  • Supports a GUI tool that calculates the required number of phone unit licenses. The customer inputs phone types and the number of phones of each kind that the customer wants to purchase. The output is the total number of licenses that the customer needs for the given configuration.
  • Supports a GUI tool that displays the total license capacity and the number of licenses in expend and license file details. The tool can moreover report the number of available licenses.
  • The alert subsystem generates alarms that are routed to event logs or sent to a management station as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) traps to notify the administrator of the following conditions:
  • Overdraft: Occurs when an overdraft condition exists. An overdraft condition occurs when more licenses are used than available but the amount of exceeding licenses is in an acceptable range. (5 percent overdraft is permitted.)
  • License server down: Occurs when the License Manager cannot attain the license server.
  • Insufficient licenses: Occurs when the license server detects the fact that there are not enough licenses to fulfill the request and raises an alert to notify the administrator.
  • Issues with the license file occur when there is a version mismatch between the license file and the CUCM (license file version mismatch alarm), or when the number of licenses in the license file is less than the number of phones provisioned (license file insufficient licenses alarm). Another intuition of this condition is an invalid MAC address (for instance, after a NIC change).

    Figure 1-9 is a functional diagram stepping through the process of a license request, as described in the list that follows:

    1. A request for a inevitable number of DLUs is made by the admin subsystem because of an event (for example, phone registration).2. The License Manager service on a CUCM subscriber forwards the request to the publisher server running the License Server service.3. The License Server service receives the license request event and allocates the required number of DLUs required based on the kind of device. If not enough license units are available to accommodate the request, a negate message is sent back to the license manager on the subscriber server. If resources are available, the license server grants the request and sends a award message to the license manager on the subscriber server.4. The License Manager service on the subscriber server receives the license award or negate message and allows the phone to register.5. If the license request was denied, the subscriber server generates an alert in the alert subsystem. The negate message will exist available in the CUCM syslog server by default.

    Calculating License UnitsTo compute the number of phone licenses required, result these steps:

    Step 1 pick System > License > License Unit Calculator. The License UnitCalculator window displays. The number of license units consumed per device and the current number of devices panoply as shown in motif 1-10.

    Step 2 In the Number of Devices column, enter the desired number of devices, corresponding to each node or phone.

    Step 3 Click Calculate. The total number of CUCM node license units and DLUs required for specified configuration will display.

    License Unit ReportingLicense unit reports can exist rush to verify the number of licenses consumed and available for future expansion. expend the following procedure to generate a license unit report:

    Step 1 pick System > License > License Unit Report.

    Step 2 The License Unit Report window displays as shown in motif 1-11. This window displays the number of phone licenses and number of node licenses, in these categories:

  • Units Authorized
  • Units Used
  • Units Remaining
  • License files (CCMxxxxx.lic) are uploaded to the publisher (license server). To upload a license file to the publisher server, result these steps:

    Step 1 Ensure that the license file is downloaded to a local PC.

    Step 2 From the PC and using a supported browser, log in to CUCM Administration.

    Step 3 pick System > License > License File Upload, as shown in motif 1-12. The License File Upload window displays.

    Step 4 In the window shown in motif 1-13, click Upload License File.

    Step 5 Click Browse to pick the license file from the local directory.

    Step 6 Click Upload.

    Step 7 After the upload process has completed, click the Continue prompt when it appears. The content of the newly uploaded license file will display.

    Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager, piece 1  Cisco Unified Communications Manager Architecture Introduction  CUCM Overview  CUCM Hardware, Software, and Clustering  CUCM Licensing  Summary  CUCM Review Quiz

    Reproduced from the book Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager, piece 1. Copyright 2008, Cisco Systems, Inc.. Reproduced by authorization of Pearson Education, Inc., 800 East 96th Street, Indianapolis, IN 46240.

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    Red Hat Linux: Networking and the Internet | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    In the world of technology computer networks absorb increased the efficiency and speed of the systems and the IP has made it possible for computers across the globe to communicate easily. Learn how these advantages can back you and how networking and Internet are used in Red Hat Linux.

    This chapter is from the book 


    Types of Networks and How They Work

    Communicate over a Network

    Network Utilities

    Distributed Computing


    Tutorial: Using pine as a Newsreader

    Netnews with Mozilla

    WWW: World Wide Web

    The communications facilities linking computers are continually improving, allowing faster and more economical connections. The earliest computers were unconnected stand-alone machines. To transfer information from one system to another, you had to store it in some contour (usually magnetic tape, paper tape, or punch cards—called IBM or Hollerith cards), carry it to a compatible system, and read it back in. A notable foster occurred when computers began to exchange data over serial lines, although the transfer rate was leisurely (hundreds of bits per second). People quickly invented modern ways to grasp odds of this computing power, such as e-mail, intelligence retrieval, and bulletin board services. With the speed of today's networks, it is conventional for a piece of e-mail to cross the country or even travel halfway around the world in a few seconds.

