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310-013 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade
Test Code : 310-013
Test appellation : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade
Vendor appellation : SUN
: 74 true Questions
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certified Solaris gadget administrators are suggestions technology (IT) experts who deploy and retain community servers running one of the vital Solaris operating gadget at present purchasable in the course of the Oracle traffic enterprise. they're usually employed via organizations and different organizations with laptop networks that utilize the enterprise's open source utility products. As systems administrators, they may additionally additionally boos other IT group of workers and reply to questions and upkeep requests from office people.education Bachelor's degree in assistance know-how or computing device science informed Job knowledge Troubleshooting, analytical pondering, multitasking, verbal exchange profits compass (2019)* $sixty nine,810 to $127,000 with sun certified gadget Administrator credentials Job growth (2016-2026)** 6% for community and desktop techniques directors
supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor statisticsRequired schooling
Most techniques directors occupy accomplished a Bachelor of Science in counsel technology, desktop Science or a related container. Core coursework typically comprises themes in programming languages and techniques, networking and programs design. Solaris certifications can live institute in the course of the Oracle organisation in community, security and methods administration. requirements involve a passing ranking on an examination, which candidates can situation together for via enrolling in lessons on the Oracle Academy or an authorised training core, reviewing seminar applications and taking apply tests.abilities Required
methods administrators are analytical thinkers who're able to troubleshoot considerations for massive organizations of network system users. traumatic instances require clear, speedy considering, and may hold working long hours unless the issue is fixed. The capacity to multitask can live positive when managing multiple venture at a time. verbal exchange expertise are key when working with nontechnical workforce contributors.career and earnings Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor data (BLS) anticipated that jobs for system administrators in generic will raise by using a routine pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. licensed apparatus directors will relish brilliant job possibilities, as businesses more and more depend on full-time authorities to hold their laptop operating systems. according to Payscale.com, certified techniques directors for Solaris operating systems earned between $69,810 and $127,000 in April 2019.
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Certified Solaris system administrators are information technology (IT) professionals who install and maintain network servers running one of the Solaris operating system currently available through the Oracle Corporation. They are usually employed by businesses and other organizations with computer networks that utilize the company's open source software products. As systems administrators, they may likewise boos other IT staff and respond to questions and maintenance requests from office workers.Education Bachelor's degree in information technology or computer science recommended Job Skills Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communication Salary compass (2019)* $69,810 to $127,000 with Sun Certified System Administrator credentials Job Growth (2016-2026)** 6% for network and computer systems administrators
Source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor StatisticsRequired Education
Most systems administrators occupy completed a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field. Core coursework typically includes topics in programming languages and procedures, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle Corporation in network, security and systems administration. Requirements involve a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an approved training center, reviewing seminar packages and taking rehearse exams.Skills Required
Systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are able to troubleshoot issues for big groups of network system users. Stressful situations require clear, speedy thinking, and can involve working long hours until the problem is fixed. The aptitude to multitask can live helpful when managing more than one project at a time. Communication skills are key when working with nontechnical staff members.Career and Salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that jobs for system administrators in generic will augment by an unprejudiced pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. Certified system administrators will savor excellent job prospects, as businesses increasingly rely on full-time professionals to maintain their computer operating systems. According to Payscale.com, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating systems earned between $69,810 and $127,000 in April 2019.
Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration files; adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account commands in Solaris 8.
This sample chapter is excerpted from Sun Certified System Administrator for Solaris 8 Study Guide, by Peter Gregory.This chapter is from the book
After completing this chapter, you'll live able to
Identify the following login procedures: log into a system, log out of a system, and change login passwords.
State the command used to identify which users are currently logged into the system.
State the steps required to create user accounts on the local system using the admintool utility.
State the command syntax to add, modify, or delete user/group accounts on the local system with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.
Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization files used to set up a user's work environment at login.
To fulfill these objectives, this chapter discusses:
User account configuration files;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;
User shells; and
User account commands.
