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70-413 exam Dumps Source : Designing and Implementing a Server Infrastructure
Test Code : 70-413
Test appellation : Designing and Implementing a Server Infrastructure
Vendor appellation : Microsoft
: 263 actual Questions
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Analyze solution requirements (20–25%)
identify storage solutions
recommend equipment, applied sciences, and procedures to meet system circulate requirements
Map security necessities to tools, technologies, and methods
choose software and features required to steer the solution
An enum is a cost classification. value types in .net are generally kept in the stack. You typically use enums to signify named constants to your utility. There are two types of enums: touchstone enums and flag enums. while the former category is used to symbolize a closed set of values, the latter is used to deliver assist for bitwise operations using the enum values.
this article items a discussion on enums, what they are, why they are useful, and the design constraints when the usage of enums in purposes and how to effect in favor a kind-secure enum sample with code examples wherever acceptable.Why should they use enums? How are they constructive?
Enums are profitable as you could set your area-particular key words that could subsist treated as integer constants -- these entire support you to write clear, readable code on your software. that you can use enums in swap statements as well. that you may use enums in lieu of static constants for your software. here’s a pleasant article from MSDN that outlines the design instructions that should still subsist adhered to when working with enums: https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/kcwalina/2004/05/18/design-instructions-update-enum-design/Design and usage constraints
whereas enums are extremely sterling in assisting you to write down clean, readable code in your functions, they finish acquire unavoidable constraints as well. The .web framework represents enums as integers. So, although you declare an enum as having unavoidable integer values, there is not any manner which you can evade your developer from assigning any other integer cost to the enum you've got declared. The other design constraint in the usage of enums is that enums don't appear to subsist extendable. birthright here's precisely where the Strongly Typed Enum design sample involves the rescue.The strongly typed enum sample
The strongly typed enum pattern or the classification-safe enum sample because it is known as, may also subsist used to mitigate the design and utilization constraints they discussed in the previous section when working with enums. This sample makes positive that the class is extensible and you'll use it much dote an enum.
think about that you just were to construct a customized logger that may log information to a number of configured log aims. Such log goals can also subsist a text file, database or the adventure log. To design this sort of framework you might necessity to assume expertise of an enum to declare the numerous log ambitions that the framework may still supply palliate for. Now that they already comprehend the design and usage constraints of an enum, let’s learn how they can construct a kindhearted – protected representation of the same. check with the LogTarget class given beneath.
public sealed sort LogTarget
public static readonly LogTarget Database = fresh LogTarget("Database");
public static readonly LogTarget EventLog = fresh LogTarget("EventLog");
public static readonly LogTarget File = fresh LogTarget("File");
public readonly string TargetName;
inner most LogTarget(string targetName)
TargetName = targetName;
notice that the classification has been marked as "sealed" to prevent further inheritance. The constructor is private to maintain away from instantiation for sample of this classification isn't crucial. You simply acquire just a few public readonly fields that correspond to a selected LogTarget.
assume now that you acquire carried out a category named CustomeLogger as proven beneath. notice that here is only for illustration applications handiest - it is only a dummy sort and is incomplete.
public category CustomLogger
//outline the contributors of the class birthright here
public static void Log(string statistics, LogTarget logTarget)
//Write the imperative code here to log statistics to the applicable log goal
here code snippet suggests find out how to use the LogTarget class they described past and procure in touch with the Log formula on the CustomLogger class.
string statistics = "data to subsist logged.";
CustomLogger.Log(statistics, LogTarget.File);The caveats
Albeit the undeniable fact that this design is bendy, there are unavoidable caveats in the usage of this pattern. subsist positive you subsist mindful that here is nullaable (unlike an enum) and the values (the log goals that they now acquire described in the LogTarget type) can't subsist utilized in "swap - case" statements. Even persistence and serialization of objects that implement the sample they mentioned in this post would want you to write down some added code.
Customization is the Important thing when it involves making an Android smartphone that absolutely works for you. a number of years ago, they used to depend on rooting the mobile for deeper customization. As time went by, Google entire started altering the design and introduced more alternate options.
whether or not it's inventory Android or Samsung’s OneUI, individuals will always locate whatever or the other missing. that is the Place the position of a 3rd-celebration launcher comes to existence.