    It would exist difficult to find a computer facility that does not involve a LAN to link the systems. GNU/Linux systems are typically attached to an Ethernet (page 1466) network. Wireless networks are becoming prevalent as well. great computer facilities usually maintain several networks, often of different types, and almost certainly absorb connections to larger networks (company- or campuswide and beyond).

    The Internet is a loosely administered network of networks (an internetwork) that links computers on diverse LANs around the globe. An internet (small i ) is a generic network of networks that may share some parts in common with the public Internet. It is the Internet that makes it possible to dispatch an e-mail message to a colleague thousands of miles away and receive a reply within minutes. A related term, intranet, refers to the networking infrastructure within a company or other institution. Intranets are usually private; access to them from external networks may exist limited and carefully controlled, typically using firewalls (page 358).

    Over the past decade many network services absorb emerged and become standard. On GNU/Linux systems, as on UNIX computers, special processes called daemons (page 1463) back such services by exchanging specialized messages with other systems over the network. Several software systems absorb been created to allow computers to share their filesystems with one another, making it appear as though remote files are stored on local disks. Sharing remote filesystems allows users to share information without knowing where the files physically reside, without making unnecessary copies, and without learning a modern set of utilities to exploit them. Because the files appear to exist stored locally, you can expend criterion utilities (such as cat, vi, lpr, mv, or their graphical counterparts) to toil with them.

    Developers absorb been creating modern tools and extending existing ones to grasp odds of higher network speeds and toil within more crowded networks. The rlogin, rsh, and telnet utilities, designed long ago, absorb largely been supplanted by ssh (secure shell—page 374). The ssh utility allows a user to log in on or execute commands securely on a remote computer. Users confidence on such utilities as scp and ftp to transfer files from one system to another across the network. Communication utilities, including e-mail utilities, and chat programs, such as talk, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), ICQ, and AOL Instant Messenger (AIM), absorb become so prevalent that many people with very miniature computer suffer expend them on a daily basis to preserve in feel with friends and family.

    An intranet is a network that connects computing resources at a school, company, or other organization but, unlike the Internet, typically restricts access to internal users. An intranet is very similar to a LAN but is based on Internet technology. An intranet can provide database, e-mail, and Web page access to a limited group of people, regardless of their geographic location.

    The fact that an intranet is able to connect dissimilar machines is one of its strengths. assume of utter the machines that are on the Internet: Macs, PCs running different versions of MS Windows, various machines running UNIX and GNU/Linux, and so on. Each of these machines can communicate via IP (page 360), a common protocol. So it is with an intranet: Different machines can utter talk to one another.

    Another key dissimilarity between the Internet and an intranet is that the Internet will transmit only one protocol suite: the IP protocol suite. An intranet can exist set up to expend a number of protocols, such as IP, IPX, Appletalk, DECnet, XNS, or various other protocols developed by vendors over the years. Although these protocols cannot exist transmitted directly over the Internet, you can set up special gateway boxes at remote sites that tunnel or encapsulate these protocols into IP packets in order to expend the Internet to pass them.

    You can expend an extranet (or partner net) to ameliorate your security. A closely related term is virtual private network (VPN). These terms narrate ways to connect remote sites securely to a local site, typically by using the public Internet as a carrier and using encryption as a means of protecting data in transit.

    As with the Internet, the communications potential of intranets is boundless. You can set up a private chat between people at remote locations, access a company database, survey what is modern at school, or read about the modern university president. Companies that developed products for expend on the Internet are investing more and more time and money developing intranet software applications as the intranet market explodes. Following are some words you may want to become confidential with before you read the ease of this chapter. mention to the Appendix G on page 1453 for definitions.
















    Computers communicate over networks by using unique addresses assigned by system software. A computer message, called a packet, frame, or datagram, includes the address of the destination computer and the sender's recrudesce address. The three most common types of networks are broadcast, point-to-point, and switched. Once Popular token-based networks (such as FDDI and Token Ring) are rarely seen anymore.

    Speed is well-known to the proper functioning of the Internet. Newer specifications (cat 6 and cat 7) are being standardized for 1000BaseT (10 gigabits per second, called gigabit Ethernet, or GIG-E) and faster networking. Some of the networks that contour the backbone of the Internet rush at speeds up to almost 10 gigabytes per second (OC192) to accommodate the ever-increasing require for network services. Table 9-1 lists some of the common specifications in expend today.

