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310-012 exam Dumps Source : Solaris 8 System Administration II

Test Code : 310-012
Test designation : Solaris 8 System Administration II
Vendor designation : SUN
: 325 actual Questions

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SUN Solaris 8 System Administration

Solaris 8 consumer Administration tools | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration data; including, editing, and deleting person debts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account instructions in Solaris eight.

This pattern chapter is excerpted from solar licensed system Administrator for Solaris eight examine ebook, by passage of Peter Gregory.

This chapter is from the ebook 

After finishing this chapter, you will live able to

  • determine here login procedures: log perquisite into a equipment, log off of a device, and change login passwords.

  • State the command used to identify which users are at present logged into the gadget.

  • State the steps required to create consumer bills on the endemic gadget the usage of the admintool utility.

  • State the command syntax so as to add, modify, or delete consumer/neighborhood accounts on the endemic apparatus with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.

  • Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization info used to deploy a user's work environment at login.

  • to meet these targets, this chapter discusses:

  • consumer account configuration data;

  • including, modifying, and deleting user bills with Admintool;

  • including, enhancing, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;

  • person shells; and

  • user account commands.

  • Three primary information define the id of a consumer account: the password file, the shadow file, and the community file.

    The Password File

    The password file contains the primary making a choice on suggestions for each and every consumer allowed to entry a system. The gadget vicinity of the password file is /and many others/passwd. The format of the password file is:


    These fields are:

  • username—the identify that identifies the consumer account.

  • password—in Solaris eight an "x" in this box signifies that the corresponding shadow file includes the encrypted password string.

  • uid—the racy numerical identity assigned to the account. The optimum cost for UID is 2147483647, but directors are urged to utilize values below 60,000 to live unavoidable compatibility with the entire tools that are used to manage money owed or array tips that includes usernames.

  • gid—the basic (default) numerical neighborhood identification assigned to the account. fancy the UID field, the highest cost for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.

  • gcos-field—here's the person's actual identify (the time epoch "gcos-box" is the historical term for this container).

  • domestic-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this constantly includes the user's own files and directories.

  • login-shell—the prefatory shell it really is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this box is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.

  • The password file can live examine by anyone on the equipment. There isn't any information that occupy to live stored furtive in this file. A sample password file feels fancy this:

    root:x:0:1:super-user:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:three:three::/: adm:x:four:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:seventy one:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:four:community Admin:/usr/internet/nls: pete:x:a hundred:4:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh no one:x:60001:60001:no one:/:

    Fields within the password file are delimited with the aid of colons (":"), and clean fields are signified through two adjoining colons ("::"). as an example, live watchful that the account identify container for daemon is clean—simply two colons. additionally, daemon has no shell entry, so the ultimate character for daemon is the colon delimiter.

    The colon delimiter is additionally used within the shadow and community info, that are mentioned in a later area.

    it is viable and permissible to create a yoke of username within the password file with the equal UID. every username may occupy its personal wonderful password. despite the fact, tools comparable to ls and ps, when used with alternatives exhibiting username, will monitor the first username found in the password file matching the UID.

    When a fresh account is brought, changed, or eliminated with the useradd, usermod, or userdel instructions (that are discussed later in this chapter), the gadget creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.

    The Shadow File

    The shadow file carries every consumer account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The gadget location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:


    These fields are:

  • username—here is the equal username present in the password file.

  • password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this box consists of a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.

  • lastchg—date of closing password trade (actually the variety of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password become ultimate modified).

  • min—minimum variety of days allowed earlier than the password may likewise live modified.

  • max—optimum number of days allowed before the password expires.

  • warn—the number of days earlier than expiration that the consumer is warned.

  • inactive—the variety of days of state of being dormant allowed for the account before the account is immediately locked.

  • expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.

  • flag—a container reserved for future use.

  • The shadow file is restricted so that most effectual the apparatus administrator can study it. here's because an interloper could role a "dictionary assault," the usage of guessable passwords in an try to assess the passwords for one or extra money owed. classes that "crack" account passwords are available for this goal; as a result, the shadow file isn't publicly readable.

    A pattern shadow file feels fancy this:

    root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: hear:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: nobody:NP:6445::::::

    note that one of the crucial money owed within the sample shadow file occupy "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are only two approaches of signifying that the bills are locked towards login. there's nothing truly magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one passage of effectively displaying that these accounts are locked and going to stay that way. You could build other text within the password box to suit your wants; for instance, a helpdesk ticket quantity or a date.

    When a consumer adjustments his or her password, the gadget creates a backup reproduction of the shadow file, referred to as /etc/oshadow. This additionally happens if root adjustments a consumer's password.

    exam Notes

    feel About It . . .

    Why are encrypted passwords present in /etc/shadow and never in /and many others/passwd?

    for many commands (ps, ls, and so forth.) to work properly, /etc/passwd should live world readable. ahead of using /etc/shadow, full clients' encrypted password strings were additionally publicly readable. This gave americans with "password cracking" courses a chance to ascertain different users' passwords. by relocating the encrypted password strings to /and so on/shadow (which may likewise live study simplest with the aid of root), the means to entry encrypted passwords is eradicated.

    First, a miniature bit of background. Older versions of UNIX did not occupy a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string become present in the password file, within the 2d box it really is usually stuffed with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris silent supports the encrypted password acting in the password file, although this is no longer really useful, for the judgement that the password file is publicly readable.

    Older versions of UNIX with out a shadow file additionally had no password-getting frail capability.

    The network tips system (NIS) subsystem turned into designed around the frail shadow-much less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it lead password ageing.