Even you could acquire heard of reviewers suggesting slapping an X or Y launcher on the device from the day one in case you are not the fan of default aesthetics and alternatives.
And during this submit, they are comparing two of essentially the most seriously acclaimed Android launchers: Microsoft launcher and OnePlus launcher.Let’s Revise slightly
OnePlus made its debut in Android with the collaboration with Cyanogen OS. The deal didn’t evanesce easily, and after the initial setback, the company started the construction of their personal default launcher known as Oxygen OS.
Microsoft launcher become in the birth referred to as Arrow launcher. The Microsoft garage app received recognition, and consequently, the pile transferred to the entrance and received renamed as Microsoft launcher.App dimension and Availability
OnePlus launcher comes as section of Oxygen OS. with the aid of default, the total rig takes as much as 12GB of district on the equipment. and unlike any other OEMs, the industry has made it exclusive to OnePlus devices handiest.
which you could access Microsoft Launcher on each Android equipment. The app weights around 33MB.additionally on Guiding Tech
OnePlus Launcher vs Pixel Launcher: Which One to opt for
examine greaterconsumer Interface
both the launchers acquire a discrete assume on the default person interface. OnePlus maintains it antiseptic and free of any distractions. it subsist akin to stock Android launcher with some delivered tweaks.
Swipe as much as panoply the app drawer, swipe down for notification tray. Swipe left, and also you are handled with the home page of the launcher. The feed page contains utility panels comparable to commonly used apps, dashboard with storage, battery, and facts guidance. you can additionally add widgets from the bottom menu.
i admire OnePlus’s system the Place your entire app widgets and imperative information are at the identical Place and only a swipe far from the home display.
Microsoft’s account is entirely diverse though. The enterprise has concentrated on delivering an adventure suitable for telephones with a tall display. the search bar is on the bottom, and entire the censorious toggles are also found immediate by.
Swipe left to peer the brought functionalities included by route of Microsoft. My feed showcases concomitant actions, most used apps, sticky notes, and more. The different two alternatives are information feed and windows Timeline integration.
A pre-loaded launcher on the mobilephone differs plenty from a 3rd-party one downloaded from the Play keep. The OEMs can trade the brief toggles styles, settings app, and add aspects usurp into the core of the equipment. they could additionally effect in favor the default Android gestures remedy into the interface. The third-party ones can’t mess a entire lot with the fundamentals of the interface and may simplest build points upon that.Theming alternatives
OnePlus Launcher allows you to invent a preference from a dark, light, and colorful theme. The theme you select on might subsist carried out within the settings, notification bar, app drawer, and interface. that you may additionally opt for from the kinds of accent colours.
Microsoft Launcher offers simple and darkish theme alternatives. you could also select a transparent theme. youngsters, the changes gained’t assume district in core UI elements dote notification panel and settings. it will handiest alternate My feed appear to be.
The lucid preference basically offers a pleasing seem. try it out.additionally on Guiding Tech
Lawnchair Launcher vs Nova Launcher: The top-quality evaluation
both Microsoft and OnePlus undertake a discrete approach for including fresh features. while OnePlus specializes in imposing more customization alternate options, theming capabilities, the Microsoft launcher is entire about productiveness.
when you are a windows user, then the Microsoft Launcher is a bliss to invent use of. entire of the introduced functionalities aspect towards Microsoft’s perpetual center of attention on leveraging Android platform and bridge the hole between two ecosystems.
With the Microsoft Launcher, you procure the mixing with home windows essentials dote Sticky Notes, To-Do, home windows Timeline, Cortana, and OneDrive. you can additionally select between Bing each day wallpapers which is a pleasant touch.
you could entry entire the windows features usurp from the My feed UI on the home display.
OnePlus specializes in including features to help the user event. you could lock apps, invent parallel apps, and select from diverse navigation gestures to navigate the UI.
The Gaming mode is additionally a advantageous addition. It allows you to shroud notifications, computerized brightness, and offers an option to respond calls via the speaker.additionally on Guiding Tech #customization
click on here to peer their customization articles web pageWhich One if you chance to opt for?
it entire boils entire the route down to your usage sample. when you are a windows user, then Look no extra and evanesce together with Microsoft’s providing. The thoughtfully brought capabilities will invent you productive.