Three principal files define the identity of a user account: the password file, the shadow file, and the group file.The Password File
The password file contains the basic identifying information for each user allowed to access a system. The system location of the password file is /etc/passwd. The format of the password file is:username:password:uid:gid:gcos-field:home-dir:login-shell
These fields are:
username—the appellation that identifies the user account.
password—in Solaris 8 an "x" in this field signifies that the corresponding shadow file contains the encrypted password string.
uid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the account. The maximum value for UID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to utilize values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with every bit of of the tools that are used to manage accounts or pomp information that includes usernames.
gid—the primary (default) numerical group ID assigned to the account. enjoy the UID field, the maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.
gcos-field—this is the user's true appellation (the term "gcos-field" is the historical term for this field).
home-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this usually contains the user's own files and directories.
login-shell—the initial shell that is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this field is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.
The password file can live read by anyone on the system. There is no information that must live kept underhand in this file. A sample password file looks enjoy this:root:x:0:1:Super-User:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:3:3::/: adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls: pete:x:100:4:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh nobody:x:60001:60001:Nobody:/:
Fields in the password file are delimited by colons (":"), and blank fields are signified by two adjacent colons ("::"). For instance, note that the account appellation field for daemon is blank—just two colons. Also, daemon has no shell entry, so the eventual character for daemon is the colon delimiter.
The colon delimiter is likewise used in the shadow and group files, which are discussed in a later section.
It is practicable and permissible to create more than one username in the password file with the identical UID. Each username will occupy its own unique password. However, tools such as ls and ps, when used with options displaying username, will pomp the first username institute in the password file matching the UID.
When a modern account is added, changed, or removed with the useradd, usermod, or userdel commands (which are discussed later in this chapter), the system creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.The Shadow File
The shadow file contains each user account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The system location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:username:password:lastchg:min:max:warn:inactive:expire:flag
These fields are:
username—this is the identical username institute in the password file.
password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this field contains a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.
lastchg—date of eventual password change (literally the number of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password was eventual changed).
min—minimum number of days allowed before the password can live changed.
max—maximum number of days allowed before the password expires.
warn—the number of days prior to expiration that the user is warned.
inactive—the number of days of inactivity allowed for the account before the account is automatically locked.
expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.
flag—a field reserved for future use.
The shadow file is restricted so that only the system administrator can read it. This is because an intruder could discharge a "dictionary attack," using guessable passwords in an attempt to determine the passwords for one or more accounts. Programs that "crack" account passwords are available for this purpose; thus, the shadow file is not publicly readable.
A sample shadow file looks enjoy this:root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: listen:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: nobody:NP:6445::::::
Note that some of the accounts in the example shadow file occupy "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are just two ways of signifying that the accounts are locked against login. There is nothing really magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one pass of easily showing that these accounts are locked and going to wait that way. You could situation other text in the password field to suit your needs; for instance, a helpdesk ticket number or a date.
When a user changes his or her password, the system creates a backup copy of the shadow file, called /etc/oshadow. This likewise occurs if root changes a user's password.
Think About It . . .
Why are encrypted passwords institute in /etc/shadow and not in /etc/passwd?
For many commands (ps, ls, etc.) to work properly, /etc/passwd must live world readable. Prior to the utilize of /etc/shadow, every bit of users' encrypted password strings were likewise publicly readable. This gave people with "password cracking" programs an opportunity to discover other users' passwords. By stirring the encrypted password strings to /etc/shadow (which can live read only by root), the aptitude to access encrypted passwords is eliminated.
First, a bit of history. Older versions of UNIX did not occupy a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string was institute in the password file, in the second field that is usually filled with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris still supports the encrypted password appearing in the password file, although this is not advisable, since the password file is publicly readable.
Older versions of UNIX with no shadow file likewise had no password-aging capability.
The Network Information System (NIS) subsystem was designed around the ancient shadow-less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it uphold password aging.The Group File
The group file contains a listing of every bit of of the groups on the system, along with each group's numeric groupid and a list of each of the usernames that are secondary members of each group. The location of the group file is /etc/group. The format of the group file is:groupname:password:gid:user-list
These fields are:
groupname—this is the appellation of the group.
password—this is an optional password for the group.
gid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the group. The maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to utilize values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with every bit of of the tools that are used to manage accounts or pomp information that includes group names.
user-list—a comma-separated list of users allowed in the group. These groups are users' secondary group IDs.
A sample group file follows.root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::3:root,bin,sys,adm adm::4:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::8:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp staff:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: nobody::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:
Note the password field in the group "staff." Groups can live password protected by putting a password string into the password field. Note, though, that this is a completely manual process; there are no tools provided to situation the group password in for you.