    The neighborhood File

    The group file carries a listing of the entire groups on the device, together with each and every group's numeric groupid and an inventory of each of the usernames which are secondary members of each and every community. The plot of the group file is /and so on/community. The layout of the neighborhood file is:


    These fields are:

  • groupname—this is the designation of the neighborhood.

  • password—this is an not obligatory password for the community.

  • gid—the racy numerical identity assigned to the community. The optimum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are advised to bow utilize of values less than 60,000 to bow unavoidable compatibility with full of the tools which are used to control money owed or expose tips that comprises neighborhood names.

  • user-list—a comma-separated record of users allowed in the group. These businesses are clients' secondary community IDs.

  • A pattern group file follows.

    root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::three:root,bin,sys,adm adm::four:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::eight:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp team of workers:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: no one::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:

    be watchful the password field in the community "team of workers." groups can live password included through inserting a password string into the password box. observe, though, that this is a very lead manner; there are no apparatus supplied to plot the group password in for you.

    trace: that you may rear a password string from the shadow file and utilize the vi editor to splice it into the community file. The group password will live the equal as the account password from the shadow entry the plot you took the password string.

    When a group is password protected, any one who is not a member of the neighborhood could live challenged for the neighborhood's password when they've entered the newgrp command.

    simple and Secondary Groupids

    each and every consumer account has one fundamental groupid—here is the community defined in the password file. When a person logs on, here is his or her associated groupid.

    each and every consumer account likewise has zero or more secondary groupids. A person's secondary corporations are those community entries that include the username of their lists of contributors.

    There are some effectual obstacles of groupids. as an instance, each user account may likewise live in no greater than sixteen organizations, and a line in the neighborhood file can't exceed 512 characters (together with the newline persona).

    What happens if you should add so many individuals to a gaggle that you just exceed the 512-personality entry limit? You simply create a different replica community entry—identical identify and community quantity—and list the extra individuals there.

    The primary and secondary groupids at once move file gadget entry permissions, which is explored thoroughly in Chapter 10.

    examination Notes

    consider About It . . .

    What often is the outcome if a username occupy been brought to a gaggle file entry when that group was the consumer's primary neighborhood?

    The additional entry would occupy no impact, considering the person is already configured for the fundamental neighborhood membership in the /and so on/passwd file.

    the root Account

    the foundation account has particular privileges on a equipment: Root is permitted to study and write every file on a system, in spite of the file's ownership and leave settings. system directors log in with the root account that allows you to operate administrative initiatives.

    the root account gets its power and privilege from the cost of its user number: Root is person quantity zero, described in the password file.

    examination Notes

    think About It . . .

    What could live the consequences of changing a household consumer's person quantity to zero? What potential could there live of inserting root's entry at the conclusion of the passwd file (in its plot of the starting)?

    altering a regular person's consumer number to zero gives the consumer root privileges.

    One skills of inserting root on the conclusion of the password file is that if an interloper is in a position to adjust the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands equivalent to ls and ps would exhibit that different person because the owner of root strategies and data.

    Buhari swears in 8 perm secs with can saturate to transparent up system’s rot | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Juliana Taiwo-Obalonye, Abuja

    President Muhammadu Buhari on Wednesday stated, past administrations abused the federal civil service and undermined provider dawn to the individuals.

    He cited this at the swearing in of eight everlasting secretaries from eight states the plot vacancies existed.

    in response to him, past administrations “abused, undermined and destroyed the device of exams and balances inside the civil service that turned into intended to give protection to and maintain the activity of their residents.”

    The president delivered that it turned into this systemic misuse of energy that “significantly enriched just a few privileged individuals while on the identical time making the vast majority of their fellow citizens poorer and underserved.

    “in consequence, many Nigerians misplaced self credit in the govt and its means to carry the required information and service to their individuals.”

    President Buhari reiterated that his administration had considering he came into office in can likewise 2015, delivered on its three cardinal programmes: protection, inclusive and diverse economic building and battle towards corruption and misuse of vigour.

    He expressed delight that in under 4 years, “we've made growth on full fronts working very collaboratively with the civil carrier.”

    Buhari charged the fresh appointees to key “into the administration’s programmes aimed at reforming Nigeria and restoring the self assurance of Nigerians in executive and the civil provider.

    “To enable you to achieve this, they approved the Federal Civil provider strategy and Implementation scheme 2017 to 2020. This scheme will bow sure that the civil provider is sufficiently manned and fitted to role successfully because it implements govt policies for inclusive boom and development.

    “When thoroughly carried out, they would occupy efficaciously transformed the civil service into an efficient, productive, incorruptible and citizen-centreded machinery of govt.

    “therefore, l wish to rear this chance to solicit your assist and cooperation as they invoke full of the programmes of executive in a influence-oriented method on the passage to travel away an indelible legacy.

    “In doing this, you requisite to full remain above board and eschew partisanship your selections and actions. You ought to strive to achieve excellence continually. Your motto may silent live civility and serviceability.”

    President Buhari unavoidable the entire civil provider and the broader public provider of the commitment of his administration to its welfare and skill construction consistently.

    He congratulated the newly-sworn in everlasting secretaries, announcing “here's an outstanding fulfillment for which you should live proud. best a tiny percent of Nigerians bow it to this stage. i'm sure that your journey to attain this apex position within the federal civil provider has been full of challenges and sacrifices.

    “nowadays you and your households will occupy a obliging time the reward of the a long time of provider that you've build in.

    “As you occupy fun this miraculous achievement, I additionally are looking to remind you that the oath you simply took and the position you currently dangle advance with loads of duties.