    Table 9-1. Specification


    64 kilobits per second


    Two DS0 lines plus signaling (16 kilobits per second) or 128 kilobits per second


    1.544 megabits per second (24 DS0 lines)


    43.232 megabits per second (28 T-1s)


    155 megabits per second (100 T-1s)


    622 megabits per second (4 OC3s)


    2.5 gigabits per seconds (4 OC12s)


    9.6 gigabits per second (4 OC48s)


    On a broadcast network, such as Ethernet, any of the many systems attached to the network cable can dispatch a message at any time; each system examines the address in each message and responds only to messages addressed to it. A problem occurs on a broadcast network when multiple systems dispatch data at the selfsame time, resulting in a shock of the messages on the cable. When messages collide, they can become garbled. The sending system notices the garbled message and resends it after waiting a short but random amount of time. Waiting a random amount of time helps avert those selfsame systems from resending the data at the selfsame moment and experiencing another collision. The extra traffic that results from collisions can attach quite a load on the network; if the shock rate gets too high, the retransmissions result in more collisions, and the network becomes unusable.


    A point-to-point link does not seem dote much of a network at utter because only two endpoints are involved. However, most connections to WANs are through point-to-point links, using wire cable, radio, or satellite links. The odds of a point-to-point link is that because only two systems are involved, the traffic on the link is limited and well understood. A disadvantage is that each system can typically exist equipped for a miniature number of such links, and it is impractical and costly to establish point-to-point links that connect each computer to utter the rest.

    Point-to-point links often expend serial lines and modems but can expend personal computer parallel ports for faster links between GNU/Linux systems. The expend of a modem with a point-to-point link allows an isolated system to connect inexpensively into a larger network.

    The most common types of point-to-point links are the ones used to connect to the Internet. When you expend DSL1 (digital subscriber line), you are using a point-to-point link to connect to the Internet. Serial lines, such as T-1, T-3, ATM links, and ISDN, are utter point to point. Although it might seem dote a point-to-point link, a cable modem is based on broadcast technology and in that way is similar to Ethernet.


    A switch is a device that establishes a virtual path between source and destination hosts such that each path appears to exist a point-to-point link, much dote a railroad roundhouse. The telephone network is a giant switched network. The switch brings up and tears down virtual paths as hosts exigency to communicate with each other. Each host thinks that it has a direct point-to-point path to the host it is talking to. Contrast this with a broadcast network, where each host moreover sees traffic bound for other hosts. The odds of a switched network over a sheer point-to-point network is that each host requires only one connection: the connection to the switch. Using sheer point-to-point connections, each host must absorb a connection to every other host. Scalability is provided by further linking switches.

    LAN: Local area Network

    Local area networks (LANs) are confined to a relatively miniature area—a separate computer facility, building, or campus. Today most LANs rush over copper or fiberoptic cable, but other, wireless technologies, such as infrared (similar to most television remote control devices) and radio wave, are becoming more popular.

    If its destination address is not on the local network, a packet must exist passed on to another network by a router (page 357). A router may exist a general-purpose computer or a special-purpose device attached to multiple networks to act as a gateway among them.


    A GNU/Linux system connected to a LAN usually connects to the network by using Ethernet. A typical Ethernet connection can back data transfer rates from 10 megabits per second to 1 gigabit per second, with speed enhancements planned. Owing to computer load, competing network traffic, and network overhead, file transfer rates on an Ethernet are always slower than the maximum, academic transfer rate.

    An Ethernet network transfers data by using copper or fiberoptic (glass) cable or wireless transmitters and receivers. Originally each computer was attached to a thick coaxial cable (called thicknet) at tap points spaced at six-foot intervals along the cable. The thick cable was maladroit to deal with, so other solutions, including a thinner coaxial cable known as thinnet, or 10Base2,2 were developed. Today most Ethernet connections are either wireless or made over unshielded twisted pair (referred to as UTP, Category 3 (cat 3), Category 5 (cat 5), Category 5e (cat 5e) 10BaseT, or 100BaseT) wire—similar to the kind of wire used for telephone lines and serial data communications.

    A switched Ethernet network is a special case of a broadcast network that works with a network switch, or just switch, which is a special class of hub that has intelligence. Instead of having a inarticulate repeater (hub) that broadcasts every packet it receives out of every port, a switch learns which devices are connected to which of its ports. A switch sorts packets so that it sends traffic to only the machine the traffic is intended for. A switch moreover has buffers for holding and queuing packets.