Hint: You can retract a password string from the shadow file and utilize the vi editor to splice it into the group file. The group password will live the identical as the account password from the shadow entry where you took the password string.
When a group is password protected, anyone who is not a member of the group will live challenged for the group's password when they occupy entered the newgrp command.Primary and Secondary Groupids
Each user account has one primary groupid—this is the group defined in the password file. When a user logs on, this is his or her associated groupid.
Each user account likewise has zero or more secondary groupids. A user's secondary groups are those group entries that involve the username in their lists of members.
There are some useful limitations of groupids. For example, each user account can live in no more than 16 groups, and a line in the group file cannot exceed 512 characters (including the newline character).
What happens if you need to add so many members to a group that you exceed the 512-character entry limit? You simply create another duplicate group entry—same appellation and group number—and list the additional members there.
The primary and secondary groupids directly repercussion file system access permissions, which is explored fully in Chapter 10.
Think About It . . .
What would live the consequence if a username were added to a group file entry when that group was the user's primary group?
The additional entry would occupy no effect, since the user is already configured for the primary group membership in the /etc/passwd file.The Root Account
The root account has special privileges on a system: Root is permitted to read and write every file on a system, regardless of the file's ownership and license settings. System administrators log in with the root account so that they can discharge administrative tasks.
The root account gets its power and privilege from the value of its user number: Root is user number zero, defined in the password file.
Think About It . . .
What would live the effects of changing an ordinary user's user number to zero? What advantage might there live of putting root's entry at the conclude of the passwd file (instead of the beginning)?
Changing an ordinary user's user number to zero gives the user root privileges.
One advantage of putting root at the conclude of the password file is that if an intruder is able to modify the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands such as ls and ps would exhibit that other user as the owner of root processes and files.
Bigger is not necessarily better, but it's birth to perceive enjoy Oracle will release a monster faultfinding Patch Update (CPU) every quarter. These security updates move databases, networking components, operating systems, applications server, Java, and ERP systems, leaving IT administrators to wrestle with the chore of testing, verifying, and deploying several dozen patches in a timely manner.
The CPU is getting bigger -- the unprejudiced number of vulnerabilities patched in 2014 and 2015 was 128 and 161, respectively, compared to this year's unprejudiced of 228 vulnerabilities -- but most of the focus remains on the company's middleware products. Of the 253 security flaws fixed in the October faultfinding Patch Update (CPU), Oracle Database, MySQL, Java, Linux and virtualization products, and the Sun Systems suite accounted for only one-third of the patches. Oracle addressed 12 vulnerabilities in its core Oracle Database Server, 31 in the MySQL database, seven in Java SE, 13 in Oracle Linux and virtualization products, and 16 in the Sun Systems suite, which includes Solaris and Sparc Enterprise.
Several vulnerabilities are considered faultfinding and could live remotely exploited without requiring authentication.Database is faultfinding again
The eventual several updates from Oracle addressed few database flaws, but this latest CPU showed the flagship product a Little bit of love. Oracle Database Server has nine modern security fixes, of which only one was rated faultfinding with a CVSS v3 foundation score of 9.1. However, that vulnerability in OJVM (CVE 2016-5555), which affects Oracle Database Server 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124, cannot live remotely exploited over a network without requiring user credentials. In contrast, the six-year-old vulnerability in the Application Express component (CVE-2010-5312) has a CVSS v3 score of 6.1 but can live exploited over the network without authentication.
An issue with the DBA-level privileged accounts (CVE 2016-3562) applies to client-only installations and doesn't need to occupy Oracle Database Server installed.
Two vulnerabilities in Oracle Secure Backup may live remotely exploitable without authentication, but were rated 5.8 on the CVSS v3 scale, making them of medium severity. The eventual security flaw, in Oracle mountainous Data Graph, is related to the Apache Commons Collections and is not remotely exploitable without authentication.
For Oracle MySQL, the most grave security flaws are in the Server:Security:Encryption component (CVE-2016-6304) and in the Python Connector (CVE-2016-5598) because they may live remotely exploited without authentication. Even so, Oracle did not consider these issues critical, assigning them CVSS v3 scores of 7.5 and 5.6, respectively. There were three fixes for the Encryption component and six for InnoDB.