    “Now more than ever earlier than, their nation needs a extremely vibrant, skilled and selfless civil service in an distress to advocate their country overcome its pressing problems.

    “As politicians, they expand policies and provide strategic course for the nation. despite the fact, the stint of imposing these guidelines and methods rests within the arms of the civil carrier beneath the ready recommendation of the permanent secretaries.”

    The everlasting secretaries had been sworn in presently earlier than the graduation of the Federal govt Council (FEC) meeting.

    here's the 2d FEC meeting for the judgement that the yr started to live presided over by passage of President Buhari, the primary assembly held on January 9, where the institution of four fresh deepest universities became accredited.

    The permanent secretaries took their oaths of office in two batches.

    the fresh permanent secretaries are Abel, Olumuyiwa Enitan (Osun State), Dr. Mohammed Dikwa (Borno), Dr. Ajani Magdalene N. Olor (Delta) and Festus Yusuf Narai Daudu (Nasarawa). Others are Mbaeri, Maurice Nnamdi (Imo), Dr. Bakari Wadinga (Adamawa), Babatunde Lawal (Lagos), and Umakhihe Ernest Afolabi (Edo).

    sun certified Solaris Administrator: Job data & requirements | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    licensed Solaris administrators are specialized techniques administrators that preserve laptop programs and networks in keeping with Solaris expertise. massive organizations, non-earnings organizations and governmental businesses, among others, are ordinary employers of certified Solaris administrators. day-to-day responsibilities include presenting operational guide, conducting preventative upkeep, performing server optimization and making scheduled server backups.

    schooling Bachelor's degree in community or methods administration always required Job competencies communique, hardship fixing, evaluation, work experienceMedian earnings (2016)* $eighty two,548 for sun Solaris apparatus directors Job growth (2014-2024)** eight% for community and computer programs directors

    supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor information

    Required education

    certified Solaris directors continually occupy a bachelor's degree in community or programs administration. Core coursework usually covers issues in networking infrastructure, protocols and safety. students additionally learn the passage to work with UNIX server and windows working programs. Prior journey as a community technician or advocate desk worker can live primarily helpful. Certification courses and materials can live found during the Oracle traffic enterprise or permitted practicing centers; candidates trap hold of their credentials after passing an examination.

    talents Required

    systems directors in common may silent occupy sturdy analytical, communication and problem-solving competencies. a radical figuring out of the underlying technologies and ideas of Solaris working programs and know-how is elementary, as smartly as the capacity to deal with multiplie projects and responsibilities.

    Employment and salary Outlook

    The U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS) stated that employment of network and computer methods directors, including certified Solaris administrators, will develop with the aid of an medium cost of eight% nationwide between 2014 to 2024. according to the BLS, the median annual salary for network and laptop techniques administrators became $seventy seven,810 in may likewise 2015. in line with statistics from PayScale.com, the median income for a sun Solaris techniques administrator changed into $82,548 in January 2016.

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    Solaris 8 System Administration II

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    Disk Slices | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    Disks are divided into regions called “disk slices” or “disk partitions.” A slice is composed of a single purview of contiguous blocks. It is a physical subset of the disk (except for slice 2, which represents the entire disk). A UFS or the swap belt is built within these disk slices. The boundaries of a disk slice are defined when a disk is partitioned using the format utility, and the slice information for a particular disk can live viewed by using the prtvtoc command. Each disk slice appears to the OS (and to the system administrator) as though it were a sever disk drive.

    Disk slicing differs between the SPARC and x86 platforms. On the SPARC platform, the entire disk is devoted to the OS; the disk can live divided into 8 slices, numbered 0 to 7. On the x86 platform, the disk is divided into fdisk partitions using the fdisk command. The fdisk partition is divided into 10 slices, numbered 0 to 9.

    A physical disk consists of a stack of circular platters. Data is stored on these platters in a cylindrical pattern called “cylinders” as illustrated in figure 4-1. Cylinders can live grouped and isolated from one another. A group of cylinders is referred to as a slice. A slice is defined with start and halt points, starting from the outside of the platters to the focus of the stack of platters, which is called the “spindle.”

    For example, a 73GB SCSI disk has 14,087 cylinders, numbered 0 to 14,086. Cylinder 0 is on the outside edge of the platters, and cylinder 14,086 is the closest to the spindle. Disk slices are defined by an offset and a size in cylinders. The offset is the distance from cylinder 0. To define a slice, the administrator provides a starting cylinder and an ending cylinder. A slice spanning from cylinder 0 to 14,086 would utilize the entire disk and is typical of the slicing scheme used on a ZFS boot disk.

    When setting up slices, recollect these rules:

  • Each disk slice holds only one file system.
  • No file system can span multiple slices without the utilize of a volume manager such as ZFS or SVM.
  • After a file system is created, its size cannot live increased or decreased without repartitioning and possibly destroying the partition directly before or after it.
  • Slices cannot span multiple disks; however, multiple swap slices on sever disks are allowed.
  • When they discuss ZFS in Chapter 5, you’ll learn how to trap around some of these limitations in file systems.

    Displaying Disk Configuration Information

    As described earlier, disk configuration information is stored in the disk label. If you know the disk and slice number, you can array information for a disk by using the print volume table of contents (prtvtoc) command. You can specify the volume by specifying any slice defined on the disk (for example, /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s2 or /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s*). Regardless of which slice you specify, full slices defined on the disk will live displayed. If you know the target number of the disk but Do not know how it is divided into slices, you can expose information for the entire disk by specifying either slice 2 or s*. The following steps expose how you can examine information stored on a disk’s label by using the prtvtoc command.

