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250-722 exam Dumps Source : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

Test Code : 250-722
Test denomination : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0
Vendor denomination : Symantec
: 114 existent Questions

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Symantec Implementation of DP Solutions

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There are at entire times facets of increase, even in the most difficult instances. | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

howdy Andrey uncover us more in aspect what is the peculiarity of your career?

• hi, the scope of consulting is extremely great and infrequently requires going beyond the ordinary action algorithms. My adventure is in a variety of company areas, from the corporation of grain exports to the outlet of the Nano centre. by means of the character of my expert undertaking, I should resolve a huge variety of problems of my consumers, hence, I believe it is more apropos to convene my distinctiveness not simply a consultant, but reasonably a project manager.

So, the main direction of your business pastime is undertaking administration?

• it is correct! tasks, as already outlined above, there absorb been many and they're entire distinctive. different areas, as, for instance, within the coverage enterprise "Russia", the main project was the structure and expand of business capitalization. The outcome of their work was the entry into the accurate 10 of the largest insurance enterprise's in Russia, and the capitalization of the enterprise increased by using 12 instances. it's too anti-disaster management - for instance, the implementation of the rescue device of the construction keeping "Monolith maintaining" - the largest from the Urals to Kamchatka, institute in the metropolis of Krasnoyarsk. Their team coped with the project and the most advantageous affirmation of this is that the protecting turned into a hit 10 years later.

With which course is it greater at ease to be just perquisite for you - "task" or "anti-disaster"?

• or not it's a difficult query. With head administration, there's always loads of negativity. The adoption of "unpopular decisions", the discount of carcass of workers and wages - is inevitable.

it is quite another constituent when a team moves a company ahead to fresh horizons. you're employed the equal 12-15 hours, however choices are already made not about a passage to construct discount rates, but about the district to learn personnel to support boost the business.

hence, if they talk about consolation, then - each person wants to work and convey joy to the total crew, and never a piece of the survivors. but in terms of adventure - each undertaking is wonderful.

to your profiles in convivial networks, you are talking a couple of project involving greater than 5,000 individuals, about saving a immense systemically vital enterprise for a region, enact you intimate the implementation of an anti-crisis device for Monolith protecting? may you inform us greater about this?

• sure. lamentably, as a result of the disaster, the structure market in 2008-2009 skilled a pointy drop in condo sales, which affected Monolith conserving, given that it assumed entire responsibilities below a very different market circumstance.

We first carried out due diligence, proposed an anti-crisis plan. At a joint assembly accepted, and that i entire started to build in favor it. and then it became tough 6 months.

We created a management enterprise, centralized economic administration, introduced a treasury agreement mode, when entire payments of the conserving went via a separate treasury. They performed a few adjustments geared toward optimizing the feature of constructing handle, created a gadget for featuring planned and manage reporting, with a view to expand the transparency of the affliction on the keeping prison entities ...

You saved the enterprise, but weren't these movements similar to the behaviour of the infamous Elah chainsaws? How can you in the reduction of such a few personnel, despite the fact that it's to shop a company?

• Wow, I wish to answer, of path, how exotic it turned into and the passage entire and sundry unanimously skilled the vital hardships. The truth, regrettably, is different.

When the device turned into implemented, a total lot of unpopular decisions absorb been taken, greater than 1,000 individuals were decreased or retired.

it's now not well-nigh saving the company - we've saved about three,000 jobs via huge efforts. here is the result.

so far as i know, during the past you had been the pinnacle of Euro Commerce bank, which showed the maximum growth among entire retail lending associations outdoor of the precise 30. Many americans considered the leading plane of success to be the convivial orientation of capabilities, is that this no longer actual?

• As entire the time, not every thing is fundamental and glaring, i might separate out a couple of components that contributed to the success of this mission: a different product line, focus on poorly lined market niches and over-prompted team of authorities.

Andrey, clarify in additional detail why they decided to forward the business in this particular course, did different banks then rebuff from such an idea?

• espy what the Banks are doing, and indeed most of the groups - they present to the market a provider it is less difficult to deliver, and the margin on which is better. Their crew decided to enact otherwise. Their products required lots of work and gave a low salary from every particular person operation. It does not sound very optimistic, does it?

however here is precisely the constituent of growth. The banking sector believed that working with migrants is a job that will never pay for itself ... the basis line is that within the miniature workplaces they reached a capability of 400-600 individuals a day for commission products. And this has already brought a major income. They made payments and transfers quicker than every other fiscal institution in the market, studied the ethnic composition in the territories and chose operating personnel who talk the same language with the customer (Uzbek, Tajik, and many others.).did you know at least one bank, the district even after 7 years there is a similar angle to the customer?

good enough, so that you are for a gap enterprise?

- sure. Their 2nd of the main client companies is pensioners.These people wish realizing, empathy and solutions to their complications - which they offered in each office.personnel entire the time welcomed purchasers with a kind word and provided a cup of sizzling tea in the wintry weather or a tumbler of icy water in the summertime.hence, those customer agencies that they concentrated on, cherished us, got here to their offices for entire the functions, so the fiscal institution had a extremely decent profitability.on the equal time - if the client became the core nature from the city of a million individuals, the bank would absolutely enter the excellent one hundred banks of Russia.
lamentably, towards the historical past of mass revocation of licenses from banks, the Eurokommerz license was additionally revoked, Has it affected your career?

- They built an excellent fiscal institution, within the topple of 2014 an inventive assignment with suitable 5 sellers of the country became in plenary swing. however the pursuits of December 15/16, 2014 absorb came about. The dollar and euro rose after the announcement of the significant bank of the Russian Federation to elevate the discount rate to 17%. due to the fact the mission being launched concerned earnest international capital involvement, it became frozen indefinitely. Then, in the spring of 2015, the shareholders decided to exit the banking enterprise, and i left the fiscal institution. and then, October 23, 2015 - the advice in regards to the revocation of the license. Shock, emptiness, the sentiment of dropping anything very shut, even though it did not work there at that time, however 5 years of complicated work! it's one thing when he labored in a challenge and he lives and prospers, an additional issue when, youngsters for explanations beyond your handle, the business doesn't gyrate into.neatly, as for my profession, i will stutter one issue: undergo is worthwhile!

What initiatives are you operating now?

• In 2012, I headquartered the consulting group "BusinessInvitee" and after the completion of the banking challenge I began to expend considerable time on the structure of this company. among the many purchasers are well-known sportsmen, the greatest private holdings. somebody wants a restructuring of property, a person needs a company valuation before a transaction, and somebody wants an asset valuation. initiatives are several and fascinating, with their personal specifics. there absorb been M & A deals, due diligence, auditing, theory development and implementation of the primary Russian network of fiscal supermarkets and an abominable lot extra.

What difficulties enact you encounter most frequently?

• The hindrance for the structure of the consulting company in Russia, oddly enough, are the businessmen themselves - there isn't any work lifestyle. company is much less acquainted with auditing and rating agencies, but consulting for almost entire is dote signing your personal requisite of erudition and shortage of professionalism. even though it is consulting structures that accumulate the realm's best practices and the most a success applied sciences for enterprise structure and healing.

What enact you feel are the main explanations in your success?

• Of direction, devoid of perseverance, professionalism and difficult work, nothing will near out, no longer best in Consulting, but, possibly, in some other sphere. Of course, other characteristics are essential, however I accept as suitable with these to be essentially the most colossal. real, it is essential to be alert what is reputed by each of those words, and a lot of individuals convene tenacity and hard work just the reality of being within the workplace for 12 hours.

Does your family support you? still, the absence of a husband and father at domestic ...

- household helps. however, of route, i want to spy me greater regularly.americans who are not liable, leading positions, believe that the bosses only receives a commission extra, however work less, or even equivocate entire day on the seaside. however's no longer dote that.existence example: Saturday evening, at about 11 pm and i am at a friend's wedding. The demolish is in plenary swing. And what enact you feel I do? i'm attending the marriage - or not it's physically existing, as a result of at the present the assignment, which the crew and i had been engaged in for the last six months, reached the ultimate stage, or not it's significant for Western companions to finish the deal particulars by using Sunday morning, that allows you to prepare press releases on Sunday Monday. in entire probability this sounds fascinating should you enact this as soon as every 10 years, and for those who always, of course, rep drained.incidentally, in that night situation, as in the total task, they labored to the proper 5 with a plus and outplayed within the negotiation system one of the optimum law businesses and one of the most largest audit and consulting groups on this planet.

How enact you check the latest economic circumstance?

- There are at entire times aspects of growth, even within the most intricate situations. And as at entire times, what's Dangerous for one is first rate for others.In Russia, affordable labour. So exports should soundless grow.based on the fresh economic circumstance, the structure of imports is altering. What changed into imported prior is not any longer low-priced for the conventional classification of buyers, so now the rate transformation of demand is taking location, which in flip might be a lever for expand for importers who locate aggressive and low cost goods, and for exporters a haphazard to expand the degree of processing within the territory Russia and, accordingly, the margin, working with the exterior market.

towards the tradition of the aggravation of alien fiscal relations, are you attracted to any overseas tasks, enact you espy in them a point of view?

• Of route! i would stutter that it isn't international fiscal relations which are exacerbated, but overseas policy members of the family, which, in flip, build power on overseas economic family members. perquisite here I respect the as soon as-heard evaluation: the legal guidelines of economics are just dote the laws of physics, that you would be able to are attempting to violate them, however this will require a immense expenditure of power and money, so one can become warmth, with a purpose to dissipate and should not carry any profit to any individual.

• What would you are looking to their readers?

I requisite to thanks to your attention and requisite to preserve the means to sensibly investigate each your personal energy and the situation of the encircling world. in my view, here's a very essential skill in the realities of brand fresh truth.

- thanks, Kovalev Andrey Sergeevich, challenge manager, troubleshooter, head supervisor, who effectively achieved a few initiatives thoughtprovoking to Russia, became with us.

