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250-253 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

Test Code : 250-253
Test title : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix
Vendor title : Symantec
: 235 existent Questions

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Symantec Administration of Veritas Cluster

Symantec's Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 for VMware ESX offers unreasonable Availability and calamity healing for actual and virtual Server Environments | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: Symantec

November 07, 2006 08:00 ET

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX Simplifies Cluster Administration and Automates Failover for VMware virtual Servers throughout Heterogeneous Networks

CUPERTINO, CA -- (MARKET WIRE) -- November 7, 2006 -- Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC) nowadays unveiled Veritas™ Cluster Server (VCS) 5.0 for VMware ESX, bringing unreasonable availability and catastrophe recuperation to heterogeneous information centers running virtual server utility. VCS for VMware ESX automates remote failover for calamity restoration and offers management of clustered virtual and physical servers. impeccable to evade downtime in case of application, digital machine, community link, or server failures, VCS for VMware ESX centralizes cluster management in a unique ESX server or throughout a campus or WAN. VCS is a key component of Veritas Server foundation, a set of products which makes it practicable for commercial enterprise valued clientele to find in component what is running on the servers of their facts core, actively control and administer these servers, and ensure that mission crucial functions working on those servers are at complete times obtainable. Symantec might subsist demonstrating VCS for VMware ESX at the VMworld 2006 convention being held in los angeles this week.

"VMware administrators are seeking for tools that no longer most effectual automate catastrophe recovery but assist them slit the vulnerabilities associated with operating distinctive digital servers on the very actual server," talked about Poulomi Damany, director of product management for Symantec's data core management neighborhood. "Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX solves these complications by course of combining catastrophe recuperation and towering availability, and consolidating control of each virtual and actual servers and their dependencies."

VCS for VMware ESX enhances Symantec's clustering solutions for home windows, Linux and UNIX structures. Symantec is the market leader in cross-platform server clustering, in accordance with the 2006 edition of the IDC international Clustering and Availability software document(1). With added assist for VMware ESX, the market's most typical virtual server platform, VCS for VMware ESX provides a unique respond to consolidate management of VMware virtual servers in heterogeneous statistics center environments.

comprehensive towering Availability and catastrophe healing

VCS for VMware ESX gives unreasonable availability and calamity restoration for physical and virtual servers. by simplifying and automating far off failover for VMware virtual server environments, VCS for VMware ESX provides introduced insurance project against virtual laptop or application screw ups, together with:

-- application and resource monitoring, in addition to server monitoring, which provides a higher level of availability; -- computerized recuperation from application, network storage, virtual useful resource, digital server, and actual server disasters; -- Centralized management of virtual and physical resources and servers from a unique console; -- finished trying out for calamity recuperation integrating each utility failover and data replication to enable corporations to examine catastrophe recovery with out disrupting construction environments. "as it managers try to rein in server sprawl and enrich resource utilization throughout the business, they're confronted with the problem of deploying dissimilar facts availability and management solutions to wield and protect an ever-turning out to subsist population of virtual servers," preeminent Brian Babineau, Analyst, enterprise approach community. "With VCS for VMware ESX, Symantec has simplified the project for VMware customers by course of providing a unique platform that can abide away from downtime of mission vital applications running in virtual and actual server environments throughout any distance and any platform."

New back for VMware ESX

VCS for VMware ESX furthermore enables purchasers to maximize the advanced points of VMware through recognizing and seamlessly interoperating with VMware's VMotion and dispensed resource Scheduler (DRS). If a virtual desktop is moved from one server to a different for planned preservation using VMotion, the circulation could subsist recognized by VCS and VCS will seize the imperative motion to update the cluster fame as a consequence. it's furthermore suitable with distributed resource Scheduler (DRS), VMware's workload optimization characteristic.

computerized catastrophe recovery testing

exciting to VCS is hearth Drill, a characteristic of VCS that gives an added layer of insurance project for digital servers. With fire Drill, groups can check their calamity restoration project and configuration devoid of impacting the construction environment. In virtual environments the Place server places exchange generally, hearth Drill helps panoply screen and track mobile servers, their configuration and dependency hyperlinks.

price and Availability

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX is scheduled to subsist released in the first quarter of 2007. Pricing for VCS for VMware ESX begins at $1,995 per server.