    Some Ethernet switches absorb enough bandwidth to communicate simultaneously, in full-duplex mode, with utter the devices that are connected to it. A nonswitched (hub-based) broadcast network can rush in only half-duplex mode. Full-duplex Ethernet further improves things by eliminating collisions. Each host can transmit and receive simultaneously at 10/100/1000 megabits per second for an efficacious bandwidth between hosts of 20/200/2000 megabits per second, depending on the capacity of the switch.


    Wireless networks are becoming increasingly common. They are used in offices, homes, and public places, such as universities and airports. Wireless access points provide functionality similar to an Ethernet hub. They allow multiple users to interact, using a common radio frequency spectrum. A wireless, point-to-point connection allows you to gallivant about your home or office with your laptop, using an antenna to link to a LAN or to the Internet via an in-house basis station. GNU/Linux has drivers for many of the common wireless boards. A wireless access point connects a wireless network to a wired network so that no special protocol is required for a wireless connection. mention to the Linux Wireless LAN HOWTO and www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Jean_Tourrilhes/Linux.

    WAN: Wide area Network

    A wide area network (WAN) covers a great geographic area. The technologies (such as Ethernet) used for LANs were designed to toil over limited distances and for a inevitable number of host connections. A WAN may span long distances over dedicated data lines (leased from a telephone company) or radio or satellite links. WANs are often used to interconnect LANs. Major Internet service providers confidence on WANs to connect to customers within a country and around the globe.

    Some networks enact not happy into either the LAN or the WAN designation: A MAN (metropolitan area network) is one that is contained in a smaller geographic area, such as a city. dote WANs, MANs are typically used to interconnect LANs.

    Internetworking through Gateways and Routers

    A LAN connects to a WAN through a gateway, a generic term for a computer or a special device with multiple network connections that passes data from one network to another. The purpose of the gateway is to transfigure the data traffic from the format used on the LAN to that used on the WAN. Data that crosses the country from one Ethernet to another over a WAN, for example, is repackaged from the Ethernet format to a different format that can exist processed by the communications apparatus that makes up the WAN backbone. When it reaches the End of its journey over the WAN, the data is converted by another gateway to the format arrogate for the receiving network. For the most piece these details are of concern only to the network administrators; the End user does not exigency to know anything about how the data transfer is carried out.

    A router is the most common contour of a gateway. Routers play an well-known role in internetworking. Just as you might study a map to blueprint your route when you exigency to drive to an unfamiliar place, a computer needs to know how to deliver a message to a system attached to a distant network by passing through intermediary systems and networks along the way. You can imagine using a giant network road map to pick the route that your data should follow, but a static map of computer routes is usually a poor choice for a great data network. Computers and networks along the route you pick may exist overloaded or down, without providing a detour for your message.

    Routers communicate with one another dynamically, keeping one another informed about which routes are open for use. To extend the analogy, this would exist dote heading out on a car trip without consulting a map to find a route to your destination; instead you head for a nearby gas station and inquire of directions. Throughout the journey, you would continue to discontinue at one gas station after another, getting directions at each to find the next one. Although it would grasp a while to result the stops, each gas station would counsel you of grievous traffic, closed roads, alternative routes, and shortcuts.

    The stops the data makes are much quicker than those you would result in your car, but each message leaves each router on a path chosen based on the most current information. assume of it as a GPS (global positioning system) setup that automatically gets updates at each intersection and tells you where to retrograde next, based on traffic and highway conditions.

    Figure 9-1 shows an instance of how LANs might exist set up at three sites interconnected by a WAN (the Internet). In network diagrams such as this, Ethernet LANs are drawn as straight lines, with devices attached at privilege angles; WANs are represented as clouds, indicating that the details absorb been left out; wireless connections are drawn as zigzag lines with breaks, indicating that the connection may exist intermittent.

    09fig01.gifFigure 9-1. A slice of the Internet

    In motif 9-1 a gateway or a router relays messages between each LAN and the Internet. Three of the routers in the Internet are shown (for example, the one closest to each site). Site A has a server, a workstation, a network computer, and a PC sharing a separate Ethernet LAN. Site B has an Ethernet LAN that serves a printer and four GNU/Linux workstations. A firewall permits only inevitable traffic between the Internet router and the site's local router. Site C has three LANs linked by a separate router, perhaps to reduce the traffic load that would result if they were combined or to preserve workgroups or locations on part networks. Site C includes a wireless access point that enables wireless communication with nearby computers.


    A firewall in a car separates the engine compartment from the passenger compartment, protecting the driver and passengers from engine fires, noise, and fumes. Computer firewalls part computers from malicious and unwanted users.