This item become posted by passage of a community contributor.

the passage to build into effect Dynamic Programming in Swift | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

In their exploration of algorithms, we’ve applied many techniques to supply results. Some ideas absorb used iOS-particular patterns whereas others had been extra generalized. although it hasn’t been explicitly mentioned, a few of their options absorb used a specific programming vogue referred to as dynamic programming. whereas light in conception, its utility can now and again be nuanced. When utilized accurately, dynamic programming can absorb an impressive repercussion on the passage you to write code. during this essay, we’ll interpolate the concept and implementation of dynamic programming.

keep For Later

in case you’ve bought some thing via Amazon.com, you’ll be general with the web page term — “store For Later”. because the phrase implies, consumers are offered the option so as to add objects to their cart or shop them to a “wish record” for later viewing. When writing algorithms, they often visage a similar alternative of completing actions (performing computations) as information is being interpreted or storing the results for later use. Examples encompass retrieving JSON records from a RESTful provider or using the Core statistics Framework:

In iOS, design patterns can support us time and coordinate how statistics is processed. selected thoughts embrace multi-threaded operations (e.g. grand imperative Dispatch), Notifications and Delegation. Dynamic programming (DP) having said that, isn’t always a separate coding method, but quite how to reflect about moves (e.g. subproblems) that occur as a role operates. The ensuing DP retort might purview counting on the issue. In its least difficult kind, dynamic programming relies on statistics storage and reuse to raise algorithm efficiency. The system of data reuse is often known as memoization and can win many kinds. As we’ll see, this trend of programming gives a lot of benefits.

Fibonacci Revisited

in the essay on Recursion, they in comparison structure the traditional sequence of Array values using each iterative and recursive recommendations. As mentioned, these algorithms had been designed to supply an Array sequence, no longer to device a specific result. Taking this into account, they are able to create a fresh version of Fibonacci to revert a separate Int cost:

func fibRecursive(n: Int) -> Int if n == 0 revert 0

if n <= 2 revert 1

return fibRecursive(n: n-1) + fibRecursive(n: n-2)

firstly look, it seems this seemingly miniature feature would too be productive. youngsters, upon extra evaluation, they espy a great number of recursive calls requisite to be made for it to device any effect. As shown below, on account that fibRecursive cannot save up to now calculated values, its recursive calls raise exponentially:

Fibonacci Memoized

Let’s are trying a different technique. Designed as a nested Swift feature, fibMemoized captures the Array revert value from its fibSequence sub-characteristic to device a ultimate value:

extension Int

//memoized versionmutating func fibMemoized() -> Int

//builds array sequencefunc fibSequence(_ sequence: Array<Int> = [0, 1]) -> Array<Int>

var final = Array<Int>()

//mutated copyvar output = sequence

let i: Int = output.count

//set basis situation - linear time O(n)if i == self revert output

let outcomes: Int = output[i - 1] + output[i - 2]output.append(consequences)

//set iterationfinal = fibSequence(output)return final

//calculate closing product - consistent time O(1)let effects = fibSequence()let answer: Int = consequences[results.endIndex - 1] + results[results.endIndex - 2]return reply

notwithstanding fibSquence includes a recursive sequence, its basis case depends upon the number of requested Array positions (n). In efficiency terms, they are motto fibSequence runs in linear time or O(n). This performance development is carried out by memoizing the Array sequence mandatory to device the last product. subsequently, each and every sequence permutation is computed as soon as. The profit of this manner is considered when evaluating both algorithms, shown under:

Shortest Paths

Code memoization can additionally better a program’s effectivity to the constituent of constructing reputedly intricate or virtually unsolvable questions answerable. An instance of this can be seen with Dijkstra’s Algorithm and Shortest Paths. To evaluate, they created a several statistics structure named direction with the purpose of storing selected traversal metadata:

//the direction nature maintains objects that accommodate the "frontier" class route

var total: Intvar destination: Vertexvar previous: direction?

//object initializationinit()vacation spot = Vertex()complete = 0

What makes course constructive is its skill to withhold facts on nodes in the past visited. comparable to their revised Fibonacci algorithm, route outlets the cumulative edge weights entire traversed vertices (complete) in addition to a complete historical past of each visited Vertex. Used simply, this permits the programmer to reply questions such as the complexity of navigating to a particular destination Vertex, if the traversal become indeed successful (in discovering the vacation spot), as neatly as the record of nodes visited throughout. counting on the Graph size and complexity, no longer having this assistance obtainable might intimate having the algorithm win so lengthy to (re)compute facts that it turns into too gradual to be positive, or now not being in a position to remedy essential questions because of insufficient records.

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Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

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Hypernasality associated with basal ganglia dysfunction: evidence from Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps


Considerable attention has been given to progressive neurodegenerative diseases affecting the basal ganglia such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Both PD and HD are terminal neurodegenerative diseases that elicit a variety of motor and non-motor manifestations, which significantly contribute to decreased trait of life (Jankovic, 2008; Walker, 2007). As PD and HD affect different regions of the basal ganglia, the manifestations differ between both diseases. In PD, damage of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and related dopamine depletion lead to debilitating loss of movement due to muscle rigidity, bradykinesia and resting tremor. In HD, damage to the striatum primarily results in extensive semi-directed, non-rhythmic movements termed chorea, dementia and psychiatric manifestations encompassing behavioral difficulties connected with lower emotional control and fierce irritability (Jankovic, 2008; Walker, 2007).

The majority of both PD and HD patients manifest the motor speech disorder termed dysarthria (Hartelius et al., 2003; Logemann et al., 1978; Rusz et al., 2014), which is an impairment resulting from sensorimotor abnormalities that may affect entire subsystems of speech including respiration, phonation, articulation, prosody, and resonance (Duffy, 2013). The dysarthrias are differentiated according to perceptual characteristics of speech and corroborated by the underlying neuropathology. In particular, PD is associated with hypokinetic dysarthria due to akinesia and bradykinetic-rigid syndromes, whereas HD shows hyperkinetic dysarthria resulting from chorea (Duffy, 2013). Despite the fact that both PD and HD are primarily disorders of the basal ganglia, the distinctive speech patterns connected with hypokinetic and hyperkinetic dysarthria are usually antagonistic. For instance, hypokinetic dysarthria in PD typically shows reduced vocal loudness and flattened loudness and pitch inflections, poor voice quality, variable and frequently increased speech rate, inappropriate silences and breathiness, while in contrast hyperkinetic dysarthria in HD demonstrates excess loudness and pitch variations, voice arrests, gradual speech rate, inappropriate vocal noises and intermittent breathy segments (Darley, Aronson & Brown, 1975; Logemann et al., 1978; Rusz et al., 2014).

Interestingly, although hypokinetic and hyperkinetic dysarthria manifestations are often counteractive, hypernasality has been reported in both hypokinetic and hyperkinetic dysarthria (Duffy, 2013; Hoodin & Gilbert, 1989; Chenery, Murdoch & Ingram, 1988; Logemann et al., 1978; Theodoros, Murdoch & Thompson, 1995). In particular, investigation of both PD and HD provides us with the unique possibility to study the effect of basal ganglia dysfunction on the presence of hypernasality. Admittedly, hypernasality represents a distinctive manifestation of confident dysarthria subtypes, particularly of flaccid dysarthria, and thus its evaluation can provide useful information in the differential diagnosis of dysarthrias (Duffy, 2013).

Hypernasality is a result of velopharyngeal impairment and may be defined as the presence of inappropriate air leakage through the nasal cavity during phonation (Warren, Dalston & Mayo, 1993). This leakage may result from abnormal velopharyngeal structure, which is termed velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), and is present in patients with cleft palate, palatal fistula, and patients that absorb undergone maxillectomy. Other mechanisms of hypernasality are distorted neuromuscular control of the levator veli palatini muscle and velopharyngeal seal, termed velopharyngeal incompetence (VIC), which includes patients with neurodegenerative diseases (Folkins, 1988). While abnormal velopharyngeal structure primarily leads to hypernasality, impaired neuromuscular control leading to dysarthria results in multiple speech distortions in which the particular effect of hypernasality may be less manifest to the listener due to the presence of other dysarthria manifestations. Thus, the majority of recent hypernasality research has been focused on VPI-induced hypernasality (Dickson, 1962; Kataoka et al., 1996; Lee, Ciocca & Whitehill, 2003; Maier et al., 2008; Yoshida et al., 2000), whereas only a few studies absorb investigated VIC hypernasality (Hoodin & Gilbert, 1989; Chenery, Murdoch & Ingram, 1988; Poole et al., 2015).

Studies examining hypernasality in PD absorb yielded controversial results. Logemann et al. (1978) perceptually detected hypernasality in only 10% of PD patients, whereas Chenery, Murdoch & Ingram (1988) and Theodoros, Murdoch & Thompson (1995) reported hypernasality in more than 30% of PD speakers. In addition, Ludlow & Basich (1983) included hypernasality among the 10 most distinctive perceptual features of PD, while Darley, Aronson & Brown (1975) did not find hypernasality to be a prominent feature of hypokinetic dysarthria. Considering HD speakers, to the best of their knowledge, no study has systematically examined hypernasality during hyperkinetic dysarthria, although Duffy (2013) reported intermittent hypernasality as one of the most deviant speech dimensions present in hyperkinetic dysarthria.

The etiology of hypernasality in PD and HD is unclear. Although the dysarthria is typically attributed to the disrupted motor control, limited correspondence between speech and limb manifestations has been institute (Schulz & Grant, 2000). Nevertheless, recent evidence based upon longitudinal follow-up data has shown that speech disorders in PD are generally related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia (Rusz et al., 2016). They may thus hypothesize that bradykinetic disturbances in soft palate control in PD may affect articulation of the velopharyngeal seal and accordingly lead to constant air leakage and increased hypernasality. Moreover, distorted neuromuscular control of levator veli palatini in PD may lead to increased hypernasality with increased fatigue during speech tasks.

In HD, the relationship between speech and limb manifestations appears to be more prominent. Correlation between speech timing parameters and overall motor disability has been famous previously (Rusz et al., 2014; Skodda et al., 2014). Furthermore, a relationship between laryngeal dysfunction and limb chorea has too been observed, likely as a result of laryngeal chorea (Rusz et al., 2013). Therefore, they hypothesize that choreatic movements of the velopharyngeal seal and velum may lead to varying resonance distortion, which would be in agreement with reported intermittent hyperkinetic dysarthria (Duffy, 2013).

