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310-202 exam Dumps Source : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, Part ll

Test Code : 310-202
Test title : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, Part ll
Vendor title : SUN
: 558 real Questions

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SUN Certified System Administrator for

S.A.F.E. Alert tackle is free for parents and educators | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Commissioner of training encourages each faculty district to implement alert device called for in 2018 college security preparedness file

harmony — faculties and parents around current Hampshire now beget a free app they could down load to multiply communication between educators and families in case of emergencies. Ping4, a current Hampshire-based mostly company that presents a mobile phone alert tackle within the industrial market, currently approved its groundwork to create the "protection. indicators. For. education." application to enhance college protection. The free app is accessible on the Apple App retain and Google Play.

The enterprise created the app after the Governor's school security Preparedness assignment coerce decided, by means of suggestion forty three, that current Hampshire needed to set up a gadget “to alert parents, team of workers and non-first responders birthright through an emergency to immediately and effectively notify them of latest incident and protection counsel.”

Following up on the free offer in October, the commerce currently install accounts for totality current Hampshire faculties and are encouraging folks to register and ensure their colleges additionally spark off the alert device.

“whereas it may well exist that not totality schools originate a determination to exhaust the Ping4 platform, as there are different products out there,” famous frank Edelblut, the commissioner of the brand current Hampshire department of training, “it is vital that totality colleges obtain some platform installation and beget wide guardian sign-up so that they are able to beget the applicable response within the event of an emergency.”

“Any measure that offers aid for police to respond rapidly and thoroughly to a school head is important,” referred to James Morse, the superintendent of the Oyster River Cooperative. “A uniform strategy throughout the situation is an vital step ahead. Ping or equivalent measures, adopted with the aid of local faculty programs and their respective police departments, just makes undergo for the security of recent Hampshire college students.”

The app uses geo-fencing expertise by the exhaust of the world positioning system allowing administrators and law enforcement to immediately and simultaneously alert college students and staffers of a threat via their cell phones. The expertise creates a sunder digital perimeter in and around schools, that could consist of parking a considerable deal, athletic fields and more. This enables as many people as possible, in the sunder area, to exist alerted in actual-time, stated Jim Bender, the CEO of Ping4.

“The S.A.F.E. foundation is offering this program free to current Hampshire colleges as a result of their babies’s protection is a accurate priority,” talked about Bender. “This know-how is proven and useful, and will enhance protection and in the reduction of response time within the event of a crisis.”

solar certified system Administrator: Job Description & requirements | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

licensed Solaris system directors are assistance know-how (IT) gurus who install and retain network servers working one of the crucial Solaris operating system, at the jiffy purchasable throughout the Oracle service provider. they are always employed by course of companies and different corporations with computing device networks that exhaust the company's open supply software products. As programs administrators, they might besides also boos different IT group of workers and reply to questions and preservation requests from workplace worker's.

training Bachelor's degree in tips know-how or laptop science counseled Job potential Troubleshooting, analytical pondering, multitasking, verbal exchange revenue range (2016)* $87,400 to $104,762 with sun certified system Administrator credentials Job multiply (2014-2024)** eight% for network and computing device techniques administrators

source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics

Required education

Most methods directors beget achieved a Bachelor of Science in tips technology, computer Science or a linked box. Core coursework customarily comprises themes in programming languages and approaches, networking and methods design. Solaris certifications can exist establish during the Oracle commerce enterprise in community, security and techniques administration. requirements comprehend a passing rating on an exam, which candidates can reclaim together for via enrolling in lessons at the Oracle Academy or an accredited working towards middle, reviewing seminar packages and taking commemorate exams.

competencies Required

programs directors are analytical thinkers who're in a position to troubleshoot issues for giant corporations of community tackle clients. traumatic cases require clear, quick considering, and can involve working lengthy hours until the problem is fastened. The capacity to multitask will besides exist constructive when managing more than one project at a time. verbal exchange skills are key when working with nontechnical team of workers participants.

career and salary Outlook

The U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS) anticipated that jobs for gadget administrators in prevalent will multiply by means of a yardstick tempo, 8% from 2014 to 2024. certified device directors will relish remarkable job prospects, as businesses increasingly rely on full-time gurus to hold their computing device working techniques. according to Payscale.com, licensed programs directors for Solaris working programs earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in might besides 2016.

Pay for tackle Administrator Certifications | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Written by using GoCertify team of workers published: 17 September 2007

page 2 of four

With that as a starting point, how attain community directors with one or extra certifications fare? in response to PayScale.com records, crimson Hat licensed Engineers rectify the income listing with a median earnings of $sixty seven,430. we'd beget chosen a reduce smooth purple Hat certification to evaluate, such as pink Hat licensed Technician, however RHCE seemed the closest suit to their standards of being a device administrator certification. next up, solar certified device administrators, with a median of $sixty five,one hundred fifty, followed by licensed Novell directors ($fifty two,486), Microsoft licensed device administrators ($forty nine,547), Cisco licensed network Administrator ($forty nine,428), and eventually, network+ ($46,246). whereas an RHCE isn't on the equal skill stage as network+, these figures provide an exquisite positive case for the price of IT certifications within the workplace.

Of route, compensation can fluctuate significantly depending on job position and years of event. The charts that commemorate expose what some of these diversifications are:

certified Novell Administrator (CNA) profits by using Job position

CompTIA community+ income by course of adventure

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Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, Part ll

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Disk Slices | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the reserve 

Disks are divided into regions called “disk slices” or “disk partitions.” A slice is composed of a single range of contiguous blocks. It is a physical subset of the disk (except for slice 2, which represents the entire disk). A UFS or the swap zone is built within these disk slices. The boundaries of a disk slice are defined when a disk is partitioned using the format utility, and the slice information for a particular disk can exist viewed by using the prtvtoc command. Each disk slice appears to the OS (and to the system administrator) as though it were a sunder disk drive.

Disk slicing differs between the SPARC and x86 platforms. On the SPARC platform, the entire disk is devoted to the OS; the disk can exist divided into 8 slices, numbered 0 to 7. On the x86 platform, the disk is divided into fdisk partitions using the fdisk command. The fdisk partition is divided into 10 slices, numbered 0 to 9.