  • Become the superuser.
  • Type the following text and press Enter.

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    * /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 424 sectors/track * 24 tracks/cylinder * 10176 sectors/cylinder * 14089 cylinders * 14087 accessible cylinders * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * Unallocated space: * First Sector Last * Sector signify Sector * 0 10176 10175 * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector signify Sector Mount Directory 0 2 00 10176 143339136 143349311 2 5 01 0 143349312 143349311
  • The disk described is a SAS disk, target 0 with an SMI VTOC label. The prtvtoc command shows the number of cylinders and heads, as well as how the disk’s slices are arranged.

    The following is an sample of running the prtvtoc command on a SCSI disk with an EFI label:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1<cr> * /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 8385121 sectors * 8385054 accessible sectors * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector signify Sector Mount Directory 0 2 01 34 41006 41039 1 2 00 41040 8327663 8368702 /mnt 8 11 00 8368703 16384 8385086 Using the format Utility to Create Slices: SPARC

    Before you can create a file system on a disk, the disk must live formatted, and you must divide it into slices using the format utility. Formatting involves two sever processes:

  • Writing format information to the disk
  • Completing a surface analysis, which compiles an up-to-date list of disk defects
  • When a disk is formatted, header and trailer information is superimposed on the disk. When the format utility runs a surface analysis, the controller scans the disk for defects. It should live famed that defects and formatting information reduce the total disk space available for data. This is why a fresh disk usually holds only 90% to 95% of its capacity after formatting. This percentage varies according to disk geometry and decreases as the disk ages and develops more defects.

    The requisite to achieve a surface analysis on a disk drive has dropped as more manufacturers ship their disk drives formatted and partitioned. You should not requisite to achieve a surface analysis within the format utility when adding a disk drive to an existing system unless you deem disk defects are causing problems. The primary judgement that you would utilize format is if you want to view or change the partitioning scheme on a disk.

    The format utility searches your system for full attached disk drives and reports the following information about the disk drives it finds:

  • Target location
  • Disk geometry
  • Whether the disk is formatted
  • Whether the disk has mounted partitions
  • In addition, the format utility is used in disk repair operations to Do the following:

  • Retrieve disk labels
  • Repair defective sectors
  • Format and dissect disks
  • Partition disks
  • Label disks (i.e., write the disk designation and configuration information to the disk for future retrieval)
  • The installation program partitions and labels disk drives as share of installing the Oracle Solaris release. However, you might requisite to utilize the format utility when doing the following:

  • Displaying slice information
  • Dividing a disk into slices
  • Formatting a disk drive when you deem disk defects are causing problems
  • Repairing a disk drive
  • Changing a disk label from EFI to SMI or vice versa
  • The following sample uses the format utility to create disk slices on a disk.

  • Become the superuser
  • Type “code.”

    The system responds with the following:

    Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c0t0d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@0,0 1. c0t1d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@1,0
  • Specify the disk (enter its number).

    The system responds with the format main menu:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - portray the current disk format - format and dissect the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk dissect - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and array labels deliver - deliver fresh disk/partition definitions inquisition - expose vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit

    Table 4-4 describes the format main menu items.

    Table 4-4 Format Main Menu detail Descriptions

    Menu Item



    Lists full of the system’s drives. likewise lets you pick the disk you want to utilize in subsequent operations. This disk is referred to as the current disk.


    Identifies the manufacturer and model of the current disk. likewise displays a list of known drive types. pick the Auto configure option for full SCSI-2 disk drives.


    Creates and modifies slices.


    Describes the current disk (that is, device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and physical device name).


    Formats the current disk using one of these sources of information in this order:

    Information that is found in the format.dat file.

    Information from the automatic configuration process.

    Information that you type at the prompt if no format.dat entry exists.

    This command does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks are preformatted by the manufacturer.


    x86 platform only: Runs the fdisk program to create an Oracle Solaris fdisk partition.


    Used to repair a specific shroud on the current disk.


    Writes a fresh label to the current disk. This is not the selfsame as labeling the disk with volname.


    Runs read, write, and compare tests.


    Retrieves and displays defect lists. This feature does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks manage defects automatically.


    Searches for backup labels if the VTOC becomes corrupted or gets deleted.


    Displays information about the current disk such as device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and partition table.


    Saves fresh disk and partition information.


    SCSI disks only: Displays the vendor, product name, and revision smooth of the current drive. This will likewise array the disk’s current firmware.


    Labels the disk with a fresh eight-character volume designation that you specify. This is not the selfsame as writing the partition table to disk using label.


    Exits the format menu. Pressing Ctrl+D will likewise exit the format utility from the main menu or from any submenu.

  • Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.

    format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table designation - designation the current table print - array the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
  • Type “print” to array the current partition map.

    partition> print<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 24620 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1418 - 9924 11.72GB (8507/0/0) 24576723 1 var wm 9925 - 13469 4.88GB (3545/0/0) 10241505 2 backup wm 0 - 24619 33.92GB (24620/0/0) 71127180 3 swap wu 0 - 1417 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 4 unassigned wm 13470 - 14887 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 5 unassigned wm 14888 - 16112 1.69GB (1225/0/0) 3539025 6 unassigned wm 16113 - 16821 1000.15MB (709/0/0) 2048301 7 home wm 16822 - 23910 9.77GB (7089/0/0) 20480121

    The columns displayed with the partition table are

  • Part: The slice number (0–7).
  • Tag: This is an optional value that indicates how the slice is being used. The value can live any of the following names that best fits the role of the file system you are creating:

    unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates, reserved, system, BIOS_boot