Currently the most common manner for hypernasality estimation is perceptual rating (Kuehn & Moller, 2000). In particular, perceptual assessment is considered the primary means to evaluate levels of nasality in children (Vogel et al., 2009). However, inter-rater and intra-rater reliability is questionable and perceptual rating requires a trained speech specialist (Kuehn & Moller, 2000). Consequently, more objective methods absorb been developed to complement perceptual ratings. Invasive methods, such as x-ray tracing with a lead pellet attached to the velum, provide direct observation of velopharyngeal movements (Hirose et al., 1981). Other methods employ circuitous estimation based on measurements of nasal airflow, nasal cavity sonography, nasometry comparing nasal and oral acoustic outputs, or the Horii Oral-Nasal Coupling Index (Dillenschneider, Zaleski & Greiner, 1973; Hardin et al., 1992; Horii, 1980). One of the least demanding methods with respect to patients and equipment is the 1/3-octave spectra, which is based on direct, non-invasive analysis of acoustic speech signal and was originally developed for the estimation of velopharyngeal insufficiency in cleft palate (Kataoka et al., 1996) and was later validated by Vogel et al. (2009).

The 1/3-octave spectra manner is a nature of spectral analysis focused on the examination of spectral changes caused by resonatory speech pathologies. This manner is based upon the linear source–filter theory of speech, which was first described by Fant (1960). According to this theory, speech is partly created by a transfer role of the vocal tract. The introduction of the nasal cavity to the vocal tract leads to significant changes in its transfer role by incorporating nasal resonance Fn at an district around 1 kHz (Stevens, 2000). Several previous studies absorb shown that nasal resonance is a dependable marker of hypernasality (Kataoka et al., 1996; Lee, Ciocca & Whitehill, 2003; Vogel et al., 2009; Yoshida et al., 2000). However, some vowels may mask nasal resonance by the presence of formant frequencies in the district nearby to 1 kHz.

The vowel /i/ with the first formant frequency (F1) at approximately 240 Hz and the second formant frequency (F2) at approximately 2,400 Hz loom to be the most sensitive to nasal resonance (Fant, 1960; Kataoka et al., 1996; Lee, Ciocca & Whitehill, 2003; Vogel et al., 2009). Being the most evident, nasal resonance in the vowel /i/ should be more robust to anatomical variation of the nasal cavity including asymmetrical shape and varying shape of the connected sinuses. Moreover, the vowel /i/ is considered to be the most sensitive to nasal coupling (Stevens, 2000), and thus previous studies absorb focused on the quantitative evaluation of VPI hypernasality through the sustained vowel /i/ (Kataoka et al., 1996; Lee, Ciocca & Whitehill, 2003; Yoshida et al., 2000). Based on experiments with experienced listeners and the rating of nasality in artificially generated sounds in patients with cleft palate and those that underwent maxillectomy, previous studies absorb confirmed the vowel /i/ as an pattern speech assignment for hypernasality assessment (Kataoka et al., 1996; Vogel et al., 2009; Yoshida et al., 2000). Moreover, limited motion of the articulators including the jaw, tongue and lips in dysarthrias co-occur with velopharyngeal inadequacy and may play a more preponderant role in changing the measures related to nasality. From this perspective, prolongation of vowel /i/ is a particularly suitable assignment to acoustically assess nasality in dysarthrias, as it represents relatively constant vocal role without the confounding effects of articulatory components of running speech.

Based upon these previous findings, the goal of the present study was to employ methods of objective hypernasality assessment and evaluate the presence and character of hypernasality in PD and HD speakers. A further plane was to examine viable relationships between the severity of hypernasality and disease-specific motor manifestations, to provide more insight into the pathophysiology answerable for development of hypernasality in basal ganglia disorders.

Methods Subjects

The participants in the present study were piece of a larger investigation examining speech characteristics of patients with PD and HD. Previous reports generally focused on phonatory, articulatory and prosodic abnormalities including medication effects (Rusz et al., 2013; Rusz et al., 2014; Rusz et al., 2016). A total of 111 Czech endemic speakers, including 37 PD patients, 37 HD patients and 37 sound participants were recorded.

The PD group consisted of 23 men and 14 women, connote age 63.1 ± 14.0 measure divergence (SD) (range 41–80) years, connote disease duration 8.0 ± 4.8 (1–24) years. entire PD patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for PD (Hughes et al., 1992). entire participants were on stable dopaminergic medication for at least 4 weeks before the examinations, which were conducted in the on-medication state. entire PD patients underwent neurological examinations by an experienced neurologist and were rated according to the Hoehn & Yahr staging scale (H&Y, ranging from 1 to 5, where 1 indicates mild unilateral motor disorder and 5 indicates confinement to wheelchair or bed) and motor Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III, ranging from 0 to 108, with 0 for no motor manifestation and 108 representing austere motor distortion) (Hoehn & Yahr, 1967; Stebbins & Goetz, 1998). In addition, the UPDRS composite subscore of bradykinesia (sum of UPDRS III items 23, 24, 25 and 26, ranging from 0 to 24, with 0 for no bradykinesia and 24 representing austere bradykinetic distortion) was estimated (Hughes et al., 1992; Jankovic, 2008). Perceptual speech evaluation was based upon UPDRS III speech item 18 (range 0–4, with 0 representing ordinary speech and 4 indicating unintelligible speech). The H&Y score was 2.1 ± 0.4 (1–3), UPDRS III score was 17.5 ± 8.2 (4–36), the UPDRS bradykinesia subscore was 7.8 ± 3.6 (2–17), and the UPDRS III speech item 18 score was 0.8 ± 0.6 (0–2).

The HD group consisted of 19 men and 18 women with genetically confirmed HD with connote age 49.1 ± SD 12.7 (23–67) years, connote disease duration 6.1 ± 3.4 (1–16) years, connote number of CAG triplets 44.7 ± 3.3 (40–53). Most of the patients (32/37) were treated with monotherapy or a combination of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, amantadine and antidepressants. entire HD patients underwent extensive examination by an experienced neurologist and were rated according to the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS, ranging from 0 to 124, where 0 indicates no motor disability and 124 indicates austere motor disability) (Huntington-Study-Group, 1996). In addition, the UHDRS chorea subscore was estimated (ranging from 0 to 28, where 0 indicates no motor disability and 28 indicates austere motor disability) (Rusz et al., 2013; Walker, 2007). Perceptual speech evaluation was based upon the UHDRS speech item (ranging from 0 to 4, where 0 indicates no disability and 4 indicates austere dysarthria). The UHDRS motor score was 25.7 ± 12.2 (3–54), the UHDRS chorea subscore was 8.6 ± 3.7 (0–14), and the UHDRS speech item was 0.8 ± 0.5 (0–2).

The sound control (HC) group consisted of 23 men and 14 women, connote age of 63.1 ± 8.7 (41–77) years. not anyone of the HC participants had a history of neurological or speech disorder. not anyone of the HD, PD or HC subjects suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory tract infection, allergy, asthma, facial paresis, or other malady that could negatively influence participant speech performance.

The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the general University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic, and entire participants provided written, informed consent.

Speech data

All recordings took district in a secretive elbowroom with a low ambient babel plane using a head-mounted condenser microphone (Beyer-dynamic Opus 55, Heilbronn, Germany) positioned approximately 5 cm from each subject’s mouth. The utterances were sampled at 48 kHz with 16 bit quantization. entire the voice signals were obtained during separate session conducted by a speech specialist, who asked participants to win a deep breath and discharge sustained phonation of vowel /i/ at a snug loudness and pitch, as constant and long as possible. The measurement of sustained phonation was performed twice. The participants were too asked to provide freely spoken monologue on a given topic including family, work or interests, for at least two minutes. The both sustained phonation and monologue tasks were piece of a comprehensive dysarthria test battery. No time limits were imposed during recording. The inclusion criteria were determined as the faculty to sustain prolonged phonation for at least three seconds.

Perceptual analysis

As connected speech is more demanding for velopharyngeal control, it is considered the most cogent assignment for perceptual nasality estimation (Kuehn & Moller, 2000). The rating of nasality was based on speech material where the patient produced a monologue and performed by 10 raters including one speech-language pathologist, three clinicians and six acoustic speech specialists using a graded scale (0 = ordinary nasality, 1 = mild hypernasality, 2 = moderate hypernasality, 3 = austere hypernasality), based on The Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment ’98 (GOS.SP.ASS.’98) (Sell, Harding & Grunwell, 1999). entire the raters were trained by the speech-language pathologist prior to perceptual assessment. The perceptual assessment was performed blindly on randomized data consisting of entire three participant groups. The presentation of samples was self-paced and performed by each rater separately, and each speech sample could be repeated at the discretion of the listener. The final score was obtained for overall perceptual rating across entire raters by the median value computed from entire perceptual assessments in the group. The inter-rater and intra-rater variability was estimated using a two passage random average intra-class correlation (ICC). Intra-rater reliability was based upon the second perceptual assessments performed by entire raters with more than three months delay. During the second assessment, each rater scored 27 randomly selected phonations (24% of entire dataset) equally representing PD, HD and HC groups.

Acoustic analysis

For the purposes of instrumental analysis, two recording parts equal to 10% of signal length were chop off from both the genesis and terminate of the vowel /i/ to avoid distortion by initial vocal fold adjustment and fatigue at the terminate of the utterance. The remaining signal was then resampled to 20 kHz, which lowered the computational complexity and preserved entire useful information (Titze, 1994). The preprocessed signal was divided using a hamming 60 ms window with 55 ms overlap. Subsequently, each window was analyzed using a 1/3-octave spectra method.

The process of 1/3-octave spectra analysis based on the multirate filter bank presented by Couvreour (1998) is illustrated in Fig. 1. The three highest 1/3-octave frequency party filters were designed according to this method. For their purposes, the 3rd order IIR Butterworth filters were used and centered on octave frequencies of 2,500 Hz (passband from 2244.9 Hz to 2828.4 Hz), 3,150 Hz (passband from 2828.4 Hz to 3563.6 Hz), and 4,000 Hz (passband from 3563.6 Hz to 4489.8 Hz). After filtering, the highest components were removed from recording and the signal was then down-sampled by a factor of 2, i.e., sampling frequency (fs) to fs/2. Being defined in relation to the fs, the filter characteristics related to fs/2 yielded one octave lower for each down sampling. Based on this approach, the entire filter bank was achieved by the iterative exercise of signal down sampling. In each 1/3-octave frequency band, the root-mean-square (RMS) energy was estimated and achieved energy was transformed into decibels. A sum of energy contained in the entire 1/3-octave spectra was used as a reference value for the transformation into decibels, as described by Eq. (1). (1) E i = 10log 10 E filtered i ∑ k = 1 18 E filtered k , where Efiltered is energy contained in the separate party of 1/3-octave and E(i) is the decibel value of energy contained in the ith band.

Figure 1: Principle of acoustic analysis based on the 1/3-octave spectra assessment presented in Couvreour (1998).