OnePlus’s account is diverse. It should add facets that increase the core aspects of the software and machine (hey, alert slider). If their minimalistic assume is enough for then you stick with OnePlus’s efforts. additionally, don’t neglect the bounty of being an oem launcher compared to a third-celebration one.
purchase the OnePlus 6T on Amazon in case you haven’t bought this wintry machine yet.
subsequent up: Let’s assure you've got decided to select the Microsoft Launcher. The edition 5.0 has delivered many windows functionalities. read the submit beneath to procure an in depth Look on the Microsoft Launcher 5.0.
closing updated on 5 Apr, 2019
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Administrators acquire to secure the network from attacks launched by hackers, spies, terrorists, thieves and criminals. Security encompasses numerous technologies, protocols, standards, policies, passwords, and stealthy keys. entire these mechanisms typically focus on the following:
Authentication is the process by which an entity identifies itself, before network logon is permitted. After a user is authenticated, access control defines what resources can subsist accessed, what actions can subsist performed on the resource, and whether these actions are audited or not. Access control is implemented by specifying permissions for resources and objects, and assigning rights to users. Data protection involves two security concepts, namely, data confidentiality, and data integrity. Data confidentiality deals with securing data as it is transmitted over the network through the application of cryptographic operations. Encryption algorithms and the utilization of private and public keys provide data confidentiality. Any unauthorized parties intercepting the message, will not subsist able to interpret the contents of the message. Data integrity is implemented through the digital signing of messages, and files. Through the use of digital signatures, you can determine whether the message was tampered with or not. From this brief discussion, you can survey that many concepts and principals are included when discussing security. So where does smart cards proper into the process of securing an organization's network and resources from malicious attacks. The respond is authentication.
As mentioned earlier, authentication is process whereby which users or other entities identify themselves so that they can attempt to access network resources. Authentication is the initial step in the process of allowing users to access network resources. In energetic Directory, user authentication occurs by the user providing user account credentials, such as the user logon name, password, and the user's security identifier (SID).
Authentication in Windows Server 2003 environments involves the following two processes:
Interactive logon: Interactive logon occurs when a user logs on to the system using a password or smart card.
Network authentication: Network authentication occurs when a user is permitted to access resources, without the user having to re-enter this password or the personal identification number (PIN) of the smart card.
The user or entity proves its identity by using a shared secret. The shared stealthy can subsist one of the components listed below, and has to subsist a stealthy between the user requesting authentication, and the authenticator, for authentication to subsist successful:
An encryption key
A stealthy PIN
Authentication protocols are used to share the stealthy between the user and authenticator. The authenticator then either allows access or denies the requestor access. The authentication protocols that can subsist used in Windows Server 2003 environments are listed below:
Kerberos version 5, used for network authentication. Kerberos version 5 is used for the interactive logon authentication process, and for network authentication in Windows Server 2003.
Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS), used for network authentication and is based on X.509 public key certificates.
Microsoft Windows NT LAN Manager (NTLM), used for network authentication but mainly for Microsoft Windows NT 4 compatibility.
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2 (MS-CHAP v2), used for network authentication and dial-up authentication.
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), used for network authentication and dial-up authentication.
Extensible Authentication Protocol-Transport smooth Security (EAP-TLS), used for wireless connection authentication.
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), used for network authentication and dial-up authentication, and includes support for smart cards (hardware enabled authentication).
Hardware enabled authentication occurs when encryption keys are stored on a smart card, a PC card, or some other cryptographic token mechanism, and the user needs to acquire the smart card, and the PIN or password to pass authentication and access the system. This provides an additional smooth of security because any unauthorized individuals attempting to access the system, needs the smart card and the PIN or password.
Smart card authentication is based on the use of smart cards and is supported in Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. A smart card is a security device or credit card sized hardware token which can subsist used to provide additional protection to applications and security protocols.