About Symantec

Symantec is the realm chief in offering options to back individuals and organizations guarantee the security, availability, and integrity of their suggestions. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in forty countries. extra information is purchasable at www.symantec.com.

(1) IDC, worldwide Clustering and Availability utility 2005 dealer Shares, Doc #203676, October, 2006

be vigilant TO EDITORS: if you'd fondness more information on Symantec employer and its products, delight visit the Symantec information room at http://www.symantec.com/information. complete expenses referred to are in U.S. greenbacks and are valid handiest within the u.s..

Symantec and the Symantec emblem are trademarks or registered trademarks of Symantec organization or its associates in the U.S. and other nations. different names could subsist trademarks of their respective owners.


Symantec declares the availability of Veritas Storage foundation 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Symantec Corp. introduced the established availability of its Storage groundwork 5.0 household of items, featuring public and private sector organizations with fresh visibility and control over complicated statistics core storage environments. besides this fresh storage management providing, Symantec is releasing for common availability Veritas Cluster Server 5.0, a key component of the Veritas Server foundation family. Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 is a confirmed solution for cutting back planned and unplanned utility and database downtime. Veritas Storage foundation 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 are core add-ons of the Symantec data core foundation respond family unit, the handiest providing that makes it practicable for executive and commercial enterprise customers to standardize on a unique layer of infrastructure software throughout their total information center, enabling them to in the reduction of datacenter complexity, enhance carrier tiers, and pressure down operations charges.

clients who leverage the Symantec records core groundwork can recognize potent operational merits such because the capability to coach their personnel on one set of outfit in its Place of dozens of disparate seller-particular equipment; stronger negotiating leverage and suppleness in selecting amongst any main storage and server supplier; and more advantageous utilization of server and storage hardware belongings. in addition, shoppers can achieve gigantic direct impregnate savings. by means of standardizing on solutions fondness Veritas Storage groundwork 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0, companies can evade deciding to buy duplicative server and storage software from discrete companies, and recognize giant storage hardware rate reductions by course of relocating records from excessive-cost tier one storage to lessen cost tier two storage.

Storage basis 5.0 gives facts core-huge visibility into the entire storage atmosphere throughout complete most requisite application, server, operating outfit and storage platforms. additionally, Storage groundwork 5.0 offers powerful centralized control over storage administration, enabling hundreds of methods to subsist managed from a unique console and automating routine tasks to eradicate human mistake and time-drinking manual processes. moreover, with this unencumber, Symantec offers users with the first synchronous unlock across complete primary UNIX and Linux systems.

an impressive server management providing from Symantec, Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 includes fresh aspects designed to in the reduction of both planned and unplanned downtime, even if as a result of hardware screw ups, facts core great failures, or server renovation, by automating local and great enviornment utility failover. Cluster Server 5.0 enables valued clientele to video display, manage, and report on assorted local and faraway clusters from a unique web-based mostly console. To more desirable guarantee the success of a catastrophe healing strategy, Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 includes hearth Drill, a appliance that automates DR trying out, decreasing the time, price, and risk of the testing system. as a result of information core servers and functions are consistently changing, continually testing a catastrophe healing strategy is requisite to guarantee a successful restoration within the suffer of a device or web page-extensive outage. IT directors now gain the skill to achieve remarkable wield and self assurance in their programs as hearth Drill helps assure reliability and efficiency of their DR programs and strategies.