    A firewall prevents inevitable types of traffic from entering or leaving a network. A firewall might avert traffic from your IP address from leaving the network and avert anyone except users from select domains from using ftp to retrieve data from the network. The implementations of firewalls vary widely, from GNU/Linux machines with two interfaces (page 1473) running custom software to a router (page 1490) with simple access lists to esoteric, vendor-supplied firewall appliances. Most larger installations absorb at least one kindhearted of firewall in place. A firewall is often accompanied by a proxy server/gateway (page 397) to provide an intermediate point between you and the host you are communicating with.

    In addition to those create in multipurpose computers, firewalls are becoming increasingly common in consumer appliances. Firewalls are built into cable modems, wireless gateways, routers, and stand-alone devices.

    When your exigency for privacy is critical, you can meet with a consulting solid that will discuss your security needs, devise a strategy, bear a written implementation policy, and design a firewall for you from scratch. Typically a separate GNU/Linux machine can involve a minimal firewall. A miniature group of GNU/Linux machines may absorb a cheap, leisurely GNU/Linux machine with two network interfaces and packet-filtering software functioning as a dedicated firewall. One of the interfaces connects to the Internet, modems, and other outside data sources, whereas the other connects, normally through a hub or switch, to the local network's machines. mention to page 924 for information on setting up a firewall and to Appendix C for a discussion of security.

    Network Protocols

    To exchange information over a network, computers must communicate using a common language, or protocol (page 1486). The protocol determines the format of the message packets. The predominant network protocols used by GNU/Linux systems are TCP and IP, referred to as TCP/IP3 (Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol). Network services that exigency highly accountable connections, such as ssh and scp, tend to expend TCP/IP. Another protocol used for some system services is UDP (User Datagram Protocol). Network services that enact not require guaranteed delivery, such as RealAudio and RealVideo, operate satisfactorily with the simpler UDP.4

    IP: Internet Protocol

    Layering was introduced to facilitate protocol design: Layers distinguish functional differences between adjacent protocols. A grouping of layers can exist standardized into a protocol model. IP is a protocol and has a corresponding model for what distinguishes protocol layers. The IP model differs from the ISO seven-layer protocol model (also called the OSI model) often illustrated in networking textbooks. IP uses a simplified five-layer model.

  • The first layer, called the physical layer, describes the physical medium (copper, fiber, wireless) and the data encoding used to transmit signals on that medium (pulses of light, electrical waves, or radio waves, for instance).

  • The second layer, called the data link layer, covers media access by network devices and describes how to attach data into packets, transmit the data, and check it for errors. Ethernet is at this layer, as is 802.11 wireless.

  • The third layer, called the network layer, frequently uses IP and addresses and routes packets.

  • The fourth layer, called the transport layer, is where TCP and UDP exist. This layer provides a means for applications to communicate with each other. Common functions of the transport layer involve guaranteed delivery, delivery of packets in the order of transmission, flow control, mistake detection, and mistake correction. The transport layer is accountable for dividing data streams into packets. This layer moreover performs port addressing, which allows it to distinguish among different services using the selfsame transport protocol. Port addressing keeps the data from multiple applications using the selfsame protocol (for instance TCP) separate.

  • Anything above the transport layer is the domain of the application and is piece of the fifth layer. Unlike the ISO model, the Internet model does not distinguish among application, presentation, and session layers. utter the upper-layer characteristics, such as character encoding, encryption, GUI, and so on, are piece of the application. Applications pick the transport characteristics they require and pick the corresponding transport layer protocol to dispatch and receive data.

  • TCP: Transmission Control Protocol

    TCP is most frequently rush on top of IP in a combination referred to as TCP/IP. TCP provides mistake recovery and guaranteed delivery in packet transmission order and works with multiple ports so that it can exploit more than one application. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol (page 1461), moreover known as a streams-based protocol. Once established, a TCP connection looks dote a stream of data, not individual IP packets. The connection is assumed to remain up and exist uniquely addressable. Every piece of information you write to the connection always goes to the selfsame destination and arrives in the order it was sent. Because TCP is connection oriented and establishes what you can assume of as a virtual circuit between two machines, TCP is not suitable for one-to-many transmissions (see UDP, following). TCP has builtin mechanisms for dealing with congestion (or flow) control over busy networks and throttles back (slows the speed of data flow) when it has to retransmit dropped packets. TCP can moreover deal with acknowledgments, wide area links, high retard links, and other situations.

    UDP: User Datagram Protocol

    UDP runs at layer 4 of the IP stack, just as TCP does, but is much simpler. dote TCP, UDP works with multiple ports/multiple applications and has checksums for mistake detection but does not automatically retransmit packets that fail the checksum. UDP is a packet- (or datagram-) oriented protocol: Each packet must carry its own address and port information. Each router along the way examines each packet to determine the destination one hop at a time. You can broadcast or multicast UDP packets to many destinations at the selfsame time by using special addresses.

    PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol

    PPP provides serial line point-to-point connections that back IP. PPP compresses data to result the most of the limited bandwidth available on serial connections. PPP, which replaces SLIP (Serial Line IP), acts as a point-to-point layer 2/3 transport that many other types of protocols can ride on. PPP is used mostly for IP-based services and connections, such as TCP or UDP.5 For more information, mention to "Internet Configuration Wizard" on page 1023.

    Xremote and LBX

    Two protocols that speed up toil over serial lines are Xremote and LBX. Xremote compresses the X Window System protocol so that it is more efficient over slower serial lines. LBX (low-bandwidth X) is based on the Xremote technology and is a piece of the X Window System release X11R6.

    Host Address

    Each computer interface is identified by a unique address, or host number, on its network. A system that is attached to more than one network has multiple interfaces, one for each network and each with a unique address.

    Each packet of information that is broadcast over the network has a destination address. utter hosts on the network must process each broadcast packet to survey whether it is addressed to that host.6 If the packet is addressed to a given host, that host continues to process it. If not, the host ignores it.

    The network address of a machine is an IP address, which is represented as one number broken into four segments separated by periods (for example, Domain names and IP addresses are assigned through a highly distributed system coordinated by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers—www.icann.org) via many registrars (see www.internic.net). ICANN is funded by the various domain appellation registries and registrars and IP address registries, which supply globally unique identifiers for hosts and services on the Internet. Although you may not deal with any of these agencies directly, your Internet service provider does.

    How a company uses IP addresses is determined by the system or network administrator. For example, the leftmost two sets of numbers in an IP address might delineate a great network (campus- or companywide); the third set might specify a subnetwork (perhaps a department or separate floor in a building); and the rightmost number, an individual computer. The operating system uses the address in a different, lower-level form, converting it to its binary equivalent, a train of 1s and 0s. survey the following Optional section for more information. mention to "private address space" on page 1486 in the Glossary for information about addresses you can expend on your LAN without registering them.

    Static versus Dynamic IP addresses

    A static IP address is one that remains the same. A dynamic IP address is one that can change each time you connect to your ISP. A dynamic address remains the selfsame during a separate login session. Any server (mail, Web, and so on) must absorb a static address so that clients can find the machine that is the server. End user machines usually toil well with dynamic addresses. During a given login session, they can office as a client (your Web browser, for example) because they absorb a constant IP address. When you log out and log in again, it does not matter that you absorb a modern IP address, because your computer, acting as a client, establishes a modern connection with a server. The odds of dynamic addressing is that it allows idle addresses to exist reused, reducing the total number of IP addresses needed. mention to "DHCP Client" on page 1028 for more information about dynamic IP addressing.


    IP Classes

    To facilitate routing on the Internet, IP addresses are divided into classes. Classes, labeled class A through class E, allow the Internet address space to exist broken into blocks of small, medium, and great networks that are designed to exist assigned based on the number of hosts within a network.

    When you exigency to dispatch a message to an address outside your network, your system looks up the address block/class in its routing table and sends the message to the next router on the way to the final destination. Every router along the way does a similar lookup to forward the message. At the destination, local routers direct the message to the specific address. Without classes and blocks, your host would absorb to know every network and subnetwork address on the Internet before it could dispatch a message. This would exist impractical because of the number of addresses on the Internet.

    Table 9-2. IP Classes

    All Bits (including start bits)


    Start Bits

    Address Range





    Class A




    Class B




    Class C




    Class D (Multicast)




    Class E (Reserved)




    Each of the four numbers in the IP address is in the range of 0–255 because each segment of the IP address is represented by 8 bits (an octet), each bit capable of taking on two values; the total number of values is 28 = 256. When you start counting at 0, 1–256 becomes 0–255.7 Each IP address is divided into a net address (netid) portion (which is piece of the class) and a host address (hostid) portion. survey Table 9-2.

    The first set of addresses, defining class A networks, is for extremely great corporations, such as general Electric ( and Hewlett-Packard (, or for ISPs. One start bit (0) in the first position designates a class A network, 7 bits hold the network portion of the address (netid), and 24 bits hold the host portion of the address (hostid, Table 9-2). This means that GE can absorb 224, or approximately 16 million hosts on its network. Unused address space and subnets (page 1495) lower this number quite a bit. The subnet is reserved (page 368), as are and several others.

    Two start bits (10) in the first two positions designate a class B network, 14 bits hold the network portion of the address (netid), and 16 bits hold the host portion of the address, for a potential total of 65,534 hosts.8 A class C network uses 3 start bits (100), 21 netid bits (2 million networks), and 8 hostid bits (254 hosts). Today a modern great customer will not receive a class A or B network but is likely to receive a class C or several (usually contiguous) class C networks, if merited.