Smart cards provide the following features:
In network environments, they are typically used for following purposes
As mentioned earlier, smart card authentication provides very sturdy authentication because the user has to possess the smart card, and the user has to know the personal identification number (PIN). You can shroud a smart card from the system after a successive number of unsuccessful logon attempts acquire been made. To enable these features, smart card authentication involves the use of a smart card reader which is attached to the computer. It is recommended to use Plug and Play (PnP) readers with Windows Server 2003. The smart card contains a microprocessor and permanent glitter reminiscence that holds the user's logon information, private key, digital certificates, and other private information. When the user inserts the smart card into the smart card reader, the user has to provide the PIN to log on to the system. Smart cards are designed to provide tamper-resistant authentication. The incompatibility between smart cards and software private keys is that you can hasten smart cards from one computer to computer.
The smart card reader is usually attached to the serial port, USB port, or PCMCIA port of the computer. Since PCs, laptop computers, and PDAs acquire one of these ports, smart card readers are supported by entire computers. Smart cards are available in a number of forms. The majority though acquire a resemblance to credit cards. The more advanced smart cards utilize magnetics. What this means is that they finish not necessity to acquire external contacts. A common profile is the dongle which can proper into a USB port. From here, it is accessed by the Cryptographic Service Provider (CSP). The dongle profile does not necessity any special reader. The downfall of the profile is that it is roughly four times more costly than the conventional smart card forms. While the installation of a smart card implementation can subsist complex and expensive, another difficult process is determining which vendor to use. The drivers of smart card products from Gemplus and Schlumberger are actually built into the operating system.Smart Card Deployment Considerations
Authentication through smart cards is supported in Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003, but is conditional on the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). The PKI has to exist before you can implement smart card authentication. It is recommended to use an enterprise certification authority (CA) for authentication based on smart cards. Stand-alone CAs and external CA entities are not recommended for use with smart card authentication.
While there are quite a number of vendors to select from to provide your smart card technology, recollect that Windows Server 2003 does not support on-Plug and Play smart card readers. It is recommended to only use Personal Computer/Smart Card (PC/SC) compliant smart cards and readers, even when a vendor provides non-Plug and Play smart card readers that can operate with Windows Server 2003. In addition to the implementation of a PKI, each computer needs a smart card reader.
Because cost is always an Important factor, you can regard the factors listed below as those that influence the cost of administering a smart card implementation:
The number of users that will use the smart card program, as well as where these particular users are located.
The manner in which the users are going to subsist issued smart cards. The requirements for verifying user identities should also subsist included.
The procedure to subsist used when users misplace or damage the smart cards which were issued to them.
When planning a smart card authentication solution, you acquire to define the authentication and logon methods which are going to subsist utilized. This would include:Preparing the PKI for a Smart Card Implementation
As mentioned earlier, smart cards are conditional on the implementation of a PKI. Smart cards necessity certificates to manage which users are allowed to authenticate using smart cards. Certificates are used to verify the identities of users, applications, computers, and services; and can subsist used to secure e-mail, for Web and application code authentication, and to enable the use of smart cards. A certificate authority (CA) issues certificates to users and other entities.
The certificate would usually contain the following information:
The serial number of the certificate
Information that identifies the user.
Information that identifies CA that issued the certificate.
The user's public key
The validity period of the certificate
The distinguished appellation of the issuing CA server
The skill of the PKI to support smart cards is an attractive feature of the Windows PKI implementation. To implement smart cards, one of the first steps is to install certificate services on a server within your environment, and configure the server as an enterprise CA. After this, you would necessity to create three certificate templates to enable the use of smart cards within your organization. Certificate templates can subsist defined as a set of rules and settings which specify the content and format of certificates that are issued, based on intended use. You configure certificate templates on the CAs within your PKI implementation. The certificate template is applied when a user requests a certificate from the CA. Only Windows Server 2003 enterprise CAs utilizes certificate templates stored in energetic Directory to create certificates for users and computers.
For a smart card implementation, you necessity to create the following three certificate templates:Implementing Smart Cards
The typical steps for implementing a smart card solution in an organization are listed below. The actual steps are determined by the manner in which smart cards are used in the PKI:
Configure an enrollment station
Define the necessary certificate templates for the CA and energetic Directory.