Pricing and Availability

Veritas Storage foundation 5.0, Veritas extent Replicator 5.0, Veritas Storage groundwork primary and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 are available now via Symantec's direct revenue drive, commerce VAR channel, outfit integrators, and select OEM partners. Veritas Storage foundation primary can furthermore subsist downloaded at www.symantec.com/sfbasic. Storage groundwork management Server may furthermore subsist downloaded at www.symantec.com/sfms. Veritas Storage foundation 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 are licensed per server tier or per processor. Veritas Storage basis fundamental is accessible free. The optional annual assist subscription for Veritas Storage foundation basic starts at US $ninety eight per processor.


Veritas Cluster Server for windows | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This dealer-specific Certification is obtainable by using:SymantecCupertino, CA USAPhone: 408-517-8000Email: This e-mail wield is being blanketed from spambots. You want JavaScript enabled to view it.

ability stage: basis                          reputation: Unknown

within your means: $one hundred fifty (shortest tune)               

summary:for people who've the competencies and talents fundamental to devise, design, and set up Veritas Storage foundation unreasonable Availability for windows in an commercial enterprise atmosphere.

preliminary necessities:You must flux the Administration of Veritas Storage basis unreasonable Availability for home windows exam ($one hundred fifty) and settle for the Symantec Certification agreement. The exam is ninety minutes lengthy and consists of seventy two questions. A passing ranking of 72% is required. working towards is accessible however not required.

continuing requirements:None targeted

See complete Symantec Certifications

supplier's page for this certification


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Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

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Implementing Security, partake II: Hardening Your UNIX/Linux Servers | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Continuing with partake 2 of this two-article series, Joseph Dries helps you continue to expand upon your list of basic security processes by looking at UNIX/Linux hardening, protecting your servers from network based TCP/IP attacks, and utilizing centralized logging servers.

This article was excerpted from The Concise guide to Enterprise Internetworking and Security.

"A commercial, and in some respects a social, doubt has been started within the eventual year or two, whether or not it is perquisite to debate so openly the security or insecurity of locks. Many well-meaning persons suppose that the discussion respecting the means for baffling the supposititious safety of locks offers a premium for dishonesty, by showing others how to subsist dishonest. This is a fallacy. Rogues are very keen in their profession, and already know much more than they can educate them respecting their several kinds of roguery. Rogues knew a capable deal about lockpicking long before locksmiths discussed it among themselves, as they gain lately done. If a lock—let it gain been made in whatever country, or by whatever maker—is not so inviolable as it has hitherto been deemed to be, surely it is in the interest of honest persons to know this fact because the dishonest are tolerably sure to subsist the first to apply the information practically; and the spread of information is necessary to give unprejudiced play to those who might suffer by ignorance. It cannot subsist too earnestly urged, that an acquaintance with existent facts will, in the end, subsist better for complete parties." —Charles Tomlinson's "Rudimentary Treatise on the Construction of Locks," published around 1850

It has been said that the wonderful thing about standards is there are so many to choose from. The very altenative is available in the UNIX arena. There are two basic flavors, BSD-derived and AT&T System V-derived. BSD-derived UNIX systems comprise OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSDi, MacOS X, and SunOS 4. System V-derived UNIX systems comprise HP-UX and Solaris (SunOS 5). Other UNIX systems, such as AIX, provide commands that will act BSD-ish or System V-ish, depending on how they were invoked. Linux is not derived from any UNIX, but depending on the distribution, borrows from both BSD and System V semantics. Actually, Linux itself is just the operating system kernel and supporting drivers. Most Linux distributions use the GNU system (http://www.gnu.org), thus they are called GNU/Linux distributions. There are hundreds of available GNU/Linux distributions, but even the "top 5" are different in their default commands, startup scripts, filesystem layout, included utilities, and packaging systems.

What does this import to you? Unlike Windows NT, including Windows 2000, it is a far more complicated process to report how to season a UNIX/Linux server. This next section provides some common procedures that can subsist applied across UNIX versions and GNU/Linux distributions. Following that are some pointers to alive documents on the Internet, which track available data and releases, and retreat into a more particular account of how to season a server for a particular task.