  • Flag: Values in this column can be

  • wm The disk slice is writable and mountable.
  • wu The disk slice is writable and unmountable (such as a swap slice).
  • rm The disk slice is read-only and mountable.
  • ru The disk slice is read-only and unmountable.
  • Cylinders: The starting and ending cylinder number for the disk slice.
  • Size: The slice size specified as

  • mb megabytes
  • gb gigabytes
  • b blocks
  • c cylinders
  • b Blocks
  • e Ending cylinder
  • You can utilize the designation and deliver commands in the partition menu to designation and deliver a newly created partition table to a file that can live referenced by designation later, when you want to utilize this selfsame partition scheme on another disk. When issuing the designation command, you’ll provide a unique designation for this partition scheme and then issue the deliver command to deliver the information to the ./format.dat file. Normally this file is located in the /etc directory, so provide the full pathname for /etc/format.dat to update the master file.

  • After you partition the disk, you must label it by typing label at the partition prompt:

    partition> label<cr>

    You are asked for confirmation on labeling the disk as follows:

    Ready to label disk, continue? y<cr>

    Enter “Y” to continue.

  • After labeling the disk, type “quit” to exit the partition menu or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility:

    partition> quit<cr>
  • Type “quit” again to exit the format utility:

    format> quit<cr>
  • It’s Important to point out a few undesirable things that can chance when defining disk partitions with the format utility if you’re not careful. First, live mindful not to squander disk space. Wasted disk space can occur when you diminish the size of one slice and Do not adjust the starting cylinder number of the adjoining disk slice.

    Second, don’t overlap disk slices. Overlapping occurs when one or more cylinders are allocated to more than one disk slice. For example, increasing the size of one slice without decreasing the size of the adjoining slice will create overlapping partitions. The format utility will not caution you of wasted disk space or overlapping partitions.

    The main judgement a system administrator uses the format utility is to divide a disk into disk slices. In Oracle Solaris 11 11/11, for a bootable ZFS root pool, the disks in the pool must contain slices and must live labeled with an SMI label. The simplest configuration would live to build the entire disk capacity in slice 0 and utilize that slice for the root pool. Bootable ZFS root pools are discussed further in Chapter 5.

    I’ll portray how to utilize the SMI label for SPARC-based systems. For example, on a SPARC-based system with a 72GB disk, you would requisite to occupy 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. Similarly, on an x86-based system with a 72GB disk, you would likewise requisite to allow 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. A tiny amount of boot information is contained in slice 8. Slice 8 requires no administration and cannot live changed.

    Follow these steps to partition a disk (c2t0d0) to live used as a ZFS boot disk (bootable ZFS root pool) on a SPARC-based system. If the disk has an EFI label, and the firmware has not been upgraded, you must first convert it to an SMI label.

    Use the prtvtoc command to verify the disk label as follows:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>

    The system displays

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1 - 14086 68.35GB (14086/0/0) 143339136 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    Notice that slice 2 is labeled “backup” and the slices are numbered 0-7. This is an SMI label.

    The following shows the output that is displayed for a disk with an EFI label:

    Part Tag Flag First Sector Size ultimate Sector 0 usr wm 34 68.36GB 143358320 1 unassigned wm 0 0 0 2 unassigned wm 0 0 0 3 unassigned wm 0 0 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 0 8 reserved wm 143358321 8.00MB 143374704

    Notice there is a slice 8 and slice 2 is NOT labeled “backup.” This is an EFI label and would requisite to live changed. utilize the following steps to change the label from an EFI label to an SMI label:

  • As root, utilize the format -e command and select the disk to label as follows:

    # format –e<cr>

    The system displays a list of disks. In the example, I selected disk 1 (c2t1d0):

    Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr> selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
  • The main menu is displayed. type “label” to label the disk:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - portray the current disk format - format and dissect the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk dissect - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and array labels inquisition - expose disk ID scsi - independent SCSI mode selects cache - enable, disable or query SCSI disk cache volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit format> label<cr>
  • Select option 1 to label the disk with an SMI label and press Enter when prompted for autoconfiguration:

    [0] SMI Label [1] EFI Label Specify Label type[1]: 0<cr> Auto configuration via format.dat[no]?<cr> Auto configuration via generic SCSI-2[no]?<cr> format>
  • Exit the format utility.

    format> quit<cr>
  • To slice the disk so that it can live used as a ZFS boot disk, ensue these steps:

  • As root, enter the format utility:

    # format<cr> Searching for disks ... done

    Select the disk that is going to live sliced. In the example, I will select disk 1 (c2t1d0):

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr>

    The system responds with

    selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
  • Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.

    format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table designation - designation the current table print - array the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
  • Type “print” to array the current partition map.

    partition> print<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    partition> print<cr> Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 25 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 1 swap wu 26 - 51 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 52 - 14086 68.10GB (14035/0/0) 142820160 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
  • Enter “modify” to change the partition table:

    partition> modify<cr>
  • Select option 1 for “All Free Hog” when prompted:

    Select partitioning base: 0. Current partition table (original) 1. full Free Hog Choose basis (enter number) [0]? 1<cr> Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
  • Type “yes” when asked whether to continue:

    Do you wish to continue creating a fresh partition table based on above table[yes]? yes<cr>

    Type “0” for the Free Hog partition:

    Free Hog partition[6]? 0<cr>
  • The system will prompt you to enter a size for each partition. Press Enter when prompted as follows, and each slice will live 0MB:

    Enter size of partition '1' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '3' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '4' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '5' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '6' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '7' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr>

    Because full of the slices occupy been set to “0,” the free hog space is the entire disk. This space will live allocated to slice 0 as specified in step 6.