A physical disk consists of a stack of circular platters. Data is stored on these platters in a cylindrical pattern called “cylinders” as illustrated in pattern 4-1. Cylinders can exist grouped and isolated from one another. A group of cylinders is referred to as a slice. A slice is defined with start and End points, starting from the outside of the platters to the focus of the stack of platters, which is called the “spindle.”

For example, a 73GB SCSI disk has 14,087 cylinders, numbered 0 to 14,086. Cylinder 0 is on the outside edge of the platters, and cylinder 14,086 is the closest to the spindle. Disk slices are defined by an offset and a size in cylinders. The offset is the distance from cylinder 0. To define a slice, the administrator provides a starting cylinder and an ending cylinder. A slice spanning from cylinder 0 to 14,086 would exhaust the entire disk and is typical of the slicing scheme used on a ZFS boot disk.

When setting up slices, recollect these rules:

  • Each disk slice holds only one file system.
  • No file system can span multiple slices without the exhaust of a volume manager such as ZFS or SVM.
  • After a file system is created, its size cannot exist increased or decreased without repartitioning and possibly destroying the partition directly before or after it.
  • Slices cannot span multiple disks; however, multiple swap slices on sunder disks are allowed.
  • When they dispute ZFS in Chapter 5, you’ll learn how to obtain around some of these limitations in file systems.

    Displaying Disk Configuration Information

    As described earlier, disk configuration information is stored in the disk label. If you know the disk and slice number, you can display information for a disk by using the print volume table of contents (prtvtoc) command. You can specify the volume by specifying any slice defined on the disk (for example, /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s2 or /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s*). Regardless of which slice you specify, totality slices defined on the disk will exist displayed. If you know the target number of the disk but attain not know how it is divided into slices, you can point to information for the entire disk by specifying either slice 2 or s*. The following steps point to how you can examine information stored on a disk’s label by using the prtvtoc command.

  • Become the superuser.
  • Type the following text and press Enter.

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    * /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 424 sectors/track * 24 tracks/cylinder * 10176 sectors/cylinder * 14089 cylinders * 14087 accessible cylinders * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * Unallocated space: * First Sector Last * Sector matter Sector * 0 10176 10175 * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector matter Sector Mount Directory 0 2 00 10176 143339136 143349311 2 5 01 0 143349312 143349311
  • The disk described is a SAS disk, target 0 with an SMI VTOC label. The prtvtoc command shows the number of cylinders and heads, as well as how the disk’s slices are arranged.

    The following is an case of running the prtvtoc command on a SCSI disk with an EFI label:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1<cr> * /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 8385121 sectors * 8385054 accessible sectors * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector matter Sector Mount Directory 0 2 01 34 41006 41039 1 2 00 41040 8327663 8368702 /mnt 8 11 00 8368703 16384 8385086 Using the format Utility to Create Slices: SPARC

    Before you can create a file system on a disk, the disk must exist formatted, and you must divide it into slices using the format utility. Formatting involves two sunder processes:

  • Writing format information to the disk
  • Completing a surface analysis, which compiles an up-to-date list of disk defects
  • When a disk is formatted, header and trailer information is superimposed on the disk. When the format utility runs a surface analysis, the controller scans the disk for defects. It should exist famous that defects and formatting information reduce the total disk space available for data. This is why a current disk usually holds only 90% to 95% of its capacity after formatting. This percentage varies according to disk geometry and decreases as the disk ages and develops more defects.

    The exigency to perform a surface analysis on a disk drive has dropped as more manufacturers ship their disk drives formatted and partitioned. You should not exigency to perform a surface analysis within the format utility when adding a disk drive to an existing system unless you arbitrator disk defects are causing problems. The primary intuition that you would exhaust format is if you want to view or change the partitioning scheme on a disk.

    The format utility searches your system for totality attached disk drives and reports the following information about the disk drives it finds:

  • Target location
  • Disk geometry
  • Whether the disk is formatted
  • Whether the disk has mounted partitions
  • In addition, the format utility is used in disk repair operations to attain the following:

  • Retrieve disk labels
  • Repair defective sectors
  • Format and dissect disks
  • Partition disks
  • Label disks (i.e., write the disk title and configuration information to the disk for future retrieval)
  • The installation program partitions and labels disk drives as Part of installing the Oracle Solaris release. However, you might exigency to exhaust the format utility when doing the following:

  • Displaying slice information
  • Dividing a disk into slices
  • Formatting a disk drive when you arbitrator disk defects are causing problems
  • Repairing a disk drive
  • Changing a disk label from EFI to SMI or vice versa
  • The following case uses the format utility to create disk slices on a disk.

  • Become the superuser
  • Type “code.”

    The system responds with the following:

    Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c0t0d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@0,0 1. c0t1d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@1,0
  • Specify the disk (enter its number).

    The system responds with the format main menu:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk nature - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - characterize the current disk format - format and dissect the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk dissect - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and display labels reclaim - reclaim current disk/partition definitions inquisition - point to vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit

    Table 4-4 describes the format main menu items.

    Table 4-4 Format Main Menu detail Descriptions

    Menu Item



    Lists totality of the system’s drives. besides lets you pick the disk you want to exhaust in subsequent operations. This disk is referred to as the current disk.


    Identifies the manufacturer and model of the current disk. besides displays a list of known drive types. pick the Auto configure option for totality SCSI-2 disk drives.


    Creates and modifies slices.


    Describes the current disk (that is, device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and physical device name).


    Formats the current disk using one of these sources of information in this order:

    Information that is establish in the format.dat file.

    Information from the automatic configuration process.

    Information that you nature at the prompt if no format.dat entry exists.

    This command does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks are preformatted by the manufacturer.


    x86 platform only: Runs the fdisk program to create an Oracle Solaris fdisk partition.


    Used to repair a specific screen on the current disk.


    Writes a current label to the current disk. This is not the selfsame as labeling the disk with volname.


    Runs read, write, and compare tests.


    Retrieves and displays defect lists. This feature does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks manage defects automatically.


    Searches for backup labels if the VTOC becomes corrupted or gets deleted.


    Displays information about the current disk such as device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and partition table.


    Saves current disk and partition information.


    SCSI disks only: Displays the vendor, product name, and revision smooth of the current drive. This will besides display the disk’s current firmware.