Common Steps for Hardening UNIX/Linux Servers

The process of pile a UNIX or GNU/Linux server for use as a firewall or DMZ server begins with installation. Eliminating points of attack, such as filling the filesystem, or removing unnecessary libraries and services, is equivalent to removing practicable entry points for intruders.

Some common guidelines for configuring UNIX servers with a more secure default stance are available from CERT's Web site at ftp://info.cert.org/pub/tech_tips/UNIX_configuration_guidelines.

Partition for Protection

Besides having sever partitions for the obvious, such as SWAP and /tmp, you should protect against out-of-disk-space denial-of-service attacks. Intruders might try to create unreasonable generation of logging data or fill your file system with great files through FTP or mail spool. The best course to protect against this is to segment the filesystem hierarchy into sever physical partitions.

The root partition / can subsist wee because it generally contains just the kernel—the necessary files, libraries, and configuration for booting in /bin, /sbin, /etc, and /lib. Access to the attached devices is provided through the /dev and /devices directories. Many GNU/Linux distributions store kernels and emblem data in the /boot directory, whereas kernel libraries are stored under /lib.

The /usr partition is normally where user-accessible applications are stored. Normally, /usr does not contain data or configuration files that change; therefore, an added security measure can subsist mounted as read-only.

The /var partition stores system logs and data services such as mail, Web, databases, printing, running services, package management, and so on. On a mail server, you might want to consequence /var/spool/mail, or /var/mail in Solaris, a sever partition, or—even better—a sever disk array. If you only create one sever partition from /, /var is the one you should separate.

The /usr/local directory structure, and in Solaris the /opt directory, often contains locally installed optional software, configuration files, and data. /usr/local is normally not affected by operating system upgrades. Depending on how you use those directories, they too can subsist mounted as read-only.

These are suggestions and guidelines only, and are different from recommended settings for a system that contains user accounts, usually in /home.

Disable Extraneous inetd Services

inetd is the UNIX "Internet Super Server." It is a daemon process that is invoked at boot time and reads in a flat file configuration database normally organize at /etc/inetd.conf. inetd listens for incoming connections on the defined IP ports. When a connection is initiated on a defined port, it invokes the configured program to service the request. After the connection is finished, the process invoked to service that request terminates. This was originally designed to lighten the load and resources required for systems.

There are a number of services enabled through inetd, and almost complete of them should subsist disabled for pile firewalls and DMZ servers. Besides normally disabling FTP, TFTP, Telnet, and the Berkeley r* commands, disable the following:

  • in.named—BIND title services daemon. Except for your DNS servers, you should not subsist running DNS on your firewall or DMZ servers.

  • in.fingerd—Finger daemon that can subsist used to demonstrate user information and lists of users who are logged in. There is no judgement to advertise that information to would-be intruders.

  • daytime—Connections to this service panoply the date and time on the system in a string format. Getting the date and time of a system is useful for an intruder trying to implement replay attacks.

  • time—Connections to this service revert the time as a 32-bit value representing the number of seconds since midnight 1-Jan-1900. carry out not provide intruders with your exact system time.

  • echo—This is a diagnostic service that echoes incoming data back to the connecting machine.

  • discard—This is a diagnostic service that does not reflect (thus discarding) the incoming data stream back to the connecting machine.

  • chargen—This is a diagnostic service that automatically generates a stream of characters sent to the connecting machine.

  • systat—Connections to this service provide a list of complete processes and their status.

  • netstat—Connections to this service provide a list of current network connections and their status.

  • Install and Configure tcp_wrappers

    Install and configure Wietse Venema's tcp_wrappers on both your firewall and DMZ servers. tcp_wrappers allows you to define access control to various services, depending on a limited set of criteria, such as username, IP address, or DNS domain.