  • When prompted to bow this the current partition table, press Enter to utilize the default value “yes”:

    Okay to bow this the current partition table[yes]?<cr>
  • When prompted for a table name, enter “rootdisk.” This designation is not significant and can live any name.

    Enter table designation (remember quotes): rootdisk<cr>

    Enter “pr” to array the fresh partition table:

    partition> pr<cr> Current partition table (unnamed): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>

    Notice that slice 0 is the entire disk.

  • Enter “quit” or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility.

    partition> quit<cr>
  • Using the format Utility to Create Slices: x86

    As described earlier in this chapter, Oracle Solaris on the x86 platform treats disk drives slightly differently than on the SPARC-based systems. Disks on the x86 platform must occupy an fdisk partition table. The x86-based systems utilize the fdisk partition table to identify parts of the disk reserved for different OSs and to identify the partition that the system will boot from. This boot partition is referred to as the “active disk” partition. You can allocate one fdisk partition on a disk to live used for Oracle Solaris.

    On an x86-based system, once a disk drive has been physically installed and verified as working, you’ll utilize the format command to slice the disk, but first an fdisk partition must live created on the fresh drive. You can create this fdisk partition using the fdisk command from the command line or through the format utility. The following steps portray how to create a fixed disk partition table on a disk using the format utility:

  • As root, type “format” to trap into the format utility.

    # format<cr>

    The following menu appears:

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c1t0d0 <FUJITSU-M1606S-512-6234 cyl 3455 alt 2 hd 6 sec 102> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@0,0 1. c1t1d0 <IBM-DFHSS1W!e-4141 cyl 4071 alt 2 hd 4 sec 135> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@1,0 2. c1t2d0 <DEFAULT cyl 2928 alt 2 hd 6 sec 120> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@2,0 Specify disk (enter its number):
  • Enter the number corresponding to the fresh drive and the following menu will live displayed:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - portray the current disk format - format and dissect the disk fdisk - sprint the fdisk program repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk dissect - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and array labels deliver - deliver fresh disk/partition definitions inquisition - expose vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name5 quit format>
  • Select the fdisk option and the following menu appears:

    The recommended default partitioning for your disk is: a 100% "SOLARIS System" partition. To select this, tickle type "y". To partition your disk differently, type "n" and the "fdisk" program will let you select other partitions.
  • If you wish to utilize the entire drive for Oracle Solaris, enter “Y.” This will return you to the format menu. If “N” is entered, the fdisk menu will live displayed.

    Total disk size is 4073 cylinders Cylinder size is 540 (512 byte) blocks Cylinders Partition Status type Start halt Length ========= ====== ======== ===== === ====== === THERE ARE NO PARTITIONS CURRENTLY DEFINED SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. Create a partition 2. Change vigorous (Boot from) partition 3. Delete a partition 4. Exit (Update disk configuration and exit) 5. Cancel (Exit without updating disk configuration) Enter Selection:
  • Choose 1 to create an fdisk partition. This is not the selfsame as a slice.
  • After creating the partition, pick 4 to exit and save. The format menu will return.
  • Choose partition and ensue the procedure for formatting a disk on page 272, dawn at step 4.
  • Disks on x86-based systems can live divided into 10 slices labeled slice 0 through slice 9. On Oracle Solaris 11/11, slices 0 through 7 are used for the selfsame purposes as disk slices found on SPARC-based systems. Slice 2 represents full of the space within the fdisk partition. As stated earlier, slices 8 and 9 are used for purposes specific to x86-based hardware. You cannot modify slices 8 and 9 using the format utility. dawn with Oracle Solaris 11.1, the boot disk on an x86-based system can contain an EFI label, and the partition scheme is slightly different than the SPARC system. Slice 0 is reserved for the BIOS_boot information. I’ll portray this more in the next chapter.

    Here’s an sample of the partition table on an IDE or SATA disk on an x86-based system running Oracle Solaris 11/11, as displayed by the format utility:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 alternates wm 1 - 2 15.69MB (2/0/0) 32130

    In the previous example, notice that slice 9 is defined and tagged as the alternates slice.

    The next sample shows the partition table for a SCSI disk attached to an x86-based system. Notice that partition 8 is assigned, but slice 9 is not used:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    One more detail of note: On yardstick UFSs, don’t change the size of disk slices that are currently in use. When a disk with existing slices is repartitioned and relabeled, any existing data will live lost. Before repartitioning a disk, first copy full of the data to tape or to another disk.

    You can likewise create the fixed disk partition table on an x86-based system disk from the command line using a single command as follows:

    # fdisk –B c1t0d0<cr>

    The –B option creates a single fixed disk partition that spans the entire disk. The following 36GB disk was formatted using the fdisk –B command:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 4695 35.97GB (4696/0/0) 75441240 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    The fdisk –B command can likewise live used to convert a disk label from an EFI to SMI.