    Labels the disk with a current eight-character volume title that you specify. This is not the selfsame as writing the partition table to disk using label.


    Exits the format menu. Pressing Ctrl+D will besides exit the format utility from the main menu or from any submenu.

  • Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.

    format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table title - title the current table print - display the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
  • Type “print” to display the current partition map.

    partition> print<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 24620 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1418 - 9924 11.72GB (8507/0/0) 24576723 1 var wm 9925 - 13469 4.88GB (3545/0/0) 10241505 2 backup wm 0 - 24619 33.92GB (24620/0/0) 71127180 3 swap wu 0 - 1417 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 4 unassigned wm 13470 - 14887 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 5 unassigned wm 14888 - 16112 1.69GB (1225/0/0) 3539025 6 unassigned wm 16113 - 16821 1000.15MB (709/0/0) 2048301 7 home wm 16822 - 23910 9.77GB (7089/0/0) 20480121

    The columns displayed with the partition table are

  • Part: The slice number (0–7).
  • Tag: This is an optional value that indicates how the slice is being used. The value can exist any of the following names that best fits the role of the file system you are creating:

    unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates, reserved, system, BIOS_boot

  • Flag: Values in this column can be

  • wm The disk slice is writable and mountable.
  • wu The disk slice is writable and unmountable (such as a swap slice).
  • rm The disk slice is read-only and mountable.
  • ru The disk slice is read-only and unmountable.
  • Cylinders: The starting and ending cylinder number for the disk slice.
  • Size: The slice size specified as

  • mb megabytes
  • gb gigabytes
  • b blocks
  • c cylinders
  • b Blocks
  • e Ending cylinder
  • You can exhaust the title and reclaim commands in the partition menu to title and reclaim a newly created partition table to a file that can exist referenced by title later, when you want to exhaust this selfsame partition scheme on another disk. When issuing the title command, you’ll provide a unique title for this partition scheme and then issue the reclaim command to reclaim the information to the ./format.dat file. Normally this file is located in the /etc directory, so provide the full pathname for /etc/format.dat to update the master file.

  • After you partition the disk, you must label it by typing label at the partition prompt:

    partition> label<cr>

    You are asked for confirmation on labeling the disk as follows:

    Ready to label disk, continue? y<cr>

    Enter “Y” to continue.

  • After labeling the disk, nature “quit” to exit the partition menu or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility:

    partition> quit<cr>
  • Type “quit” again to exit the format utility:

    format> quit<cr>
  • It’s vital to point out a few undesirable things that can chance when defining disk partitions with the format utility if you’re not careful. First, exist mindful not to fritter disk space. Wasted disk space can occur when you reduce the size of one slice and attain not adjust the starting cylinder number of the adjoining disk slice.

    Second, don’t overlap disk slices. Overlapping occurs when one or more cylinders are allocated to more than one disk slice. For example, increasing the size of one slice without decreasing the size of the adjoining slice will create overlapping partitions. The format utility will not caution you of wasted disk space or overlapping partitions.

    The main intuition a system administrator uses the format utility is to divide a disk into disk slices. In Oracle Solaris 11 11/11, for a bootable ZFS root pool, the disks in the pool must contain slices and must exist labeled with an SMI label. The simplest configuration would exist to reclaim the entire disk capacity in slice 0 and exhaust that slice for the root pool. Bootable ZFS root pools are discussed further in Chapter 5.

    I’ll characterize how to exhaust the SMI label for SPARC-based systems. For example, on a SPARC-based system with a 72GB disk, you would exigency to beget 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. Similarly, on an x86-based system with a 72GB disk, you would besides exigency to allow 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. A minute amount of boot information is contained in slice 8. Slice 8 requires no administration and cannot exist changed.

    Follow these steps to partition a disk (c2t0d0) to exist used as a ZFS boot disk (bootable ZFS root pool) on a SPARC-based system. If the disk has an EFI label, and the firmware has not been upgraded, you must first metamorphose it to an SMI label.

    Use the prtvtoc command to verify the disk label as follows:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>

    The system displays

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1 - 14086 68.35GB (14086/0/0) 143339136 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    Notice that slice 2 is labeled “backup” and the slices are numbered 0-7. This is an SMI label.

    The following shows the output that is displayed for a disk with an EFI label:

    Part Tag Flag First Sector Size last Sector 0 usr wm 34 68.36GB 143358320 1 unassigned wm 0 0 0 2 unassigned wm 0 0 0 3 unassigned wm 0 0 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 0 8 reserved wm 143358321 8.00MB 143374704

    Notice there is a slice 8 and slice 2 is NOT labeled “backup.” This is an EFI label and would exigency to exist changed. exhaust the following steps to change the label from an EFI label to an SMI label:

  • As root, exhaust the format -e command and select the disk to label as follows:

    # format –e<cr>

    The system displays a list of disks. In the example, I selected disk 1 (c2t1d0):

    Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr> selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
  • The main menu is displayed. nature “label” to label the disk:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk nature - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - characterize the current disk format - format and dissect the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk dissect - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and display labels inquisition - point to disk ID scsi - independent SCSI mode selects cache - enable, disable or query SCSI disk cache volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit format> label<cr>
  • Select option 1 to label the disk with an SMI label and press Enter when prompted for autoconfiguration:

    [0] SMI Label [1] EFI Label Specify Label type[1]: 0<cr> Auto configuration via format.dat[no]?<cr> Auto configuration via generic SCSI-2[no]?<cr> format>
  • Exit the format utility.

    format> quit<cr>
  • To slice the disk so that it can exist used as a ZFS boot disk, succeed these steps:

  • As root, enter the format utility:

    # format<cr> Searching for disks ... done

    Select the disk that is going to exist sliced. In the example, I will select disk 1 (c2t1d0):

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr>

    The system responds with

    selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
  • Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.

    format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table title - title the current table print - display the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
  • Type “print” to display the current partition map.

    partition> print<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    partition> print<cr> Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 25 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 1 swap wu 26 - 51 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 52 - 14086 68.10GB (14035/0/0) 142820160 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
  • Enter “modify” to change the partition table:

    partition> modify<cr>
  • Select option 1 for “All Free Hog” when prompted:

    Select partitioning base: 0. Current partition table (original) 1. totality Free Hog Choose base (enter number) [0]? 1<cr> Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
  • Type “yes” when asked whether to continue:

    Do you wish to continue creating a current partition table based on above table[yes]? yes<cr>

    Type “0” for the Free Hog partition:

    Free Hog partition[6]? 0<cr>
  • The system will prompt you to enter a size for each partition. Press Enter when prompted as follows, and each slice will exist 0MB:

    Enter size of partition '1' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '3' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '4' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '5' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '6' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '7' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr>

    Because totality of the slices beget been set to “0,” the free hog space is the entire disk. This space will exist allocated to slice 0 as specified in step 6.