Define enrollment agents who will issue smart cards
Prepare the smart cards
Issue certificatesto the smart card for users
Configure remote access servers to accept smart card authentication
Enroll the servers for Computer certificates
Because the certificate templates used by smart cards are not installed on an enterprise CA by default, you will necessity to use the Certification Authority console to configure these certificate templates. In addition to this, you necessity to allocate users the remedy permissions for the certificate templates. To change permissions for a certificate template, you necessity to subsist a member of the Domain Admins group in the forest root domain, or a member of the Enterprise Admins group.How to set permissions on certificate templates
Click Start, Run, and enter certtmpl.msc in the quicken dialog box. Click OK.
Locate and right-click the certificate whose permissions you want to modify, and then click Properties on the shortcut menu.
Click the Security tab.
Assign users and groups who necessity to request certificates that are based on the particular certificate template, the Read and Enroll permissions.
The certificate server included in Windows Server 2003 includes a smart card enrollment station which can subsist used to ration certificates to users. You can use the smart card enrollment station to request a smart card certificate on a behalf of the user. This in spin enables you to preinstall it on the smart card of the user. Before users can request certificates, you necessity to prepare the enrollment station to create the certificates. The first step in preparing the CA to issue smart card certificates is to create the Enrollment Agent certificate.How to create the Enrollment Agent certificate
Click Start, Administrative Tools, and then click Certification Authority.
In the console tree, expand Certificate Authority, <Server name>, and Certificate Templates.
Click New, and then Certificate to Issue from the Action menu.
Choose Enrollment Agent template. Click OK.
On the Action menu, click New, and then Certificate to Issue from the Action menu
If you want to create certificates for user authentication, select the Smart Card Logon certificate template. Click OK.
If you want to create certificates for user authentication, and for the encryption of the user's information, select the Smart Card User certificate template. Click OK.
The certificate templates should now subsist displayed in the console window
Close the Certification Authority console.
Log on to the machine
Click Start, Run, and enter mmc in the quicken dialog box. Click OK
From the File menu, click Add/Remove Snap-in, and then click Add.
Double-click the Certificates snap-in. Click OK.
In the Certificates snap-in, expand Certificates, Current User, and then Personal.
Select entire Tasks, and then Request fresh Certificate from the Action menu.
When Certificate Request Wizard starts, click Next.
When Certificate Types page opens, click Enrollment Agent and then click Next.
On Certificate Friendly appellation and Description page, enter a description for the certificate. Click Next.
When the summary page opens, click Finish.
Setting up users to utilize smart cards includes the purchase and installation of smart card readers for entire user workstations. Installing smart card readers that are Plug and Play compatible is usually an uncomplicated hardware installation.
The smart card readers supported by Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 are listed below.
American Express, GCR435 – USB port
Bull, SmarTLP3 – serial port
Compaq, Serial reader – serial port
Gemplus, GCR410P – serial port
Gemplus, GPR400 – PCMCIA port
Gemplus, GemPC430 – USB port
Hewlett-Packard, ProtectTools, – serial port
Litronic, 220P, – serial port
Schlumberger, Reflex 20 – PCMCIA port
Schlumberger, Reflex 72 – serial port
Schlumberger, Reflex Lite – serial port
SCM Microsystems, SCR111 – serial port
SCM Microsystems, SCR120 – PCMCIA port
SCM Microsystems, SCR200 – serial port
SCM Microsystems, SCR300 – USB port
Systemneeds, External – serial port
Omnikey AG, 2010 – serial port
Omnikey AG, 2020 – USB port
Omnikey AG, 4000 – PCMCIA port
Some smart card reader's drivers are preinstalled in Windows Server 2003, while others are not. You can install a smart card reader on the computer by attaching the smart card reader to a serial port or USB port. For laptops, insert the smart card reader into a PCMCIA slot.
After the smart card reader is installed, the Enrollment Station must subsist used for the following tasks:
When the smart card readers are installed, the next step is to issue smart card certificates to users. This process is known as enrollment. Before enrolling a user, and issuing the user with smart card, you should educate users on these points:
Users should refrain from bending the smart card because they can damage the internal mechanisms of the smart card.
Users should protect the external smart card chip from being scratched or dented. The smart card reader might subsist unable to read the information stored on the card if it is damaged in this way.
Users should store their smart cards in a wintry dehydrate location, and safe from any other magnetic sources such as credit cards. immoderate peppery temperatures could result in the smart card becoming brittle and breakable.