    To verify that a disk contains a fixed disk partition table, issue the following command:

    # fdisk -v -W - /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p<cr>

    The system displays the fdisk table for disk c3t0d0:

    * /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p0 default fdisk table * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 63 sectors/track * 255 tracks/cylinder * 2088 cylinders * * systid: * 1: DOSOS12 * 2: PCIXOS * 4: DOSOS16 * 5: EXTDOS * 6: DOSBIG * 7: FDISK_IFS * 8: FDISK_AIXBOOT * 9: FDISK_AIXDATA * 10: FDISK_0S2BOOT * 11: FDISK_WINDOWS * 12: FDISK_EXT_WIN * 14: FDISK_FAT95 * 15: FDISK_EXTLBA * 18: DIAGPART * 65: FDISK_LINUX * 82: FDISK_CPM * 86: DOSDATA * 98: OTHEROS * 99: UNIXOS * 100: FDISK_NOVELL2 * 101: FDISK_NOVELL3 * 119: FDISK_QNX4 * 120: FDISK_QNX42 * 121: FDISK_QNX43 * 130: SUNIXOS * 131: FDISK_LINUXNAT * 134: FDISK_NTFSVOL1 * 135: FDISK_NTFSVOL2 * 165: FDISK_BSD * 167: FDISK_NEXTSTEP * 183: FDISK_BSDIFS * 184: FDISK_BSDISWAP * 190: X86BOOT * 191: SUNIXOS2 * 238: EFI_PMBR * 239: EFI_FS * Id Act Bhead Bsect Bcyl Ehead Esect Ecyl Rsect Numsect 191 128 0 1 1 254 63 1023 16065 33527655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

    When there are multiple disks of the selfsame type (manufacturer, model, size, and geometry) to live sliced, you can deliver time by copying the label from a source disk over to a target disk without going through full of the steps using the format utility. utilize the prtvtoc command to trap the partition table from the source disk (c0t0d0) and write the table to the target disk (c0t1d0) using the fmthard command as follows:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard –s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2<cr>

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    The cause was congestive heart failure, said his daughter, Nina Gardner.

    Gardner spent more than half a century affecting between academia and government, training the legal and economic expertise that he gained as a Yale law student and Rhodes scholar on some of the most pressing global concerns of the frosty War and its aftermath.

    At Columbia, he was best known for his seminar "Legal Aspects of U.S. alien Economic Policy," which he taught from 1955 until his retirement in 2012. Enrollment was famously competitive, and Gardner invited those admitted to complete notecards with their contact information and career aspirations.

    He called upon those notecards years later to recommend his former students for influential posts in government and beyond, building what the Chronicle of Higher Education once described as "a global network of lawyers, diplomats, traffic leaders and policy makers."

    Gardner held a sequence of his own influential government posts dawn in the 1960s, when he served under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson as deputy coadjutant secretary of state for international organization affairs. He later served as ambassador to Italy from 1977 to 1981, under President Jimmy Carter, and as ambassador to Spain from 1993 to 1997, under President Bill Clinton.

    He was a forceful proponent of international institutions including the United Nations and their role in addressing such problems as environmental degradation - an belt where he was credited with sounding a prescient alarm.

    "We are finally dawn to recognize that how a nation deals with its national environment is no longer its own and nobody else's business," he wrote in a fresh York Times commentary in 1970. "We are dawn to comprehend the union of the world's ecological system, which means that full nations may live affected by how any one of them treats its air, water and land."

    He faced perhaps his most challenging government assignment as ambassador to Italy, at a time when the Communist Party seemed ascendant and when the country was in the throes of the violence sponsored by the leftist Red Brigades.

    In the past, the United States had sought to influence Italian elections through CIA activity, according to journalist Tim Weiner's book "Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA." Gardner said that as ambassador he vowed to reverence Carter's inaugural vow that "we will not behave in alien places so as to violate their rules and standards here at home."

    "I took that very seriously," Gardner recalled in remarks before the Council on alien Relations in 2005. "I said, they are going to combat the communists, but using public diplomacy. . . . There are going to live no filthy tricks."

    He invited to the U.S. Embassy Italian cultural figures including filmmaker Federico Fellini and writers Leonardo Sciascia and Alberto Moravia, who he said had been previously omitted from official guest lists because of their leftists politics. The Times described him as the "first American ambassador to Italy to bow formal approaches to the Communist Party."

    Writing in the Times in 1983, he recalled engaging in "much table pounding in Washington" to obtain funds to train Italian teachers of English and English-speaking teachers of Italian.

    He likewise sought to expand the number of American texts available to Italian readers, noting ruefully that when he requested an Italian translation of the Federalist Papers, he scholarly they had been out of print in Italian for years. The works of Marx , Lenin and Stalin, however, were widely available.

    He was credited with helping convince Italy to become the first European country to accept U.S. cruise missiles on its land, an Important achievement at the time. But "we look to occupy forgotten the obvious verity that you don't safeguard national security with arms alone," he wrote in the Times commentary. "The Soviet SS-20 missile is a threat to European security, but just as much a threat is the leisurely and even erosion of common values and interests that is the foundation of the Atlantic alliance."

    Richard Newton Gardner was born in fresh York City on July 9, 1927. His father was a lawyer, and his mother was a homemaker.

    After stateside Army service during World War II, Gardner received a bachelor's degree in economics from Harvard University in 1948. He was a 1951 graduate of Yale Law School and received a PhD in economics from the University of Oxford in 1954.

    His books included "Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy: The Origins and the Prospects of Their International Economic Order" (1956), "In Pursuit of World Order: U.S. alien Policy and International Organizations" (1964), and a memoir, "Mission Italy: On the Front Lines of the frosty War" (2005).

    Gardner advised two Democratic presidential candidates, Clinton in 1992 and Al Gore in 1998, on alien policy during their White House campaigns. As ambassador to Spain during the Clinton administration, he sought to safeguard intellectual property rights for U.S. software makers and to boost sales of U.S. helicopters.