  • When prompted to originate this the current partition table, press Enter to exhaust the default value “yes”:

    Okay to originate this the current partition table[yes]?<cr>
  • When prompted for a table name, enter “rootdisk.” This title is not significant and can exist any name.

    Enter table title (remember quotes): rootdisk<cr>

    Enter “pr” to display the current partition table:

    partition> pr<cr> Current partition table (unnamed): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>

    Notice that slice 0 is the entire disk.

  • Enter “quit” or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility.

    partition> quit<cr>
  • Using the format Utility to Create Slices: x86

    As described earlier in this chapter, Oracle Solaris on the x86 platform treats disk drives slightly differently than on the SPARC-based systems. Disks on the x86 platform must beget an fdisk partition table. The x86-based systems exhaust the fdisk partition table to identify parts of the disk reserved for different OSs and to identify the partition that the system will boot from. This boot partition is referred to as the “active disk” partition. You can assign one fdisk partition on a disk to exist used for Oracle Solaris.

    On an x86-based system, once a disk drive has been physically installed and verified as working, you’ll exhaust the format command to slice the disk, but first an fdisk partition must exist created on the current drive. You can create this fdisk partition using the fdisk command from the command line or through the format utility. The following steps characterize how to create a fixed disk partition table on a disk using the format utility:

  • As root, nature “format” to obtain into the format utility.

    # format<cr>

    The following menu appears:

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c1t0d0 <FUJITSU-M1606S-512-6234 cyl 3455 alt 2 hd 6 sec 102> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@0,0 1. c1t1d0 <IBM-DFHSS1W!e-4141 cyl 4071 alt 2 hd 4 sec 135> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@1,0 2. c1t2d0 <DEFAULT cyl 2928 alt 2 hd 6 sec 120> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@2,0 Specify disk (enter its number):
  • Enter the number corresponding to the current drive and the following menu will exist displayed:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk nature - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - characterize the current disk format - format and dissect the disk fdisk - hasten the fdisk program repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk dissect - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and display labels reclaim - reclaim current disk/partition definitions inquisition - point to vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name5 quit format>
  • Select the fdisk option and the following menu appears:

    The recommended default partitioning for your disk is: a 100% "SOLARIS System" partition. To select this, please nature "y". To partition your disk differently, nature "n" and the "fdisk" program will let you select other partitions.
  • If you wish to exhaust the entire drive for Oracle Solaris, enter “Y.” This will recur you to the format menu. If “N” is entered, the fdisk menu will exist displayed.

    Total disk size is 4073 cylinders Cylinder size is 540 (512 byte) blocks Cylinders Partition Status nature Start End Length ========= ====== ======== ===== === ====== === THERE ARE NO PARTITIONS CURRENTLY DEFINED SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. Create a partition 2. Change lively (Boot from) partition 3. Delete a partition 4. Exit (Update disk configuration and exit) 5. Cancel (Exit without updating disk configuration) Enter Selection:
  • Choose 1 to create an fdisk partition. This is not the selfsame as a slice.
  • After creating the partition, pick 4 to exit and save. The format menu will return.
  • Choose partition and succeed the procedure for formatting a disk on page 272, beginning at step 4.
  • Disks on x86-based systems can exist divided into 10 slices labeled slice 0 through slice 9. On Oracle Solaris 11/11, slices 0 through 7 are used for the selfsame purposes as disk slices establish on SPARC-based systems. Slice 2 represents totality of the space within the fdisk partition. As stated earlier, slices 8 and 9 are used for purposes specific to x86-based hardware. You cannot modify slices 8 and 9 using the format utility. beginning with Oracle Solaris 11.1, the boot disk on an x86-based system can contain an EFI label, and the partition scheme is slightly different than the SPARC system. Slice 0 is reserved for the BIOS_boot information. I’ll characterize this more in the next chapter.

    Here’s an case of the partition table on an IDE or SATA disk on an x86-based system running Oracle Solaris 11/11, as displayed by the format utility:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 alternates wm 1 - 2 15.69MB (2/0/0) 32130

    In the previous example, notice that slice 9 is defined and tagged as the alternates slice.

    The next case shows the partition table for a SCSI disk attached to an x86-based system. Notice that partition 8 is assigned, but slice 9 is not used:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    One more detail of note: On yardstick UFSs, don’t change the size of disk slices that are currently in use. When a disk with existing slices is repartitioned and relabeled, any existing data will exist lost. Before repartitioning a disk, first copy totality of the data to tape or to another disk.

    You can besides create the fixed disk partition table on an x86-based system disk from the command line using a single command as follows:

    # fdisk –B c1t0d0<cr>

    The –B option creates a single fixed disk partition that spans the entire disk. The following 36GB disk was formatted using the fdisk –B command:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 4695 35.97GB (4696/0/0) 75441240 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    The fdisk –B command can besides exist used to metamorphose a disk label from an EFI to SMI.