    Several other classes of networks exist. Class D networks are reserved for multicast (page 1480) networks. When you rush netstat –nr on your GNU/Linux system, you can survey whether your machine is a member of a multicast network. A in the Destination column that netstat displays indicates a class D, multicast address (Table 9-2). A multicast is dote a broadcast, but only hosts that subscribe to the multicast group receive the message. To expend Web terminology, a broadcast is dote a push. A host pushes a broadcast on the network, and every host on the network must check each packet to survey whether it contains germane data. A multicast is dote a pull. A host will survey a multicast only if it registers itself as subscribed to a multicast group or service and pulls the arrogate packets from the network.

    Table 9-3 shows some of the computations for IP address Each address is shown in decimal, hexadecimal, and binary. Binary is the easiest to toil with for bitwise, (binary) computations. The first three lines reveal the IP address. The next three lines reveal the subnet mask (page 1495) in three bases. Next, the IP address and the subnet mask are ANDed together bitwise to bow the subnet number (page 1495), which is shown in three bases. The terminal three lines reveal the broadcast address (page 1458), which is computed by taking the subnet number and turning the hostid bits to 1s. The subnet number is the name/number of your local network. The subnet number and the subnet mask determine what range the IP address of your machine must exist in. They are moreover used by routers to segment traffic; survey network segment (page 1482). A broadcast on this network goes to utter hosts in the range through but will exist acted on only by hosts that absorb a expend for it.


    Each host on a network must process each broadcast to determine whether the information in the broadcast packet is useful to that host. If a lot of hosts are on a network, each host must process many packets. To maintain efficiency, most networks, particularly shared media networks, such as Ethernet, exigency to exist split into subnetworks, or subnets.9 The more hosts on a network, the more dramatically network performance is impacted. Organizations expend router and switch technology called VLANs (virtual local area network) to group similar hosts into broadcast domains (subnets) based on function. It's not uncommon to survey a switch with different ports being piece of different subnets.

    Table 9-3. Computations for IP address  

    ---------------Class B--------------



    IP Address






    8C CC 1B 1B hexadecimal

    1000 1100

    1100 1100

    0001 1011

    0001 1011


    Subnet Mask






    FF FF FF 00 hexadecimal

    1111 1111

    1111 1111

    1111 1111

    0000 0000


    IP Address bitwise AND

    1000 1100

    1100 1100

    0001 1011

    0001 1011


    Subnet Mask

    1111 1111

    1111 1111

    1111 1111

    0000 0000


    = Subnet Number

    1000 1100

    1100 1100

    0001 1011

    0000 0000


    Subnet Number







    CC 1B



    1000 1100

    1100 1100

    0001 1011

    0000 0000


    Broadcast Address(Set host bits to 1)











    1000 0011

    1100 1100

    0001 1011

    1111 1111


    A subnet mask (or address mask) is a bit mask that identifies which parts of an IP address correspond to the network address and subnet portion of the address. This mask has 1s in positions corresponding to the network and subnet numbers and 0s in the host number positions. When you achieve a bitwise AND on an IP address and a subnet mask (Table 9-3), the result is an address that contains everything but the host address (hostid) portion.

    There are several ways to delineate a subnet mask: A network could absorb a subnet mask of (decimal), FFFFFF00 (hexadecimal), or /24 (the number of bits used for the subnet mask). If it were a class B network (of which 16 bits are already fixed), this yields 28 (24 total bits – 16 fixed bits = 8 bits, 28 = 256) networks10 with 28 – 2 (256 – 2 = 254) hosts11 on each network. If you enact expend a subnet mask, expend netconfig to let the system know about it.

    For example, when you divide the class C address into eight subnets, you bag a subnet mask of, FFFFFFE0, or /27 (27 1s). The eight resultant networks are,,,,,,, and You can expend a Web-based subnet mask calculator to compute subnet masks (page 1401). To expend this calculator to determine the preceding subnet mask, expend an IP host address of retrograde to www.telusplanet.net/public/sparkman/netcalc.htm for a nice subnet calculator.

    CIDR: Classless Inter-Domain Routing

    CIDR (pronounced cider) allows groups of addresses that are smaller than a class C obscure to exist assigned to an organization or ISP and further subdivided and parceled out. In addition, it helps to alleviate the potential problem of routing tables on major Internet backbone and peering devices becoming too great to manage.