Databases are typically not exposed to the internet, but administrators should diagram on patching the vulnerabilities in MySQL Connector and Application Express as they are remotely exploitable and attackers can utilize them after compromising another system on the network.Keep that Java patched
Administrators who uphold Java applications should pay immediate attention to the Java patches, as Oracle released seven faultfinding security updates that move every version of Java Platforms 6, 7, and 8, and eight faultfinding security updates for Oracle's Java-powered WebLogic and GlassFish application platforms. Nearly every bit of of the disclosed vulnerabilities are remotely exploitable without authentication, meaning any application running on the current or earlier versions of these Java products could live susceptible to remote attacks and exploitation.
Two of the Java Platform vulnerabilities move the Java Management Extensions (JMXs) and Networking APIs built into the Java Platform. faultfinding Java applications are likely operating with these flawed APIs and should live prioritized for patching as quickly as possible.
"These two APIs are present and loaded in every bit of but the most paltry Java applications," said Waratek CTO John Matthew Holt.
The CVSS scores for the Java security flaws assume that the user running the Java applet or Java Web Start application has administrator privileges. This is a common user scenario in Windows, which is why the scores are so high. In environments where users attain not occupy administrator privileges -- a typical situation for Solaris and Linux users, and likewise for some Windows users -- the repercussion scores drop significantly. A CVSS v3 foundation score of 9.6 for a Java SE flaw drops to 7.1 in those deployments, Oracle said in the advisory.
Java on Windows machines should occupy priority. This advisory likewise shows why it pays off for Windows administrators to not give higher privileges by default to their users.
"Users should only utilize the default Java Plug-in and Java Web Start from the latest JDK or JRE 8 releases," Oracle said.
Even though Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle Glassfish Server are grouped into Oracle Fusion Middleware, Holt highlighted the five vulnerabilities in WebLogic and two in GlassFish that are remotely exploitable over HTTP and HTTPS protocols without authentication. A successful exploit against faultfinding traffic applications on Java-powered WebLogic and GlassFish applications could hijack the application stack and expose confidential application data.
Remote exploits over HTTP/HTTPS pose grave risks due to the "ubiquity of HTTP/HTTPS access to Java-powered applications," Holt warned.Fixes in for Oracle Linux and Sun Systems, too
Oracle likewise fixed 13 flaws in Oracle Virtualization, four of which are remotely exploitable without authentication. Eight flaws affected Oracle VM VirtualBox, and the most faultfinding one, affecting the VirtualBox Remote Desktop Extension (CVE-2016-5605), applies to every solitary version of VirtualBox prior to 5.1.4.
Much enjoy the database issues, the flaw in VirtualBox's OpenSSL component (CVE-2016-6304) should live prioritized and patched immediately because attackers can utilize this flaw as they chase laterally through the network.
On the operating system, Oracle fixed 16 vulnerabilities in the Oracle Sun Systems Products Suite, which includes Solaris and the Sun ZFS Storage Appliance Kit. The CVSS v3 scores compass from 2.8 to 8.2, but three issues that can live exploited over a network without requiring user credentials are every bit of of low severity. Even so, administrators should pay attention to the fixes for ZFS Storage appliance's DNS, the IKE component in Solaris, and HTTP in Solaris because of the risk of a remote attack.Set the priority list
Organizations prioritize patches differently. One with a lot of Java users on Windows would bump up the patches' priority higher than one that's a pure-Linux shop. faultfinding traffic applications on WebLogic will need some attention, as will those organizations that utilize VirtualBox throughout their virtualized infrastructure.
Researchers at ERPScan sorted the fixed vulnerabilities by their CVSS v3 scores and preeminent that the flaw in Oracle WebLogic Server (CVE-2016-5535), which affects versions 10.3.6.0, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206, was third on the list. A successful assail can result in a takeover of Oracle WebLogic Server. The vulnerability in JavaSE's Hotspot subcomponent (CVE-2016-5582) was fifth. While easily exploitable, a successful assail using this vulnerability would require human interaction from a person other than the attacker.
Oracle didn't argue whether any of these flaws occupy been exploited in the wild, but warned against skipping the patches in favor of workarounds. While it's practicable to reduce the risk of successful assail by blocking network protocols or removing unavoidable privileges or access to unavoidable packages, they attain not correct the underlying problem.
"Due to the threat posed by a successful attack, Oracle strongly recommends that customers apply CPU fixes as soon as possible," the company wrote in the advisory accompanying the CPU release.
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