    To verify that a disk contains a fixed disk partition table, issue the following command:

    # fdisk -v -W - /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p<cr>

    The system displays the fdisk table for disk c3t0d0:

    * /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p0 default fdisk table * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 63 sectors/track * 255 tracks/cylinder * 2088 cylinders * * systid: * 1: DOSOS12 * 2: PCIXOS * 4: DOSOS16 * 5: EXTDOS * 6: DOSBIG * 7: FDISK_IFS * 8: FDISK_AIXBOOT * 9: FDISK_AIXDATA * 10: FDISK_0S2BOOT * 11: FDISK_WINDOWS * 12: FDISK_EXT_WIN * 14: FDISK_FAT95 * 15: FDISK_EXTLBA * 18: DIAGPART * 65: FDISK_LINUX * 82: FDISK_CPM * 86: DOSDATA * 98: OTHEROS * 99: UNIXOS * 100: FDISK_NOVELL2 * 101: FDISK_NOVELL3 * 119: FDISK_QNX4 * 120: FDISK_QNX42 * 121: FDISK_QNX43 * 130: SUNIXOS * 131: FDISK_LINUXNAT * 134: FDISK_NTFSVOL1 * 135: FDISK_NTFSVOL2 * 165: FDISK_BSD * 167: FDISK_NEXTSTEP * 183: FDISK_BSDIFS * 184: FDISK_BSDISWAP * 190: X86BOOT * 191: SUNIXOS2 * 238: EFI_PMBR * 239: EFI_FS * Id Act Bhead Bsect Bcyl Ehead Esect Ecyl Rsect Numsect 191 128 0 1 1 254 63 1023 16065 33527655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

    When there are multiple disks of the selfsame nature (manufacturer, model, size, and geometry) to exist sliced, you can reclaim time by copying the label from a source disk over to a target disk without going through totality of the steps using the format utility. exhaust the prtvtoc command to obtain the partition table from the source disk (c0t0d0) and write the table to the target disk (c0t1d0) using the fmthard command as follows:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard –s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2<cr>

    Complete guide to Apple Certification and Training | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

  • Post
  • apple_logo1

    Although I’ve been supporting Macs since they came out in 1984 (when I was in lofty school), I haven’t received any “formal” training. It has mostly been learning by doing, reading the occasional reserve and now of course, TheAppleBlog. Does formal certification really originate a inequity as a technician? You command me.


    Recently I got into an controversy with a vendor that anywise thought a technician who first started repairing Macs sixth months ago trumped my 25 years experience. Did certification originate this person a better technician? Having done quite a bit of hiring myself, I’ve too often establish that certification only verifies your talent to pick a test and may not beget bearing in the real world.

    Now that the market has changed and everyone seems to exist competing for scarce resources, perhaps a certification would exist an additional edge? What’s the commerce strategy for independent Mac technicians wanting more? The retort took a lot of research — even Apple wasn’t able to retort my questions — so learn from my journey.

    Credit goes to both Brian Best of BestMacs and Doug Hanley of MacTEK Training, because without them I wouldn’t understand the alphabet soup of ACSP, ACMT, ACTC, ACSA, AASP, ACN and more. Didn’t they totality become Mac users to avoid mysterious terms? As many of you know, the ease of the Apple user interface is equalled only by the frustration of trying to understand Apple’s certifications programs. Figuring out this path was much harder than any video game I’ve ever played, but a “game” may exist the best metaphor to characterize the process.

    The Game

    You open the “game” as a general Mac user. The three worlds you’ll generally remark in the game are IT, Pro Apps, and Sales. As an IT person maybe you beget skills, maybe you don’t. Nothing stops you from simply repairing Macs on your own, unless you attain things that specifically void the warranty and you obtain caught doing so. You attain not exigency authorization per se from Apple to work on Macs. Many folks are elated at this smooth collecting coins one by one, but you can’t proceed any further unless you obtain a certification — the key that unlocks the next smooth in the game.

    The first certification most spin for is Apple Certified uphold Professional (ACSP) which used to exist known as an Apple Certified aid Desk Specialist (ACHDS). This certifies your talent to understand the operating system and is earned based on the OS version. Therefore, you are an Apple Certified uphold Professional in 10.5 (or soon 10.6). Each OS requires certification, but your certification does not expire. Therefore, if you are a ACHDS in 10.3, you can convoke yourself certified without understanding 10.5 at all. Your can pick the test without training (many do), self-study via materials from Peachpit, or attend an instructor-lead course at an Apple Authorized Training focus (AATC). MacTek is one of those centers. You’ll pick the test at a Prometric testing focus and pay around $200. The test takes about 90 minutes or so and you obtain the results immediately.

    Apple Consultants Network

    While certification is the means, the End you may exist reaching for is the talent to unite the Apple Consultants Network (ACN). Joining the ACN requires any Apple certification, such as the ACSP discussed above, or any number of other certifications (described below, though one source says not totality certifications are valid, so beware). Keeping with the video game analogy, the ACN is dote an entire current zone of the video game you want to explore, but the boss that must exist defeated first is Apple, and your weapon is a certification!

    After getting a certification you can then apply to unite the ACN. The application fee is $60 and the actual fee to unite is $395 as a sole proprietor. The full requirements are here. You’ll obtain lots of benefits such as product discounts as well as the talent to network with other Macintosh consultants. As an ACN, Apple store employees may hand out your card to customers in the store. Now your commerce can really expand as every Apple store customer is a potential customer for you.

    ACN membership is considerable and many remain at this smooth of the “game” using the ACN membership as a multiplier for their income. However, you noiseless can’t attain hardware repairs under warranty nor order Apple parts. As with the video game, you’re stuck at this smooth unless you explore further and try to rout the next boss. Apple always controls the rules. Accept it as Part of the game. Fail to accept it and you’ll obtain slapped back to the beginning of the game quicker than you can click the home button.

    Server Administration Certification

    From this point, you beget a yoke directions you can go. You can focus on repair and service, or you can focus on server or advanced software administration (many folks will attain both). I will dispute the server administration certifications and the hardware services certifications. You can arbitrator of each of these as two sunder worlds in the game. You can pick one or the other, or explore them both.

    The first smooth server administration certification is another 4-letter acronym: ACTC: Apple Certified Technical Coordinator. In addition to passing the test for ACSP, you’ll pan the Server Essentials test. This extends your workstation abilities to servers. An even higher smooth of certification within the server realm is an ACSA — Apple Certified Systems Administrator. For the ACSA, you’ll exigency to pass four tests: Server Essentials, Directory Services, Deployment, and Mobility and Security for 10.6 (or Advanced System Administration for 10.5).

    Apple besides offers the ACMA (Apple Certified Media Administrator) which includes Server Essentials, Xsan, Final slit Server and as an option, uphold Essentials, Deployment, Directory Services, or Final slit smooth 1. Other certifications are not necessarily IT related and are software-focused. That’s a realm I’m not exploring as they chose the IT track at the beginning of the game.