    The pool of available IPv4 addresses has been depleted to the point that no one gets a class A address anymore. The trend is to reclaim these huge address blocks, if possible, and recycle them into groups of smaller addresses. Also, as more class C addresses are assigned, routing tables on the Internet are filling up and causing memory overflows. The solution is to aggregate12 groups of addresses into blocks and earmark them to ISPs which in circle subdivide these blocks and earmark them to customers. The address class designations (A, B, and C) described in the previous section are used less today, although subnets are silent used. When you request an address block, your ISP usually gives as many addresses as you exigency and no more. The ISP aggregates several contiguous smaller blocks and routes them to your location. This aggregation is CIDR. Without CIDR, the Internet as they know it would not function.

    For example, you might exist allocated the IP address block, which could back 210 hosts (32 – 22 = 10). Your ISP would set its routers so that any packets going to an address in that obscure would exist sent to your network. Internally, your own routers might further subdivide this obscure of 1024 potential hosts into subnets, perhaps into four networks. Four networks require an additional two bits of addressing (22 = 4). You could set up your router to absorb four networks with this allocation:,,, and Each of these networks could absorb 254 hosts. CIDR lets you arbitrarily divide networks and subnetworks into ever smaller blocks along the way. Each router has enough memory to preserve track of the addresses it needs to direct and aggregates the rest. This scheme uses memory and address space efficiently. You could grasp and further divided it into 16 networks with 14 hosts each. The 16 networks require four more bits (24 = 16), so you'd absorb,,, and so on to the terminal subnet of, which would absorb the hosts through


    People generally find it easier to toil with symbolic names than with numbers, and GNU/Linux provides several ways to associate hostnames with IP addresses. The oldest way is to consult a list of names and addresses that are stored in the /etc/hosts file:

    $ cat /etc/hosts localhost gw–tcorp.tcorp.com gw–tcorp bravo.tcorp.com bravo hurrah.tcorp.com hurrah kudos.tcorp.com kudos

    The address is reserved for the special hostname localhost, which serves as a hook for the system's networking software to operate on the local machine without going out onto a physical network. The names of the other systems are shown in two forms: in a fully qualified domain (FQDN) format that is meant to exist unique and as a nickname that is unique locally but usually not unique over utter the systems attached to the Internet.

    As more hosts joined networks, storing these name-to-address mappings in a regular text file proved to exist inefficient and inconvenient. The file grew ever larger and impossible to preserve up-to-date. GNU/Linux supports NIS (Network Information Service, page 390) and NIS+, which were developed for expend on Sun computers. Each of these network services stores information in a database. These solutions result it easier to find a specific address but are useful only for host information within a separate administrative domain. Hosts outside the domain cannot access the information.

    The solution is DNS (Domain appellation Service, page 388). DNS effectively addresses the efficiency and update issues by arranging the entire network naming space as a hierarchy. Each domain in the DNS manages its own appellation space (addressing and appellation resolution), and each domain can easily query for any host or IP address by following the tree up or down the appellation space until the arrogate domain is found. By providing a hierarchical naming structure, DNS distributes appellation administration across the entire Internet.


    The explosive growth of the Internet has uncovered deficiencies in the design of the current address plan, most notably lack of addresses. Over the next few years, a revised protocol, named IPng (IP Next Generation), or IPv6 (IP version 6),13 will exist phased in (it may grasp longer; the phase-in is going quite slowly). This modern scheme is designed to overcome the major limitations of the current approach and can exist phased in gradually because it is compatible with the existing address usage. IPv6 makes it possible to allocate many more unique Internet addresses (2128, or 340 undecillion [1036]) and offers back for security and performance control features.


  • Enables autoconfiguration. With IPv4 autoconfiguration is available via optional DHCP. With IPv6 autoconfiguration is mandatory, making it effortless for hosts to configure their IP addresses automatically.

  • Reserves 24 bits in the header for advanced services, such as resource reservation protocols, better backbone routing, and improved traffic engineering.

  • Makes multicast protocols mandatory and uses them extensively. In IPv4 multicast, which improves scalability, is optional.

  • Aggregates address blocks more efficiently because of the huge address space. This aggregation obsoletes NAT (page 1481), which decreased scalability and introduced protocol issues.

  • Provides a simplified packet header that allows hardware accelerators to toil better.

  • A sample IPv6 address is fe80::a00:20ff:feff:5be2/10. Each group of four hexadecimal digits is equivalent to a number between 0 and 65536 (164). A pair of adjacent colons indicates a hex value of 0x0000, and leading 0s exigency not exist shown. With eight sets of hexadecimal groupings, you absorb 65,5368 = 2128 possible addresses. In an IPv6 address on a host with the default autoconfiguration, the first characters in the address are always fe80. The terminal 64 bits hold an interface ID designation which is often the MAC address (page 1478) of the Ethernet controller on the system.

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