Considering the effect of spectral flattening, nasality in sustained phonation of the vowel /i/ was evaluated using the EFn parameter, which represented energy in a 1/3-octave party centered around 1 kHz (passband from 890.9 Hz to 1122.5 Hz). This parameter reflected the addition of nasal resonance and additive nasal pole to the transfer role at 1 kHz. The overall plane of hypernasality was estimated by the connote value of EFn parameter (EFn mean) across entire windows in the entire utterance. The variability of nasality (EFn SD) in speech was evaluated as the measure divergence of each parameter across the entire utterance. Finally, the evolution of hypernasality in the course of the utterance (EFn trend) was described using a linear regression tangent for each parameter.


As the vowel /i/ was recorded twice for entire speakers, average values of estimated acoustic parameters EFn mean, EFn SD and EFn trend for each participant were used for entire consecutive analyses.

The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for independent samples was used to evaluate normality. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Bonferroni adjustment was used for the estimation of group differences between PD, HD and HC groups across acoustic variables.

Relationships between variables were evaluated using Pearson’s correlation and Spearman’s correlation. Pearson’s correlation was applied to normally distributed data (acoustic speech metrics and disease severity scores), whereas Spearman’s correlation was used for non-normally distributed data (perceptual assessment of nasality and dysarthria severity). The Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed according to the four measures investigated (EFn mean, EFn SD, EFn trend, and perceptual assessment) and the plane of significance was set at p < 0.0125.

Due to the requisite of information necessary for the classification of hypernasality, the assessment of the percentage of affected participants from acoustic data was based on the Wald task, which enables setting the classification specificity and sensitivity and therefore allows a more conservative threshold. The Wald assignment is a non-Bayesian statistical decision-making manner which assumes that the dataset consists of two statistical distributions representing positive and negative cases and enables predefining unfounded positive and unfounded negative classifications by extending two basic classes (i.e., sound and hypernasal), by an indecisive class (Schlesinger & Hlavac, 2002). exercise of the indecisive class enables set boundaries where the possibility of a unfounded positive or unfounded negative result reaches a predefined value. Therefore, the indecisive class is used in cases where measured data enact not provide enough information for clear-cut classification. In such cases, the user can select whether the indecisive results would be discarded, incorporated with positive results providing the classifier with greater sensitivity and smaller selectivity or labeled as negative producing a less sensitive and more selective classifier. As a result, the manner provides optimal cut-off values indicating if the subject already reached hypernasal speech performance or manifest ordinary nasality of wider norm of sound speakers. In other words, the approach based on the Wald assignment avoids classifier overtraining and ensures confident self-possession that cut-off values will be associated with hypernasal behavior. Comprehensive details on the Wald assignment absorb been published previously (Rusz et al., 2011).

Results Perceptual analysis

According to UPDRS III speech item 18, 10 PD patients (27%) demonstrated no speech impairment (score of 0), 32 PD patients (62%) mildly affected speech (score of 1) and 4 PD patients (11%) moderately affected speech (score of 2). According to the UHDRS speech item, eight HD patients (22%) showed ordinary speech (score of 0) and 29 HD patients (78%) dysarthria without the necessity of repeating speech to be intelligible (score of 1). In summary, the speech of entire PD and HD patients was soundless fully understandable as indicated by UPDRS speech item 18 (ranging between 0 and 2) as well as the UHDRS speech item (ranging between 0 and 1).

The distribution of participants across four perceptual rating grades (no, mild, moderate, severe) are presented in Fig. 2. According to perceptual tests, 65% of PD and 89% of HD patients showed mild or moderate hypernasal speech performance, whereas mild hypernasality was observed in 22% of sound speakers. The estimated inter-rater reliability was 0.85 (p < 0.001) across entire raters and the intra-rater reliability ranged between 0.77 (p < 0.05) and 0.85 (p < 0.001) between individual raters.

Figure 2: Percentage occurrence of hypernasality across participants according to the four grades perceptual score (0, no; 1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, severe) based on GOS.SP.ASS.’98 (Sell, Harding & Grunwell, 1999). Acoustical analysis

Figure 3 illustrates the average energy distributions in PD, HD and HC groups across 18 frequency bands. As can be seen, the HD group demonstrates spectral flattening in the district between the F1 and F2 formant frequencies.

Figure 3: Measured average values of 1/3-octave spectra for 75–4,000 Hz bands with oversight bars indicating measure divergence for PD, HD and HC groups.

Analysis of test–retest reliability of the proposed parameter EFn showed sturdy correlation for connote (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and SD (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) parameters, whereas trend analyses showed only moderate correlation (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). Table 1 lists the results of acoustic analyses. Statistically significant differences between entire groups were observed for EFn connote and EFn SD (p < 0.001), particularly due to differences between HD and HC groups (p < 0.001).

Table 1:

Results of hypernasality measures including connote and SD values for EFn mean, EFn SD and EFn trend parameters across PD, HD and HC groups as well as results of ANOVA including F, p, and η2 values.

Based upon post-hoc Bonferroni comparisons, an asterisk (∗) indicates statistically significant differences between HD and HC groups at the p < 0.001 plane of significance. Measurement PD HD HC ANOVA Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD F(2, 108) p η2 EFn connote (dB) −38.93 4.37 −34.85 4.59 −39.10 3.06 11.82 p < 0.001* 0.179 EFn SD (dB) 2.17 0.64 4.29 2.17 2.03 0.44 59.08 p < 0.001* 0.382 EFn trend (dB/s) −4.784 18.58 −2.22 82.32 −3.68 17.76 0.21 p = 0.81 0.000

Figures 4A–4C shows the percentage of affected participants according to Wald analysis. Using a cutoff value of −33 dB for EFn mean, they institute increased nasality in 27% of PD, 54% of HD and 19% of HC speakers. In addition, based upon a cutoff value of 3 dB for EFn SD, they observed abnormal nasality variability in 27 % of PD, 78% of HD and 11 % of HC participants.

Figure 4: Percentage of participants marked as hypernasal using (A) EFn mean, (B) EFn SD and (C) overall perceptual rating. Relationship between perceptual and acoustic analysis

Figure 4 shows comparisons related to the percentage of participants rated as hypernasal by acoustic methods and the overall perceptual score obtained across entire raters for PD, HD, and HC groups. They observed significant correlation between overall perceptual rating and the acoustic EFn SD parameter (r = 0.51, p < 0.001) but not EFn connote parameter (r = 0.09, p = 0.35) or EFn trend parameter (r = 0.08, p = 0.38).

Relationship between hypernasality and clinical manifestations

Table 2 lists results of correlations between hypernasality measurements and clinical manifestations for PD and HD groups. In the PD group, they did not detect any relationship between acoustic assessment of hypernasality and clinical metrics. In the HD group, they observed only significant relationships between the UHDRS chorea subscore and EFn SD (r = 0.42, p = 0.01) and between UHDRS speech item and EFn SD (r = 0.46, p = 0.01). They did not detect correlation between perceptual assessment and clinical manifestations in either PD or HD groups.

Table 2:

Results of correlations between acoustical and perceptual measures of hypernasality and clinical manifestations of PD and HD groups.

r(p) EFn mean EFn SD EFn trend Perceptual assessment PD UPDRS III −0.10 (0.56) 0.14 (0.41) 0.04 (0.83) −0.06 (0.74) UPDRS III speech item 18 −0.06 (0.75) 0.26 (0.12) 0.23 (0.18) 0.27 (0.11) UPDRS III bradykinesia subscore −0.11 (0.50) 0.15 (0.36) 0.08 (0.62) −0.05 (0.75) Disease duration 0.20 (0.24) −0.32 (0.06) −0.16 (0.34) −0.06 (0.72) HD UHDRS −0.01 (0.96) 0.39 (0.02) 0.23 (0.19) 0.37 (0.03) UHDRS speech item −0.09 (0.59) 0.46 (0.01) −0.07 (0.70) 0.16 (0.35) UHDRS chorea subscore 0.27 (0.12) 0.42 (0.01) 0.05 (0.76) 0.08 (0.63) Disease duration 0.09 (0.60) 0.28 (0.10) 0.00 (0.99) −0.05 (0.80) Discussion

In the present study, they analyzed hypernasality in PD, HD and HC utterances using objective acoustic analyses as well as perceptual assessment, which represents current gold measure for hypernasality evaluation. Based upon the 1/3-octave spectra analysis presented by Kataoka et al. (1996) and the acoustic model of the vocal tract published by Fant (1960), they designed the parameter EFn to evaluate the presence and character of hypernasality in prolonged vowels. Using acoustic analysis, they revealed an occurrence of hypernasality in 27% of PD, 54% of HD and 19% of HC speakers. In addition, their results showed a elevated occurrence of intermittent hypernasality in 78% of HD patients. Perceptual analysis showed the occurrence of mild to moderate hypernasality in 65% of PD, 89% HD and 22% HC speakers. Significant correlation between the acoustic parameter representing nasality fluctuation and perceptual assessment was observed. Furthermore, they revealed significant correlation between acoustic metric representing nasality fluctuation and chorea in HD patients.

Nasality in PD

Although using acoustic analysis they detected hypernasality in 27% of PD speakers, the non-significant inequity between PD and HC groups suggests that hypernasality is a non-prominent speech manifestation. Previous studies focused on hypernasality in PD absorb provided rather discrepant conclusions. Based on perceptual evaluation, Ludlow & Basich (1983) included hypernasality among the 10 most salient features connected with dysarthria, whereas Logemann et al. (1978) observed hypernasality in only 10% of participants based on a great sample of PD patients. Considering instrumental analyses, only Mueller (1971) failed to detect hypernasality in PD speakers, perverse to the majority of studies reporting an increased occurrence of hypernasality in PD participants (Hoodin & Gilbert, 1989; Netsell, Daniel & Celesia, 1975; Theodoros, Murdoch & Thompson, 1995). While the differences in perceptual assessments could be explained by the fact that listeners from various cultures may absorb a different plane of tolerance for perceived hypernasality, inconsistencies in the instrumental assessment are likely due to the differing sensitivity of particular methods. Moreover, both perceptual and instrumental assessment could be biased by differences in the sample data, as the majority of previous studies absorb reported hypernasality in a minority of PD speakers. One further explanation for these discrepancies may be that the severity of hypernasality parallels overall disease progression to some extent (Hoodin & Gilbert, 1989). However, they did not keep any relation between hypernasality metrics and disease duration, speech severity, or motor severity scales in PD.