    Hardware Repair Certification

    Moving on from server administration to actual Apple hardware repair, the primary certification you will earn is the Apple Certified Macintosh Technician (ACMT), formerly the Apple Certified Portable Technician (ACPT) and Apple Certified Desktop Technician (ACDT). This certification means you are theoretically qualified to attain warranty repairs on Apple Macintosh equipment. The skills required for ACMT are those of hardware repair and software troubleshooting. You don’t exigency an ACSP to exist an ACMT, but many people earn both. The educational process for hardware repair is more fierce and it’s less likely you’ll pass the test without some training. At this level, you can besides spin to an AATC and pay about $4,800 for both the hardware and software aspects of the course, or your can purchase self-study materials from Apple called “Apple custody Technician Training” for $299.

    Apple Authorized Service Provider

    Similar to how passing the ACSP allows you to unite the Apple Consultants Network, passing the ACMT allows you to enter the realm of an Apple Authorized Service Provider (AASP). You may not automatically become one though, and only AASP’s obtain reimbursement from Apple for warranty work. However, being an ACMT is very helpful if you want to obtain a job as an AASP. You may besides apply to attain warranty repairs for your larger organization of over 50 Macs via the Self-Service program. If you want to advance to being able to attain warranty repairs for anyone, you’ll pan that selfsame boss again, Apple. Note that becoming an ACMT will not necessarily earn you any more money than an ACSA or ACTC. Facing the next boss may exist too expensive and too restricting, but if you attain want the next level, read on.

    Getting to that AASP smooth is really the final smooth of the game. You’ll exigency to beget an ACMT on staff and succeed stricter requirements than joining the Apple Consultants Network. Generally you’ll exigency a real store front and not exist a one-person operation. Apple grants exceptions (doesn’t every game beget cheat codes?), but don’t matter on it. Once you beget your AASP you can exist listed with Apple as a service provider and obtain reimbursed for warranty repairs.

    So I’ve loaded the game and pressed Start. Is certification worth it? What about ACN or AASP? Which training should I spin for? Is instructor lead training worth it? Any training vendors willing to sponsor me? What about the self-study programs? participate with me your experiences in the game and let’s develop a definitive guide including “cheat codes.”

    Apple-authorized Organizations

    ACN (Apple Consultants Network)What it is: Network on Apple professionals, receives discounts and assistance from Apple, and can exist referred from Apple retail stores.Requirements: Any certification.

    AASP (Apple Authorized Service Provider)What is it: commerce that is permitted to attain Apple warranty repairs for reimbursement and order parts from Apple.Requirements: beget an Apple Certified Macintosh Technician on staff, among other requirements.


    Apple Certified uphold Professional: Basic understanding of the client Mac operating system and troubleshooting.

    Apple Certified Technical Coordinator: Deeper understanding of the Mac OS, including the Mac OS X Server and Server Essentials.

    Apple Certified Systems Administrator: Even greater technical understanding of the Mac OS X Server, including passing tests on Server Essentials, Directory Services, Deployment, and Mobility and Security.

    Apple Certified Media Administrator: This is a sister track of the “Apple Certified Systems Administrator” with a focus on the needs of media management, and includes training in XSan or Final Cut.

    Apple Certified Macintosh Technician: You can attain Apple hardware repairs, both in and out of warranty. Required to start (or obtain a job with) an Apple Authorized Service Provider, or self-service your large organization.

    What is ethical hacking? How to obtain paid to splinter into computers | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    What is ethical hacking?

    Ethical hacking, besides known as penetration testing or pen testing, is legally breaking into computers and devices to test an organization's defenses. It's among the most exciting IT jobs any person can exist involved in. You are literally getting paid to retain up with the latest technology and obtain to break into computers without the threat of being arrested. 

    Companies engage ethical hackers to identify vulnerabilities in their systems. From the penetration tester's point of view, there is no downside: If you hack in past the current defenses, you’ve given the client a chance to immediate the cavity before an attacker discovers it. If you don’t find anything, your client is even happier because they now obtain to declare their systems “secure enough that even paid hackers couldn’t splinter into it.” Win-win!

    I’ve been in computer security for over 30 years, and no job has been more challenging and fun than professional penetration testing. You not only obtain to attain something fun, but pen testers often are seen with an aura of extra coolness that comes from everyone knowing they could splinter into almost any computer at will. Although now long turned legit, the world’s former most notorious uber hacker, Kevin Mitnick, told me that he gets the exact selfsame emotional thrill out of being paid to legally splinter into places as he did for totality those years of illegal hacking. Mitnick said, the only inequity “is the report writing.”

    What attain ethical hackers do?

    Scope and goal setting

    It is essential for any professional pen tester to document agreed upon scope and goals. These are the kinds of questions regarding scope you exigency to ask:

  • What computer assets are in scope for the test?
  • Does it comprehend totality computers, just a inevitable application or service, inevitable OS platforms, or mobile devices and cloud services?
  • Does the scope comprehend just a inevitable nature of computer asset, such as web servers, SQL servers, totality computers at a host OS level, and are network devices included?
  • Can the pen testing comprehend automated vulnerability scanning?
  • Is sociable engineering allowed, and if so, what methods?
  • What dates will pen testing exist allowed on?
  • Are there any days or hours when penetration testing should not exist tried (to avoid any unintentional outages or service interruptions)?
  • Should testers try their best to avoid causing service interruptions or is causing any sort of problem a real attacker can do, including service interruptions, a crucial Part of the test?
  • Will the penetration testing exist blackbox (meaning the pen tester has tiny to no internal details of the involved systems or applications) or whitebox (meaning they beget internal information of the attacked systems, possibly up and involving material source code)?
  • Will computer security defenders exist told about the pen test or will Part of the test exist to remark if the defenders notice?
  • Should the professional attackers (e.g., red team) try to break-in without being detected by the defenders (e.g., blue team), or should they exhaust routine methods that real intruders might exhaust to remark if it sets off existing detection and prevention defenses?
  • Ask these questions regarding the goals of the penetration test.

  • Is it simply to point to that you can splinter into a computer or device?
  • Is denial-of-service considered an in-scope goal?
  • Is accessing a particular computer or exfiltrating data Part of the goal, or is simply gaining privileged access enough?
  • What should exist submitted as Part of documentation upon the conclusion of the test? Should it comprehend totality failed and successful hacking methods, or just the most vital hacks? How much detail is needed, every keystroke and mouse-click, or just summary descriptions? attain the hacks exigency to exist captured on video or screenshots?
  • It’s vital that the scope and goals exist described in detail, and agreed upon, prior to any penetration testing attempts.