To enroll a smart card user,
Access the workstation using a user account which has the necessary rights in the Enrollment Agent Certificate template for the domain containing the user account.
Open Internet Explorer, and access the CA by entering http://CA server name/certsrv.
On the Welcome page, click Request a Certificate
On the Request a Certificate page, click Advanced Certificate Request.
On the Advanced Certificate Request page, select the Request a Certificate for a Smart Card on behalf of another user option.
On the Smart Card Certificate Enrollment Station page, select to create one of the following:
In the Certificate Authority list box, select the appellation of the CA for the domain that should issue smart card certificates.
In the Cryptographic Service Provider list box, enter the appellation of the vendor which you are using for smart cards.
In the Administrator Signing Certificate box, enter the appellation of the enrollment Agent certificate which will badge the certificate enrollment request. Click Next.
On the User to Enroll page, click Select User to find the user account that you want to create a smart card certificate for, and the click Enroll.
Place the smart card of the user in the smart card reader, and click OK.
Proceed to enter the initial PIN for the smart card.
Click View Certificate to verify that the certificate was issued to the user which you specified.
A Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 remote access server supports smart card logon. To enable smart card logon for these servers, you acquire to configure the RRAS service to use the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). Then, you acquire to specify smart card logon as the EAP method.
To configure a Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 remote access server for smart card logon,
Open the RRAS console from Administrative Toos.
Proceed to open the Properties dialog box of the remote access server that should accept smart card logon.
Click the Security tab.
Click Windows Authentication, and click Authentication Methods.
Choose the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) option.
Click EAP Methods.
Use the available list to find and double-click Smart Card or Other Certificate. Click OK.
Proceed to deselect the other authentication options. Click OK.
In the Properties dialog box of the server, click OK.
In the RRAS console, locate Remote Access Policies in the console tree.
Double-click Allow Access If Dial-In authorization Is Enabled.
When the Properties dialog box open, click Edit Profile.
Click the Authentication tab.
Click EAP Methods.
When the Select EAP Providers dialog box opens, click Add.
In the Add EAP dialog box, select the Smart Card or Other Certificate option.
In the Select EAP Providers dialog box, Click Edit.
When the Smart Card or Other Certificate Properties dialog box opens, in the Certificate Issued To box, select the computer certificate issued to the particular server.
Click OK, and immediate entire open dialog boxes.
You can enable unavoidable policy settings in Group Policy that can assist in simplifying smart card administration in your environment:
Account lockout threshold: You can use the settings of this policy to protect your smart card authentication process from password attacks.
Do not allow smart card device redirection: When enabled, users will not subsist able to use smart cards to log on to a Terminal Services server.
On smart card removal: You can use this setting to prevent users running unattended energetic sessions. use these settings to specify that the users' sessions are locked, or logged off when they remove their smart cards from the smart card reader.
Smart card required for interactive logon: When enabled, a user can only log on to the local computer using smart card authentication. The user cannot use a user account and provide the user appellation and password credentials to log on.
In today s industry world, users necessity access to the company network not only when they re on company premises, but from home and when they re on the road, as well. An Important section of the network administrator s job is to design and implement a strategy for allowing authorized users to connect to network resources without compromising security. Windows Server 2003 includes technologies and features that invent this easier.
This chapter examines the issues and procedures involved in devising a remote access strategy, including planning tasks such as analyzing organizational needs, analyzing user needs, and selecting the remote access types that will subsist allowed (dial-in, VPN, and/or wireless). They ll debate design considerations related to dial-in access, such as the allocation of IP addresses, how to determine incoming port needs, and how to select the best administrative model based on your organizational needs and the functional smooth of your domain.
Next, they ll talk about design considerations related to VPN access. You ll learn how to select the VPN protocols to subsist allowed, based on client support, PKI requirements, and the necessity for data integrity and sender authentication. You ll learn how to install machine certificates, how to configure firewall filters, and how to create access policies governing VPN connections.
In the next section, you ll learn about the design considerations that relate to wireless remote access. They ll debate the use of IAS for wireless connections, and how to configure remote access policies for wireless connections. They ll address the use of multiple WAPs and the advantages...
Copyright Syngress Publishing, Inc. 2003 under license agreement with Books24x7
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