Nasality in HD

The presence of hypernasality was observed both perceptually and acoustically in the majority of their HD speakers, which was mainly associated with the occurrence of abnormal nasality variability. Indeed, they observed correlation between acoustic nasality variability and the chorea UHDRS subscore, demonstrating the significant repercussion of chorea on velopharyngeal mechanism. Although their findings seem to be in accordance with Duffy (2013) that perceptually indicated intermittent hypernasality as a salient feature of patients manifesting chorea, there loom to be no other empirical data to support the results of the present study. Additionally, they too revealed relationship between acoustic nasality variability and overall dysarthria severity, indicating that the extent of abnormal nasality partially parallels increasing overall speech dysfunction in HD.

Perceptual assessment of hypernasality

Previous studies absorb reported perceptual assessment of hypernasality in dysarthria as rather unreliable as hypernasality is less manifest to the listener due to the presence of more preponderant dysarthria manifestations (Brancewicz & Reich, 1989). Nevertheless, although perceptual assessment of nasality in dysarthrias is challenging, it is soundless considered the gold standard, even in studies investigating acoustic techniques. Their results argue more HD and PD participants systematically rated as hypernasal by perceptual assessment than by an instrumental approach, likely due to difficulty in achieving accurate perception of hypernasality when other abnormal dysarthria characteristics are present. Furthermore, the inequity between speech tasks used during perceptual and instrumental evaluation could be a source of discrepancy between acoustic and perceptual assessments.

There is a limited evidence for correlation between perceptual and instrumental measurements of hypernasality in dysarthrias (Poole et al., 2015; Theodoros, Murdoch & Thompson, 1995). In their HD sample, acoustic analyses identified only 50% of entire HD speakers as hypernasal in comparison to the perceptual rating of nearly 90%. Yet, the abnormally intermittent character of nasality was too acoustically observed in nearly 80% of entire HD participants. As they observed significant correlation between acoustic parameters measuring intermittent hypernasality and perceptual ranking, they may hypothesize that fluctuation in the plane of nasality makes resonatory disruptions more obvious to perceptual raters. Interestingly, these correlations were evident even if perceptual and acoustic assessment were performed using different speech material.

In agreement with their findings, previous studies absorb perceptually rated the majority of PD participants as mildly hypernasal (Hoodin & Gilbert, 1989; Theodoros, Murdoch & Thompson, 1995). However, their raters tended to evaluate PD utterances with higher nasality scores in vague cases. Indeed, some mild hypernasality is not rare even in sound subjects and was observed in up to 22% of their control speakers, which is in accordance with previous research (Poole et al., 2015). Given this evidence, they may suppose that the perceptual determination between ordinary and mildly hypernasal speech can be misleading, particularly in dysarthrias with other perceptually preponderant speech deviations.

Acoustic assessment of hypernasality

In the present study, they applied an acoustic manner designed for the objective evaluation of velopharyngeal insufficiency, to determine the presence and nature of velopharyngeal incompetence in PD and HD. This methodology has been previously institute to be superior to other acoustic measures of hypernasality (Vogel et al., 2009), and was later successfully applied to patients with Friedreich ataxia resulting in velopharyngeal incompetence (Poole et al., 2015). Based upon an acoustic model of the vowel /i/ published by Stevens (2000) and recommendations presented by Kent et al. (1999), they designed the EFn parameter to picture the presence of nasal resonance in speech due to properties of the nasal cavity present in the 1 kHz 1/3-octave party (Kataoka et al., 1996; Stevens, 2000). This assumption is cogent for entire vowels; nevertheless, the wide plateau between F1 and F2 frequencies in the vowel /i/ makes the presence of nasal resonance more pronounced (Kataoka et al., 1996; Stevens, 2000). Compared to controls, the parameter EFn connote showed significantly increased energy in HD patients, suggesting an abnormal presence of hypernasality in HD patients. Furthermore, using the parameter EFn SD, they revealed significant differences in fluctuations of nasality between HD and control speakers, suggesting intermittent hypernasality in HD patients. The parameter EFn trend was institute to be unreliable, as it demonstrated no significant differences between groups and low test–retest reliability.

Limitations of the current study

We did not discharge aerodynamic measurements, which would provide direct information about nasal airflow. Nevertheless, a previous study by Vogel et al. (2009) provided exhaustive evaluation of the 1/3-octave manner and other studies absorb successfully applied this manner to hypernasality assessment (Kataoka et al., 1996; Lee, Ciocca & Whitehill, 2003; Poole et al., 2015; Yoshida et al., 2000). The odds of the current approach is that it provides an easy-to-administer acoustic assessment, which would be viable to integrate into a larger battery of acoustic tests.

It is noteworthy that the option of the vowel /i/ may serve to maximize the repercussion of nasality or at least the likelihood of an acoustic model finding nasality. Thus, previous research on nasality in children used not only the optimal /i/ but a greater variety of speech material (Vogel et al., 2009). Therefore, the higher incidence of hypernasality, particularly in HD patients, due to a maximized repercussion of nasality cannot be excluded. Conversely, the results of perceptual tests intimate an even greater plane of nasality across their participants than they were able to capture using acoustic assessment, indicating that plane of nasality assessed using the 1/3-octave spectra manner was not necessarily overestimated. Furthermore, the effect of maximizing nasality may be beneficial due to the fact that it emphasizes the presence of hypernasality among other dysarthria manifestations.

One limitation is that they used different speech tasks for the perceptual and acoustic evaluation of hypernasality, as accurate perceptual evaluation of hypernasality from sustained vowel phonation is not feasible. Indeed, the different speech tasks used likely construct correlation analyses between perceptual and acoustic variables problematic. In future studies, it may therefore be beneficial to embrace rating for consistency, as with the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (Kempster et al., 2009).

We did not test the consistency and reliability of UPDRS and UHDRS metrics. Nevertheless, relationships between nasality and motor abnormalities were institute only for the UHDRS chorea subscore, which showed elevated inter-rater reliability with an ICC of 0.82 (Huntington-Study-Group, 1996).

As the presence of chorea in HD is unlikely to be limited only to specific parts of the vocal tract such as the soft palate, they cannot exclude that EFn SD is also, to a confident extent, influenced by other manifestations of chorea, particularly laryngeal chorea (Rusz et al., 2013).

As HD generally has an earlier onset than PD, the PD and HD participant groups could not be age-matched. Therefore, they matched the age of the control group to the age of generally older PD group, as nasality is expected to remain stable throughout life or may slightly deteriorate as a consequence of aging (Hoit et al., 1994; Ramig & Ringel, 1983). This approach ensures that the results of the PD group were not favored in comparison with the HC group. Moreover, they did not match their groups according to gender. Nevertheless, previous studies did not find differences in nasality between masculine and female speakers (Joos et al., 2006; Litzaw & Dalston, 1992).


Perceptual and acoustic data presented in the current study provide evidence of significantly increased and intermittent hypernasality in HD patients, presumably due to choreatic movements of the velopharyngeal mechanism. Although the presence of hypernasality was too observed in several PD speakers, abnormal nasality is not a prominent feature of hypokinetic dysarthria. However, further research is warranted. The relationships between proposed acoustic metrics and aerodynamic measurements for evaluation of hypernasality in dysarthrias should be explored. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and further complicated their findings and to expose reliability of hypernasality measures as a viable marker of disease progression in basal ganglia disorders. last but not least, as hypernasality is a prominent mark in several dysarthria subtypes (Duffy, 2013), sensitivity of methods proposed in the present study should be verified across various neurological disorders and measure of hypernasality may be useful in characterization of progressive neurological disorders as well as may absorb potential to provide significant clues about the pathophysiology of underlying disease.

Supplemental Information Raw data related to assessment of hypernasality

Dataset containing acoustic and perceptual hypernasality scores and clinical informations related to investigated subjects.

Matlab code for nasality analysis

Adolescents and alcohol: an explorative audience segmentation analysis | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Dutch adolescents often start drinking alcohol at an early age. The life-time prevalence for drinking alcohol is 56% for twelve year olds and 93% for sixteen year olds. Also, 16% of twelve year olds and 78% of sixteen year olds drink alcohol regularly. In comparison with other green people in Europe, Dutch adolescents drink more frequently and are more likely to be orgy drinkers (episodic exorbitant alcohol consumption, defined as drinking 5 glasses or more on a separate occasion in the last four weeks) [1].

Despite a acute decline in the exorbitant consumption of alcohol (6 or more glasses at least once a week for the last 6 months) among adolescents in the Netherlands, the alcohol consumption is soundless elevated [2]. Data from the Regional Health Services (RHS) in the province of North Brabant [3] too expose this. Although the number of green people who regularly consume alcohol (at least once in the past 4 weeks) declined from 54% in 2003 to 44% in 2007, 28% of the 12 to 17 year olds in the district of the RHS “Hart voor Brabant” can be identified as orgy drinkers. Moreover, 25% of the under 16s are regular drinkers, and 13% are even orgy drinkers.

Alcohol consumption by adolescents under 16 causes austere health risks. Firstly, green people's brains are particularly vulnerable because the brain is soundless developing during their teenage years. Alcohol can damage parts of the brain, affecting deportment and the faculty to learn and bethink [4]. Secondly, there is a link between alcohol consumption and violent and aggressive deportment [5–7] and violence-related injuries. Thirdly, green people race a greater risk of alcohol poisoning when they drink a great amount of alcohol in a short age of time [8]. Finally, the earlier the onset of drinking, the greater is the haphazard of exorbitant consumption and addiction in later life [9–11].

The policy of the Dutch Ministry of Health is aimed at preventing alcohol consumption among adolescents younger than 16, and at reducing harmful and exorbitant drinking among 16–24 years conventional green adults [12]. Local Authorities are answerable for the implementation of national alcohol policy at a local level. RHSs and regional organizations for the supervision and treatment of addicts carry out prevention activities at a regional and local level, often commissioned by Local Authorities.

Current policies and interventions are mainly directed at settings such as schools and sports clubs. However, it is unlikely that this approach will absorb enough repercussion on adolescents, because the groups in these settings are heterogeneous. Adolescents differ in their drinking habits and absorb different attitudes towards alcohol. This means that one intervention reaches only a piece of entire adolescents, and doesn’t reach other adolescents, with a different drinking rehearse or a different attitude.