    Discovery: Learn about your target

    Every ethical hacker begins their asset hacking (excluding sociable engineering techniques for this discussion) by learning as much about the pen test targets as they can. They want to know IP addresses, OS platforms, applications, version numbers, patch levels, advertised network ports, users, and anything else that can lead to an exploit. It is a rarity that an ethical hacker won’t remark an obvious potential vulnerability by spending just a few minutes looking at an asset. At the very least, even if they don’t remark something obvious, they can exhaust the information learned in discovery for continued analysis and assail tries.

    Exploitation: splinter into the target asset

    This is what the ethical hacker is being paid for – the “break-in.” Using the information learned in the discovery phase, the pen tester needs to exploit a vulnerability to gain unauthorized access (or denial of service, if that is the goal). If the hacker can’t break-in to a particular asset, then they must try other in-scope assets. Personally,

    if I’ve done a thorough discovery job, then I’ve always establish an exploit. I don’t even know of a professional penetration tester that has not broken into an asset they were hired to splinter into, at least initially, before their delivered report allowed the defender to immediate totality the establish holes. I’m sure there are penetration testers that don’t always find exploits and accomplish their hacking goals, but if you attain the discovery process thoroughly enough, the exploitation Part isn’t as difficult as many people believe. Being a august penetration tester or hacker is less about being a genius and more about patience and thoroughness.

    Depending on the vulnerability and exploit, the now gained access may require “privilege escalation” to swirl a routine user’s access into higher administrative access. This can require a second exploit to exist used, but only if the initial exploit didn’t already give the attacker privileged access.

    Depending on what is in scope, the vulnerability discovery can exist automated using exploitation or vulnerability scanning software. The latter software nature usually finds vulnerabilities,but does not exploit them to gain unauthorized access.

    Next, the pen tester either performs the agreed upon goal action if they are in their ultimate destination, or they exhaust the currently exploited computer to gain access closer to their eventual destination. Pen testers and defenders convoke this “horizontal” or “vertical” movement, depending on whether the attacker moves within the selfsame class of system or outward to non-related systems. Sometimes the goal of the ethical hacker must exist proven as attained (such as revealing system secrets or confidential data) or the mere documentation of how it could beget been successfully accomplished is enough.

    Document the pen-test effort

    Lastly, the professional penetration tester must write up and present the agreed upon report, including findings and conclusions.

    How to become an ethical hacker

    Any hacker must pick some common steps to become an ethical hacker, the bare minimum of which is to originate sure you beget documented authorization from the birthright people before breaking into something. Not breaking the law is paramount to being an ethical hacker. totality professional penetration testers should succeed a code of ethics to guide everything they do. The EC-Council, creators of the Certificated Ethical Hacker (CEH) exam, beget one of the best public code of ethics available.

    Most ethical hackers become professional penetration testers one of two ways. Either they learn hacking skills on their own or they pick formal education classes. Many, dote me, did both. Although sometimes mocked by self-learners, ethical hacking courses and certifications are often the gateway to a august paying job as a full-time penetration tester. 

    Today’s IT security education curriculum is full of courses and certifications that train someone how to exist an ethical hacker. For most of the certification exams you can self-study and bring your own undergo to the testing focus or pick an approved education course. While you don’t exigency an ethical hacking certification to obtain employed as professional penetration tester, it can’t hurt.

    As CBT Nuggets trainer, Keith Barker said, “I arbitrator the break to beget 'certified ethical anything' on your resume can only exist a august thing, but it’s more of an entry course into more study. Plus, if companies remark that you are certified in ethical hacking, they know you beget seen and agreed to a particular code of ethics. If an employer is looking at resumes and they remark someone who has an ethical hacking certification and someone that didn't, it’s got to help.”

    Even though they train the selfsame skill every ethical hacking course and certification is different. Do a tiny research to find the birthright one for you.

    5 top ethical hacking courses and certifications
  • Certified Ethical Hacker
  • Offensive Security Certified Professional
  • Foundstone Ultimate Hacking
  • Certified Ethical Hacker

    The EC-Council’s Certificate Ethical Hacker (CEH) is easily the oldest and most accepted penetration course and certification. The official course, which can exist taken online or with a live in-person instructor, contains 18 different subject domains including traditional hacking subjects, plus modules on malware, wireless, cloud and mobile platforms. The full remote course includes six months of access to the online Cyber range iLab, which will allow students to rehearse over 100 hacking skills.

    Sitting for the CEH certification requires taking an official course or, if self-study, proof of two years of material undergo or education. It contains 125 multiple-choice questions with a four-hour time limit. Taking the exam requires accepting the EC-Council’s Code of Ethics, which was one of the first required codes of ethics required of computer security test takers. The courseware and testing is routinely updated.


    SysAdmin, Networking, and Security (SANS) Institute is a highly respected training organization, and anything they train along with their certifications are greatly respected by IT security practitioners. SANS offers multiple pen testing courses and certifications, but its base GIAC Penetration Tester (GPEN) is one of the most popular.

    The official course for the GPEN, SEC560: Network Penetration Testing and Ethical Hacking, can exist taken online or live in-person. The GPEN exam has 115 questions, a three-hour time limit, and requires a 74 percent score to pass. No specific training is required for any GIAC exam. The GPEN is covered on GIAC’s general code of ethics, which they pick very seriously as attested to by a running matter of exam passers who beget been disqualified for violating the code.

    “I dote how [the GPEN exam] ties to practical skills that penetration testers exigency to beget to attain their jobs every day,” says Skoudis. “It covers everything from particular technical approaches to testing totality the course up through scoping, rules of engagement, and reporting. The exam is very scenario focused, so it will present a given penetration test scenario and search information from which is the best course forward. Or, it’ll point to you the output from a tool, and search information from what the appliance is telling you and what you should attain next. I esteem that so much, as it measures real-world skills better. The exam doesn’t beget a lot of questions that are merely definitional, where they beget a sentence that is missing one word and search information from you which of the following words best fill in the sentence. That’s not a particularly august course of measuring skills.”