    His wife of 51 years, the former Danielle Luzzatto, died in 2008. Survivors include two children, Nina Gardner of Washington and Anthony Gardner, who served under President Barack Obama as U.S. ambassador to the European Union, of London; and three grandchildren.

    His wife, whose family, fancy Gardner's, was of Jewish heritage, was born in Italy and fled to the United States after the promulgation of the 1938 anti-Semitic racial laws under fascist dictator Benito Mussolini.

    Gardner credited her as a co-ambassador, especially during their time in Italy. She once came home from the hairdresser and reported that she had heard from the mistress of "Minister X" that the minister was going to resign - "and it was an Important minister," Gardner joked before the Council on alien Relations.

    He informed his colleagues in the CIA, who did not believe the report, until the minister stepped down that Friday. The following Monday, his colleagues demanded to know where he had gotten his tip. "I took much joy," he recalled, "in maxim to the CIA, 'I never disclose sources.' "

    New York’s public housing system is the size of a city. It’s failing children. | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    By Emily A. Benfer

    February 11

    Emily A. Benfer is the director of the Health Justice Advocacy Clinic and a professor at Columbia Law School.

    The fresh York City Housing Authority, liable for 176,000 apartments in 2,418 buildings, is by far the biggest public-housing system in the country. Beset by lead-paint hazards, mold, heating failures and inveterate mismanagement, NYCHA buildings are likewise a danger to the authority’s 400,000 residents — the population of a mid-size American city.

    On Jan. 31, fresh York narrowly avoided a complete federal takeover of NYCHA by agreeing to expend $2.2 billion on a decade-long distress to repair NYCHA’s decrepit buildings and by ceding much management responsibility to a powerful federal monitor. Housing and Urban progress Secretary Ben Carson and Mayor Bill de Blasio (D) announced the agreement at HUD’s Lower Manhattan offices on the deadline date set by a federal referee who ultimate drop had rejected an earlier agreement as inadequate.

    The fresh agreement is likewise inadequate. That was made transparent Monday with news that interim NYCHA chairman Stanley Brezenoff refused to mark the agreement. The deal unfairly places “all of the pecuniary burden” on the city and not on the federal government, where it belongs, he told the fresh York Times. The city had announced ultimate week that he was being replaced.

    Last summer, NYCHA estimated that $32 billion would live needed over five years to fix its buildings, which are on medium more than 60 years old, according to the fresh York Times. The city could never afford to expend that much on these essential repairs. Federal funding will live required if the public-health crossroad is going to live effectively addressed and HUD is going to fulfill its duty to provide safe and decent housing. HUD provides $2 billion of NYCHA’s $3.2 billion annual operating budget.

    The conditions of public housing in fresh York City are deplorable. More than 59 percent of NYCHA residents surveyed reported mold in their units, and 52 percent reported leaking roofs, windows or plumbing. More than 800 children under age 6 and vital in NYCHA housing tested positive for lofty levels of lead between 2012 and 2016. The housing authority had ignored lead-paint safety regulations for years.

    The alarming deterioration of fresh York’s public housing occurred in tandem with even federal funding cuts to public housing nationwide, reductions that picked up speed under the Trump administration. According to the Wall Street Journal, the administration made an initial cleave of at least $35 million for 2017 as share of an expected $150 million total.

    When billions are needed but millions are being cut, the authorization of a federal monitor is the equivalent of nailing a 2-by-4 to a collapsing building.

    NYCHA’s neglect has had staggering consequences for children’s health. Lead poisoning can result in reduced IQ, developmental delays, academic failure, juvenile delinquency, behavioral problems, biological and neurological damage and premature death. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention makes it clear: “There is no known safe smooth of lead.” A fresh York state report ultimate year found that 80 percent of NYCHA buildings, where mold is rife, had conditions that could contribute to asthma in children. As the CDC notes, asthma is a leading cause of school absences and reduced daily activities; in 2008 alone, asthma caused 14.2 million missed days of work and 10.5 million missed days of school nationwide, affecting children from low-income families at the highest rates.

    Yet NYCHA does not occupy the funds necessary to address the more than 245,000 open work orders for repairs, let alone employ enough lead-hazard risk investigators or mold remediation specialists to address these problems.

    Shockingly, the fresh NYCHA agreement with HUD provides no supplemental federal funding for mold and lead-hazard inspection and remediation. Instead, the agreement mandates the utilize of “visual assessments” for lead hazards. As The Post reported in a tragic 2017 myth about lead hazards in D.C. public housing, one of the “key weaknesses of federal guidelines” mandated by HUD and followed by the District is that inspectors faith on visual inspections for peeling paint and deteriorating conditions “instead of specifically testing for lead or asthma-inducing mold.” In effect, children in federally assisted housing must develop lead poisoning before meaningful inspections occur.

    HUD’s want of oversight, compliance review and long-term planning is a problem that reaches far beyond NYCHA. June 2018 reports from HUD’s Inspector generic and the Government Accountability Office on the conditions of federally assisted housing found wide margins for fraudulent reporting. For example, the East Chicago Housing Authority in Indiana was allowed to falsely self-certify compliance as generations of families were exposed to lead and arsenic while residing in public housing on a Superfund site.

    HUD’s perfunctory approach to its responsibilities, combined with inadequate federal funding, has resulted in squalid environments that menace the health and livelihoods of public-housing residents. By disinvesting in housing for low-income families, Congress and HUD are thwarting progress, perpetuating racial segregation and increasing the cycle of poverty for future generations. The federal government has an responsibility to protect those who qualify for federal assistance. If generations of children are going to thrive, they first must live in homes and communities that government neglect and indifference haven’t made uncertain to their health.

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