Market research has revealed the consequence and effectiveness of tailoring messages and incentives to meet the needs of different population segments. Not every individual is a potential consumer of a given product, idea, or service; so tailoring messages to specific groups will be more efficient than broadcasting the same message to everyone [13, 14].

Audience segmentation is a manner for dividing a great and heterogeneous population into separate, relatively homogeneous segments on the basis of shared characteristics known or presumed to be associated with a given outcome of interest [15].

Audience segmentation is fairly common in the sphere of public health. However, such segmentation is usually based on socioeconomic and demographic variables, such as age, ethnicity, gender, education and income. Unfortunately, demographic segmentation solitary may be of limited exercise for constructing meaningful messages [16]. While psychographic and lifestyle analyses absorb long been measure rehearse in business marketing, their exercise in public health communication efforts is soundless much less common [16]. Since health messages can be fine-tuned to the differences in lifestyle such as attitudes and values, segments based on aspects of lifestyle are expected to be more useful for health communication strategies [14, 16]. They assume that attitudes, values, and motives in relation to alcohol consumption among adolescents will vary, and may therefore present a better starting point for segmentation than socio-demographic characteristics alone. For example, previous research has shown that motives for drinking give climb to a substantial piece of the variance in alcohol consumption [17, 18]. Moreover, personality traits, such as sensation seeking, are associated with quantity and frequency of alcohol exercise [19].

Despite the promising characteristics of audience segmentation based on lifestyle aspects, it has never been used in the Netherlands in relation to the prevention of alcohol consumption. That is why the RHS “Hart voor Brabant”, in cooperation with market research office Motivaction®, conducted a study to find out whether it is viable to identify different segments on the basis of the motives, attitudes, and values of adolescents towards alcohol. The first results of this study were already published in a Dutch article [20].

Chapter 20 - Extension's role in sustainable agricultural development | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Chapter 20 - Extension's role in sustainable agricultural development

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Niels Röling and Jules N. Pretty

Niels Röling is Extra-ordinary Professor of agricultural erudition systems, Department of Communication and Innovation Studies, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands. Jules N. Pretty is the Director of Sustainable Agriculture Programmes, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

Emerging challenges for sustainable agricultureSustainability and levels of actionResource-conserving technology development and transferIncorporating farmer experimentationFrom teaching to learning and a total fresh professionalismFrom directive to participatory extensionChallenges for supportive policy processesReferences

During the past fifty years, agricultural development policies absorb been remarkably successful at emphasizing external inputs as the means to expand food production. This has led to growth in global consumption of pesticides, inorganic fertilizer, animal feed-stuffs, and tractors and other machinery.

These external inputs have, however, substituted for natural processes and resources, rendering them less powerful. Pesticides absorb replaced biological, cultural, and mechanical methods for controlling pests, weeds, and diseases; inorganic fertilizers absorb substituted for livestock manures, composts, and nitrogen-fixing crops; information for management decisions comes from input suppliers, researchers, and extensionists rather than from local sources; and fossil fuels absorb substituted for locally generated energy sources. The basic challenge for sustainable agriculture is to construct better exercise of these internal resources. This can be done by minimizing the external inputs used, by regenerating internal resources more effectively, or by combinations of both.

Evidence is now emerging that regenerative and resource-conserving technologies and practices can bring both environmental and economic benefits for farmers, communities, and nations. The best evidence comes from countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the concern is to expand food production in the areas where fanning has been largely untouched by the modem packages of externally supplied technologies. In these knotty and remote lands, some farmers and communities adopting regenerative technologies absorb substantially improved agricultural yields, often using only few or no external inputs (Bunch, 1991; GTZ, 1992; UNDP, 1992; Lobo & Kochendörfer-Lucius, 1992; Krishna, 1993; Shah, 1994; SWCB, 1994; Pretty, 1995).

But these are not the only sites for successful sustainable agriculture. In the high-input and generally irrigated lands, farmers adopting regenerative technologies absorb maintained yields whilst substantially reducing their exercise of inputs (Kamp, Gregory, & Chowhan, 1993; UNDP, 1992; Kenmore, 1991; van der Werf & de Jager, 1992; Bagadion & Korten, 1991). And in the very high-input lands of the industrialized countries, farmers absorb been able to maintain profitability even though input exercise has been chop dramatically, such as in Europe (Vereijken, 1992; Vereijken, Wijnands, Stol, & Visser, 1994; Van Weeperen, Röling, Van Bon, & Mur, 1995; Pretty & Howes, 1993; Jordan, Hutcheon, & Glen, 1993; El Titi & Landes, 1990) and in the United States (Liebhart et al., 1989; NRC, 1989; Hanson, Johnson, Peters, & Janke, 1990; Dobbs, Becker, & Taylor, 1991; Faeth, 1993).

All of these successes absorb three elements in common. They absorb made exercise of resource-conserving technologies such as integrated pest management, soil and water conservation, nutrient recycling, multiple cropping, water harvesting, and waste recycling. In all, there has been action by groups and communities at the local level, with farmers becoming experts at managing farms as ecosystems and at collectively managing the watersheds or other resource units of which their farms contour a part. And there absorb too been supportive and enabling external government and nongovernment institutions, which absorb reoriented their activities to focus on local needs and capabilities.

Most successes, though, are soundless localized. They are simply islands of success. This is because an overarching element, a favourable policy environment, is missing. Most policies soundless actively hearten fanning that is contingent on external inputs and technologies. It is these policy frameworks that are one of the principal barriers to a more sustainable agriculture (Pretty, 1994a). device 1 illustrates this chapter's district of discourse and its focus on the interfaces between natural resources, local stakeholders, supportive institutions, and the policy context.

A necessary condition for sustainable agriculture is that great numbers of farming households must be motivated to exercise coordinated resource management. This could be for pest and predator management, nutrient management, controlling the contamination of aquifers and surface water courses, coordinated livestock management, conserving soil and water resources, and seed stock management. The problem is that, in most places, platforms for collective determination making absorb not been established to manage such resources (Röling, 1994a, 1994b). The success of sustainable agriculture therefore depends not just on the motivations, skills, and erudition of individual farmers, but on action taken by groups or communities as a whole. This makes the assignment more challenging. Simple extension of the message that sustainable agriculture can match conventional agriculture for profits, as well as produce extra benefits for society as a whole, will not suffice.

Sustainability is commonly seen as a property of an ecosystem. But Sustainability can be seen from other perspectives, which are more apropos for extension. Environmental issues emerge from the human exercise of natural resources. Sustainability can therefore be defined in terms of human reasons, activities, and agreements. The definition of Sustainability then becomes piece of the problem because people requisite to correspond on how they define Sustainability and what priority they will give it (Pretty, 1994b).

In this approach, Sustainability is not a scientific, "hard" property which can be measured according to some objective scale, or a set of practices to be fixed in time and space. Rather, Sustainability is a trait that emerges when people individually or collectively apply their intelligence to maintain the long-term productivity of the natural resources on which they depend (Sriskandarajah, Bawden, & Packham, 1989). In other words, Sustainability emerges out of shared human experiences, objectives, knowledge, decisions, technology, and organization. Agriculture becomes sustainable only when people absorb reason to construct it so. They can learn and negotiate their passage towards Sustainability. In any discussions of Sustainability, it is significant to clarify what is being sustained, for how long, for whose profit and at whose cost, over what area, and measured by what criteria. Answering these questions is difficult, because it means assessing and trading off values and beliefs. Campbell (1994) has build it this way: "[Attempts to define Sustainability miss the point that, dote beauty, sustain faculty is in the eye of the beholder.... It is inevitable that assessments of relative Sustainability are socially constructed, which is why there are so many definitions."

It is therefore crucial to focus on more than one system plane (Fresco, Stroosnijder, Bouma, & van Keulen, 1994). At the farm level, there is the farm household. At the above-farm level, there are the collective stakeholders, who might or might not be organized for sustainable exercise of the total resource unit. In an irrigation scheme, it is common for an irrigators' association collectively to manage water exercise at the scheme level. But when it comes to watersheds or other vulnerable resource units, it is usually impossible to identify an confiscate "platform" for determination making (Röling, 1994a, 1994b).

A key sample is the Indonesian programme for integrated pest management (IPM) in irrigated rice (FAO, 1994; Van de Fliert, 1993; Röling & Van de Fliert, 1994; Kenmore, 1991). At the farm level, this programme involves farmer sphere schools teaching individual farmers to manage their rice plots as ecosystems, carefully maintaining the equipoise between pests and their natural predators and only reverting to pesticides when observation shows that the situation is running out of hand. But IPM too needs collective management of resources comprising several farms. Thus nematodes can effectively be controlled by interrupting the cultivation of humid rice by a dryland crop such as soybeans. This requires determination making at the irrigation block level. The population dynamics of rats, the most significant pest in irrigated rice, cannot be controlled at the farm level. Integrated rat management requires collective action at the village plane (Van de Fliert, van Elsen, & Nangsir Soenanto, 1993).

Although many resource-conserving technologies and practices absorb been widely proven on research stations to be both productive and sustainable, the total number of farmers using them is soundless small. This is because these technologies involve the substitution of management skills, knowledge, and labour for external inputs. The modern approach to agricultural research and extension, however, has been to emphasize comprehensive packages of technologies. Few farmers are able to adopt the total modem packages of production or conservation technologies without considerable adjustments. piece of the problem is that most agricultural research soundless occurs on the research station, where scientists undergo conditions quite different from those experienced by farmers.

This is suitable of many sustainability-enhancing innovations. Even though resource-conserving technologies are productive and sustainable, if they are imposed on farmers, then they will not be adopted widely. Alley cropping, an agroforestry system comprising rows of nitrogen-fixing trees or bushes separated by rows of cereals, has long been the focus of research (Kang, Wilson, & Lawson, 1984; Attah-Krah & Francis, 1987; Young, 1989; Lal, 1989). Many productive and sustainable systems, needing few or no external inputs, absorb been developed. They quit erosion, produce food and wood, and can be cropped over long periods. But the problem is that very few, if any, farmers absorb adopted these alley cropping systems as designed. Despite millions of dollars of research expenditure over many years, systems that absorb been produced are suitable only for research stations.