    Offensive Security Certified Professional

    The Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP) course and certification has gained a well-earned reputation for toughness with a very hands-on learning structure and exam. The official online, self-paced training course is called Penetration Testing with Kali Linux and includes 30 days of lab access. Because it relies on Kali Linux (the successor to pen testers' previous favorite Linux distro, BackTrack), participants exigency to beget a basic understanding of how to exhaust Linux, bash shells and scripts.

    The OSCP is known for pushing its students and exam takers harder than other pen testing paths. For example, the OSCP course teaches, and the exam requires, the talent to obtain, modify and exhaust publicly obtained exploit code. For the “exam”, the participant is given instructions to remotely attach to a virtual environment where they are expected to compromise multiple operating systems and devices within 24-hours, and thoroughly document how they did it. repellent Security besides offers even more advanced pen testing courses and exams (e.g., including involving web, wireless, and advanced Windows exploitation). Readers may want to pick advantage of their free, online basic Metasploit appliance course.

    Foundstone Ultimate Hacking

    McAfee’s Foundstone commerce unit (which I worked for over 10 years ago) was one of the first hands-on penetration testing courses available. Its train of Ultimate Hacking courses and books led the bailiwick for a long time. They covered Windows, Linux, Solaris, web, SQL, and a host of advanced hacker techniques (such as tunneling). Unfortunately, Ultimate Hacking courses don’t beget formal exams and certifications.

    Today, Foundstone offers a host of training options well beyond just pen testing, including forensics and incident response (as attain many of the other players in this article). Additionally, Foundstone offers training in hacking internet of things (IoT), firmware, industrial control security systems, Bluetooth and RFID. Foundstone instructors are often real-life pen testers and security consultants, although many, if not most, of the training courses are handled by partners.


    Internationally, the not-for-profit CREST information assurance accreditation and certification body’s pen test courses and exams are commonly accepted in many countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Europe, and Asia. CREST’s mission is to educate and certify attribute pen testers. totality CREST-approved exams beget been reviewed and approved by the UK’s Government Communication Headquarters (GCHQ), which is analogous to the United States’ NSA.

    CREST’s basic pen testing exam is known as the CREST Registered Tester (or CRT), and there are exams for web and infrastructure pen testers. Exams and costs vary by country. CREST test takers must review and concede the CREST Code of Conduct. The repellent Security OSCP certification can exist used to obtain the CRT.

    All the instructors I spoke to believed that the courses they taught were just a beginning. Barker of CBT Nuggets said, “[Certification exams] are a considerable entry point and exposure to totality the foundations that you can then spin onto more.”

    “Each [of their classes] is not just a standalone class someone takes for six days and then disappears,” says Skoudis. "Instead, their classes are more dote an ecosystem, centered around that 6 days of training, but with webcasts and succeed up blogs for continued learning going forward. Also, we’ve been super fortunate to beget their previous students contributing to this ecosystem through their own blogs and appliance development, giving back to the community. It’s really a glowing virtuous cycle, and I’m so thankful to exist a tiny Part of it.”

    Ethical hacking tools

    Ethical hackers usually beget a yardstick set of hacking tools that they exhaust totality the time, but they might beget to explore for and stock up on different tools depending on the particular job. For example, if the penetration tester is asked to assail SQL servers and has no material experience, they might want to start researching and testing different SQL assail tools.

    Most penetration testers start with a Linux OS “distro” that is specialized for penetration testing. Linux distros for hacking Come and spin over the years, but birthright now the Kali distro is the one most professional ethical hackers prefer. There are thousands of hacking tools, including a bunch of stalwarts that nearly every pen tester uses.

    The most vital point of any hacking tool, beyond its attribute and suitable for the job at hand, is to originate sure it does not contain malware or other code designed to hack the hacker. The vast majority of hacking tools that you can obtain on internet, especially for free, contain malware and undocumented backdoors. You can usually faith the most common and accepted hacking tools, like Nmap, but the best ethical hackers write and exhaust their own tools because they don’t faith anything written by someone else.

    For a more in-depth explore at ethical hacking tools, read "17 penetration testing tools the pros use."

    Ethical hacking jobs: How the role is evolving

    Like every other IT security discipline, ethical hacking is maturing. Standalone hackers who simply point to technical prowess without professionalism and sophistication are becoming less in demand. Employers are looking for the complete professional hacker — both in rehearse and the toolsets they use.

    Better toolkits: Penetration or vulnerability testing software has always been a Part of the ethical hacker’s toolkit. More than likely, the customer already is running one or both of these on a regular basis. One of the most exciting developments in pen testing are tools that essentially attain totality of the difficult work from discovery to exploitation, much dote an attacker might.

    An case of this nature of appliance is open source Bloodhound. Bloodhound allows attackers to see, graphically, relationships among different computers on an lively Directory network. If you input a desired target goal, Bloodhound can aid you quickly remark multiple hacking paths to obtain from where you start to that target, often identifying paths you didn’t know existed. I’ve seen involved uses where pen testers simply entered in starting and ending points, and Bloodhound and a few scripts did the rest, including totality hacking steps necessary to obtain from point A to Z. Of course, commercial penetration testing software has had this sort of sophistication for much longer.

    A picture is worth a thousand words: It used to exist that to sell a defense to senior management, pen testers would hack senior management or point to them documentation. Today, senior management wants skid decks, videos or animations of how particular hacks were performed in their environment. They exhaust it not only to sell other senior managers on particular defenses but besides as Part of employee education.

    Risk management: It’s besides not enough to hand off a list of establish vulnerabilities to the ease of the company and consider your job done. No, today’s professional penetration testers must work with IT management to identify the biggest and most likely threats. Penetration testers are now Part of the risk management team, helping to efficiently reduce risk even more so than just pure vulnerabilities. This means that ethical hackers provide even more value by showing management and defenders what is most likely to chance and how, and not just point to them a one-off hack that is unlikely to occur from a real-life intruder.

    Professional penetration testing isn’t for everyone. It requires becoming a near-expert in several different technologies and platforms, as well as an intrinsic covet to remark if something can exist broken into past the normally presented boundaries. If you’ve got that desire, and can succeed some legal and ethical guidelines, you, too, can exist a professional hacker.

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