Where these systems absorb had some success, however, farmers absorb taken one or two components of alley cropping and adapted them to their own farms. In Kenya, for example, farmers planted rows of leguminous trees next to sphere boundaries, or separate rows through their fields; and in Rwanda, alleys planted by extension workers soon became dispersed through fields (Kerkhof, 1990). But the prevalent view tends to be that farmers should conform to the technology. Of the Agroforestry Outreach Project in Haiti, it was said:

Farmer management of hedgerows does not conform to the extension program.... Some farmers prune the hedgerows too early, others too late. Some hedges are not yet pruned by two years of age, when they absorb already reached heights of 4-5 metres. Other hedges are pruned too early, mainly because animals are let in or the tops are chop and carried to animals.... Finally, it is very common for farmers to allow some of the trees in the hedgerow to grow to pole size. These trees are not pruned but are harvested when needed for house construction or other activities requiring poles. (Bannister & Nair, 1990)

Farmers were clearly making their own adaptations according to their own needs.

Just occasionally, however, an environmentally beneficial technology is developed that appears to require no erudition of farmers' conditions. The IPM programme to control cassava mealybug (CMB) (Phenacoccus manihoti) in west and central Africa is one example. CMB was first recorded in Africa in 1973, and an efficient natural enemy, the wasp Epidinocarsis lopezi, was institute in 1981. Since releases began, it has become established in twenty-five countries, providing profitable control of CMB. It is to some extent a "perfect technology" for scientists, because it is released from the air without the erudition of farmers. It is, however, not necessarily a perfect technology for farmers. The contrast with another IPM programme in Togo is significant when it comes to issues of sustainability (Box 1).

The problem with agricultural science and extension is that it has poorly understood the nature of "indigenous" and pastoral people's knowledge. For many, what pastoral people know is assumed to be "primitive," "unscientific," or overtaken by development, and so formal research and extension must "transform" what they know so as to "develop" them. An alternative view is that local erudition is a valuable and underused resource, which can be studied, collected, and incorporated into development activities. Neither of these views, though, is entirely satisfactory because of the static view of erudition implied (Chambers, Pacey, & Thrupp, 1989; Röling & Engel, 1989; Warren, 1991; Long & Long, 1992; Scoones & Thompson, 1994). It is more significant to recognize that local people are always involved in active learning, in (re)inventing technologies, in adapting their farming systems and maintenance strategies. Understanding and supporting these processes of agricultural innovation and experimentation absorb become an significant focus in facilitating more sustainable agriculture with its sturdy locality-specific nature.

The problem with modem agricultural science is that technologies are finalized before farmers rep to espy them. If fresh technologies are confiscate and felicitous a particular farmer's conditions or needs, then they stand a profitable haphazard of being adopted. But if they enact not felicitous and if farmers are unable to construct changes, then they absorb only the one choice. They absorb to conform to the technology, or reject it entirely.

Box 1. Comparison of Farmers' Involvement in Two IPM Programmes.

A: Cassava mealybug (CMB) control with Epidinocarsis lopezi

The programme has involved nearby collaboration between IITA and NARSs, involving training of local technicians to participate in releases. Now mass rearing of the wasp E. lopezi is done in Benin; from there they are transported by air for air release. According to IITA, an significant component of success has been that farmers and extension agents absorb not had to be involved. Farmers enact not, therefore, know anything about the releases. One survey of farmers in Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire institute that they recognized CMB and how it was a devastating pest. entire those where E. lopezi had been introduced at least six months before had observed a significant decline in CMB. But because not anyone of them knew about the programme, they attributed the decline to recent cumbersome rains and other climatic factors.

B: Mango mealybug control in Togo

The CMB programme is in contrast to the successful introduction of the parasitoid Gyranusoides tebyii to Togo in 1987 to control the mango mealybug (Rastrococcus invadens). The parasitoid was institute in India, and following testing, rearing, and release, it rapidly spread over the total of Togo. By 1989, no mango trees could be institute on which mango mealybug was present without being parasitized. But success would be threatened without public interest, as any exercise of chemical control methods would slay the parasites. A Great deal of publicity was given through radio, TV, and advisory leaflets. Considerable economic losses are now being prevented by the biological control system.

Source: Kiss and Meerman (1991).

The alternative is to hunt and hearten the involvement of farmers in adapting technologies to their conditions. This constitutes a radical reversal of the ordinary modes of research and technology generation, because it requires interactive participation between professionals and farmers. Participatory technology development (PTD) is the process in which the erudition and research capacities of farmers are joined with those of scientific institutions, whilst at the same time strengthening local capacities to experiment and innovate (Jiggins & De Zeeuw, 1992; Reijntjes, Haverkort, & Waters-Bayer, 1992; Haverkort, van der Kamp, & Waters-Bayer, 1991). Farmers are encouraged to generate and evaluate indigenous technologies and to select and conform external ones on the basis of their own erudition and value systems.

But, of course, researchers and farmers participate in different ways, depending on the degree of control each actor has over the research process. The most common contour of "participatory" research is researcher designed and implemented, even though it might be conducted on farmers' fields. Many on-farm trials and demonstration plots portray nothing better than passive participation (Pretty, 1994b). Less commonly, farmers may implement trials designed by researchers. But greater roles for farmers are even rarer. Fujisaka (1991) describes researcher-designed experiments on fresh cropping patterns in the Philippines. Even though farmers "participated" in implementing the trials, there was widespread uncertainty about what researchers were actually trying to achieve. Farmers misunderstood experiments and rejected the fresh technologies. The reason, as Fujisaka explains, was that "cooperation between farmers and researchers implies two groups continually listening carefully to one another. Claveria farmers are avid listeners to... researchers. The challenge is for entire on-farm researchers to complete the circle."

Although this means that technology development must involve farmers, it does not connote that scientific research has no place. Research will absorb to contribute on many fronts, such as in the development of resistant cultivars, erudition about the life cycles of pests, biological control methods, suitable crops for erosion control, and processes in nitrogen fixation. Such research too gives insight into knotty processes such as the movement of nutrients in the soil and their accessibility for plants. But entire these contributions must be seen as providing choices for farmers as they construct farm-specific decisions and prance the total farm towards greater sustainability.

The central principle of sustainable agriculture is that it must enshrine fresh ways of learning about the world. But learning should not be confused with teaching.

Teaching implies the transfer of erudition from someone who knows to someone who does not know. Teaching is the ordinary mode of educational curricula and is too central to many organizational structures (Ison, 1990; Argyris, Putnam, & Smith, 1985; Russell & Ison, 1991; Bawden, 1992, 1994; Pretty & Chambers, 1993). Universities and other professional institutions reinforce the teaching paradigm by giving the print that they are custodians of erudition which can be dispensed or given (usually by lecture) to a recipient (a student). Where these institutions enact not embrace a focus on self-development and on enhancing the faculty to learn, they enact not allow students to grasp an essential skill in the sustainable management of a knotty agroecosystem. In that case, "teaching threatens sustainable agriculture" (Ison, 1990).

The problem for farmers is that they cannot trust on routine, calendar-based activities if they engage in sustainable farming. Their interventions must be based on observation and anticipation. They require instruments and indicators which construct more visible the ecological relationships on and among farms. Technology for sustainable farming must emphasize measurement and observation equipment or services that abet individual farmers assess their situations, such as soil analysis, manure analysis, and pest identification (Röling, 1993). It too has to focus on higher system levels. Predators and parasitoids to control pests often require a larger biotope than that of a miniature farm. Erosion control, water harvesting, biodiversity, access to biomass, recycling waste between town and countryside and between animal and crop production, entire require local cooperation and coordination.

What becomes significant is the convivial transition, or fresh learning path, that farmers and communities must win to support sustainable agriculture. This is much less obvious and often remains unrecognized by extensionists. Learning for sustainable agriculture involves a transformation in the fundamental objectives, strategies, theories, risk perceptions, skills, labour organization, and professionalism of farming. This learning path has four key elements:

1. The information system. Sustainable agriculture must be responsive to changing circumstances, so farmers requisite to invest in observation, observation equipment, record keeping, and monitoring procedures.

2. Conceptual framework. Sustainable agriculture is erudition intensive, and so farmers must know about life cycles of pests and disease organisms and their recognition, biological controls, ecological principles, soil life processes, nutrient cycles.

3. Skills. Sustainable farming requires a total set of fresh skills, including observation and monitoring, compost making, mechanical weed control, spot application of pesticides, and risk assessment.

4. Higher system-level management. Generally, sustainable management of the farm is not enough, and it is necessary to reflect at system levels higher than the farm and win piece in the collective management of natural resources at those levels.

In educational systems, therefore, the fundamental requirement for sustainable agriculture is for universities to evolve into communities of participatory learners. Such changes are very rare, an exception being Hawkesbury College, which is now piece of the University of Western Sydney, Australia (Bawden, 1992, 1994). However, a regional consortium of NGOs in Latin America concerned with agroecology and low-input agriculture recently signed an agreement with eleven colleges of agriculture from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay to abet in the joint reorientation of curriculum and research agendas towards sustainability and poverty concerns (Altieri & Yuryevic, 1992; Yuryevic, 1994). The agreement defines collaboration to develop more systemic and integrated curricula, professional training and internship programmes, collaborative research efforts, and the development of training materials.

Box 2. The Key Principles of Farmer sphere Schools.

1. What is apropos and meaningful is decided by the learner and must be discovered by the learner. Learning flourishes in a situation where teaching is seen as a facilitating process that assists people to explore and learn the personal import of events for themselves.

2. Learning is a consequence of experience. People become answerable when they absorb assumed responsibility and experienced success.

3. Cooperative approaches are enabling. As people invest in collaborative group approaches, they develop a better sense of their own worth.

4. Learning is an evolutionary process, and is characterized by free and open communication, confrontation, acceptance, respect, and the perquisite to construct mistakes.

5. Each person's undergo of reality is unique. As people become more alert of how they learn and resolve problems, they can refine and modify their own styles of learning and action.

Sources: Adapted from Kingsley and Musante, 1994; Van de Fliert, 1993; Kenmore, 1991; Stock, 1994.

A prance from a teaching to a learning style has profound implications for agricultural development institutions. The focus is less on what they learn, and more on how they learn and with whom (see Box 2 for principles of farmer sphere schools used in the FAO IPM programme in Southeast Asia). This implies fresh roles for development professionals, leading to a total fresh professionalism with fresh concepts, values, methods, and behaviour. Typically, ordinary professionals are single-disciplinary, work largely or only in agencies remote from people, are insensitive to diversity of context, and are concerned with themselves generating and transferring technologies. Their beliefs about people's conditions and priorities often differ from people's own views. The fresh professionals, by contrast, are either multidisciplinary or work in nearby connection with other disciplines, are not intimidated by the complexities of nearby dialogue with pastoral and urban people, and are continually alert of the context of interaction and development.

Extension has long been grounded in the diffusion model of agricultural development, in which technologies are passed from research scientists via extensionists to farmers (Rogers, 1962, 1983). This approach is exemplified by the training and visit (T&V) system. It was first implemented in Turkey in 1967 and later widely adopted by governments (Benor, 1987; Roberts, 1989). It was designed to be a management system for energizing extension staff, turning desk-bound, poorly motivated sphere staff into efficient extension agents. Extension agents receive regular training to enhance their technical skills, which they then hope will pass to entire farmers through regular communication with miniature numbers of selected contact farmers.

But the contact farmers are usually selected on the basis of literacy, wealth, readiness to change, and "progressiveness," and so this sets them apart from the rest of the community. The secondary transfer of the technical messages, from contact farmers to community, has been much less successful than predicted, and adoption rates are commonly very low among noncontact farmers. Without a doubt, T&V is now widely considered as ineffective (Axinn, 1988; Howell, 1988; Moris, 1990; Antholt, 1992, 1994; Hussain, Byerlee, & Heisey, 1994).

Important lessons absorb been erudite from the problems associated with T&V, and there is clearly a requisite to address the systemic issues facing extension (Zijp, 1993; Antholt, 1994). Extension will requisite to build on traditional communication systems and involve farmers themselves in the process of extension. Incentive systems will absorb to be developed to reward staff for being in the sphere and working closely with farmers. There must be a "well-defined link between the well-being of sphere officers and the extension system, based on the clients' view of the value of extension's and sphere workers' performance" (Antholt, 1992, P.). Participation, if it is to become piece of extension, must clearly be interactive and empowering. Any pretence to participation will result in limited change. Allowing farmers just to near to meetings or letting a few representatives sit on committees will be insufficient.

There absorb been some recent innovations in introducing elements of farmer participation and group approaches into extension. Differences in repercussion between individual and group approaches absorb been well documented in both Nepal and Kenya. In western Nepal, Sen (1993) compared the rate of adoption of fresh technologies when extension worked with individuals or with groups. With groups, better communication between farmers and extensionists led to more adoption. When the individual approach was resumed after the experiment, adoption rates fell rapidly in succeeding years.

In Kenya, the Ministry of Agriculture is increasingly adopting a community-oriented approach to soil and water conservation. This is steadily replacing the former individual approach of the T&V system. Where extension staff interact closely with communities in developing joint action plans, and local people freely elect members to a local catchment committee, then the repercussion on agricultural growth is immediate and sustained. sturdy local groups mobilize the interest of the wider community and sustain action well beyond the age of direct contact with external agents. Recent studies comparing the repercussion of the catchment approach with the individual T&V approach absorb shown that, for a wide purview of indicators, farmers' livelihoods were more improved where the community approach was implemented (SWCB, 1994; Pretty, Thompson, & Kiara, 1994; MALDM, 1988-1994; Eckbom, 1992).

There absorb been similar successes in IPM, which requires a plane of analytical skill and confident basic training in crop monitoring and ecological principles. Where farmers absorb been trained as experts, such as in Honduras (Bentley, Rodriguez, & Gonzalez, 1993) and in the rice-IPM programmes of Southeast Asia (Kenmore, 1991), then the impacts are substantial. Ordinary farmers are capable of rapidly acquiring and applying the principles and approaches. Fewer programmes are now teaching farmers fresh technologies and knowledge; rather, they are concerned with developing farmers' own capacity to reflect for themselves and develop their own solutions. These are producing substantial reductions in insecticide use, whilst maintaining yields and increasing profits (Table 1). But where extension continues to exercise the conventional top-down approach, then few farmers adopt, let solitary learn, the principles. As Matteson (1992) build it: "[F]ew IPM programmes absorb made a lasting repercussion on farmer knowledge, attitudes or practice."

There are three major lessons for extension. First, it is significant to construct fresh things visible. An significant role of extension is to construct visible the situation of the environment and the extent to which present farming practices are untenable. In addition, extension can demonstrate the feasibility of sustainable practices. Even more significant is to give farmers the tools for observation and to train them to monitor the situation on their own farms.

The second lesson is the exercise of farmers' knowledge. The location-specific nature of sustainable agriculture implies that extension must construct exercise of farmers' erudition and work together with farmers. Often, indigenous practices which absorb been ignored under the repercussion of chemical farming can be fruitfully revived. Indigenous technology development practices and farmer experimentation can be an significant "entry point" for introducing sustainable farming practices (Brouwers & Röling, in press).

The third lesson is an stress on facilitating learning. Instead of "transferring" technology, extension workers must abet farming "walk the learning path" (Box 3). Extension workers should hunt to understand the learning process, provide expert counsel where required, convene and create learning groups, and abet farmers overcome major hurdles in adapting their farms.

Policy making is commonly considered the prerogative of some central authority that formulates a policy, which is then decreed, imposed, and implemented regardless of conflicting erudition and concerns. But policy is, in practice, often the net result of the actions of different interest groups pulling in complementary and opposing directions. This is particularly suitable with environmental problems because they are marked by uncertainty, complexity, and elevated stakes complexity, and elevated stakes (Funtowicz & Ravetz, 1993). There is therefore a growing drift to espy policy as a negotiated agreement resulting from interaction among citizens, in which central authorities play a facilitating role (Van der Poel & Van Woerkum, 1994). Policy is only efficient if it is based on a widely shared consensus. From this perspective, it is light to espy why so many environmental policies which trust on coercion, control, and transfer absorb failed (Pretty & Shah, 1994; Pimbert & Pretty, 1994).

Box 3. The First Steps on the Learning Path in the Netherlands.

Predator mites were introduced into Dutch fruit orchards to control the red spider mite, which had become resistant to chemical controls. The exercise of this biological control meant that growers had to learn how to manage their orchards as biotopes for the predator mite. Soon they were carrying magnifying glasses to study the progress of their limited helpers. This made them much more observant and accustomed to investing in regular observation. Furthermore, the health of the predator mites precluded exercise of broad-spectrum pesticides against other pests. As a result, growers too had to learn alternative controls for those pests.

Table 1. repercussion of IPM Programmes Involving fresh Participatory Approaches to Farmer Learning on Pesticide exercise and Crop Yields

Country and crop

Average changes in pesticide exercise (as % of conventional treatments)

Changes in yields (as % of conventional treatments)

Togo, cotton1



Burkina Faso, rice1



Thailand, rice2


no data

Philippines, rice2



Indonesia, rice2



Nicaragua, maize3



USA, nine commodities4

no. of applications up volume applied down


Bangladesh, rice5



India, groundnuts6



China, rice2



Vietnam, rice2






Sri Lanka, rice2



a Even though yields are lower, net returns are much higher.

Sources: (1) Kiss and Meerman, 1991; (2) Kenmore, 1991: Winarto, 1993; van der Fliert, 1993; Matteson et at, 1992; FAO, 1994; (3) Hruska, 1993; (4) NRC, 1989; (5) Kamp et al, 1993; Kenmore, 1991; (6) ICRISAT, 1993

For sustainable agriculture to succeed, policy formulation must arise in a fresh way. Policy processes must be enabling and participatory, creating the conditions for sustainable development based more on locally available resources and on local skills and knowledge. efficient policy processes will absorb to bring together a purview of actors and institutions for creative interaction and address multiple realities and unpredictability. What is required is the development of approaches that build participation, negotiation, and mediation at the centre of policy formulation so as to create a much wider common ownership in the practices. This is a central challenge for sustainable agriculture. The management of higher plane systems, whether common grazing lands, coastal fisheries resources, communal forests, national parks, polders, or watersheds, requires convivial organization comprising the key stakeholders. entire successful moves to more sustainable agriculture absorb in common coordinated action by groups or communities at the local plane (Pretty, 1995). But the problem is that platforms for resource exercise negotiation generally enact not exist, and so requisite to be created and facilitated (Brinkman, 1994; Röling, 1994a, 1994b).

Different methodologies are emerging to abet stake-holders achieve collective resource management capacity. Well known are participatory rapid appraisal (PRA) and related methodologies (see chapter 6). In addition, the soft system methodology (SSM) developed for corporate environments is highly promising for resource exercise negotiation (Checkland, 1981; Checkland & Scholes, 1990). For stakeholders who absorb near to esteem the fact that they participate a problem, SSM takes them through a number of steps which allows them to create a "rich picture" on the basis of their multiple perspectives, reach some accommodation with respect to major causes of the problem, and hence select on collective action. "Rapid appraisal of agricultural erudition systems" (RAAKS) (Engel, 1995) is a related methodology for facilitating innovation as an emergent property of a erudition network, comprising such actors as farmers, extension workers, researchers, NGO workers, and policy makers. This system provides stakeholders with different "windows" (such as mission, assignment differentiation, integration, articulation, coordination, performance) on their own collective practices which allow them to capture the potential synergy of their contributions to innovative performance.

A fundamental requirement if such approaches are to work is that stakeholders in a particular natural resource learn to esteem that they absorb a common problem (Box 4). Extension has an significant role to play here by making visible the interdependence between stakeholders and the extent to which the resource unit on which they depend has been destroyed by their uncoordinated action and the collective repercussion of their individual activities. It is within policy contexts thus made conducive for sustainable agriculture that technology development and extension can be especially effective.

Box 4. Resource Mapping by Farmers in Landcare Programme, Australia.

Landcare in Australia provides examples of learning to supervision for natural resources at higher system levels. respect resource mapping. Farmers from a subcatchment (usually a subgroup of a Lancare group) are convened by the facilitator of the group to discuss the soils and their susceptibility to erosion. First, a soil typology is established by the farmers through sphere visits, digging soil pits, and so forth. After a suitable classification (which might deviate considerably from the official scientific one) has been agreed upon, farmers receive an air photo mosaic of the entire subcatchment with their property drawn in. They are too provided with a transparent overlay on which to map the soils and main features of their own properties.

These farmer maps are digitized and fed into GIS software, which allows the property resource maps to be combined into one consolidated subcatchment map. Following meetings to discuss the results, farmers correspond on the resource map of the subcatchment and now absorb a solid grasp of the interaction between their property and the subcatchment. They too realize that vulnerable soils span several properties and that measures to avert further soil erosion and solination require alignment of fences, roads, vegetation belts, and other features.

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Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
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NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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