    You might subsist asking why it's necessary to configure and install additional products when your firewall will subsist doing the very thing. And that's a valid question. The respond is to avoid unique points of failure, and to provide security in layers. If one layer is pierced and bypassed, other layers will subsist standing guard behind the breach.

    tcp_wrappers are lightweight and extremely useful on internal servers; not just on firewalls and DMZ servers. withhold in wit that most information security breaches, intentional or accidental, occur internally. It's only the external defacements, massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, virus-du-jour, and stolen credit card databases that grab the press. That, and misplaced arduous drives with highly sensitive nuclear information.

    tcp_wrappers gain two main files that allow access to the individually defined services. The following two files are checked for rules governing access to individual or wildcard services:

    /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny

    Like most firewalls, access is granted or denied on the first matching rule. The rules are checked in order, first in hosts.allow and then in hosts.deny.

    Care should subsist taken when using the KNOWN or UNKNOWN wildcards. complete will always match whatever criteria you are testing. Read the hosts_access manual page included with tcp_wrappers for further details on syntax and rules setup.

    tcp_wrappers is installed and configured by default on most GNU/Linux distributions and BSD releases. For those UNIX systems that carry out not gain tcp_wrappers installed by default, they can subsist organize at ftp://ftp.porcupine.org/pub/security/index.html. Retrieve the source, compile, and install the binaries on the servers.

    Lock Down Your DNS Server

    The Berkeley Internet title Daemon, or BIND, is the reference implementation of the title service providing DNS for the Internet. The Internet Software Consortium (ISC) is accountable for implementing and maintaining BIND. There are three basic versions of BIND: BIND 4, BIND 8, and (recently) BIND 9.

    BIND 4 has been around forever, and has its partake of exploits. Only very extinct versions of UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions came with BIND 4. Still, you'll subsist surprised how many installations still gain the older BIND 4 running. You should upgrade to a newer version of BIND. The unlucky thing is that the file format defining the zones served by the server has changed. There are conversion scripts, but there is sure to subsist some hand editing.

    BIND 8 is the current stable release, and offers many more features and better control and granularity in access control. The settings described later are discussed with BIND 8 in mind.

    BIND 9 was released late in 2000. It offers many fresh features, such as IPv6 support, DNSSEC, complete Dynamic DNS, incremental zone transfers, multiple views (internal, external, and so on) from a unique server, and scalability improvements. If any of those features are requisite to your configuration, you should investigate using BIND 9; otherwise, it's best left to the adventurous.

    Although almost complete UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions compass with BIND as the title server, it is requisite you consequence sure you are at a recommended release. Before deploying a DNS server, internally or on the DMZ, consequence sure it is at least version 8.2.2-P5. Any version prior to that has grave exploits. This warning should not subsist ignored. The Internet Software Consortium themselves gain issued a statement that if you are running any version of BIND prior to 8.2.2-P5, you should assume your server has already been compromised. Check your UNIX system or GNU/Linux distribution. If the version of BIND is not at least 8.2.2-P5, check with your vendor for upgrades. If an upgrade is not available, you can compile a version of BIND yourself on a workstation, and install the binaries on your server. The source code can subsist organize at http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/.

    First, restrict zone transfers to specific secondary servers in your primary zones. The acl command allows you to define an access control list composed of blocks of addresses to subsist used with a named identifier. Using ACLs provides a self-documenting course of administrating the named.conf configuration file. In the following example, they define two ACLs comprising their externally visible DNS servers and the secondary servers at their ISP:

    acl your-company-dns { 172.16.30.12; 172.16.30.24; }; acl your-ISP-dns { 199.177.202.10; 204.95.224.200; };

    The following allow-transfer option directive placed in your named.conf file will default complete defined zones to only allow transfers for the defined hosts:

    options { allow-transfer { your-company-dns; your-ISP-dns; }; };

    You can override the allow-transfer statement in the options directive by placing the allow-transfer statement in the zone definition:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { type master; file "db.yourdomain-com"; allow-transfer { 172.16.30.12; 192.168.71.200; }; }

    The default allow-transfer option will preclude zone transfers to hosts not specified in the ACLs. However, if you want to restrict complete zone transfers on your secondary servers and any secondary zones on your primary servers, use predefined match list none. This can subsist accomplished with the following allow-transfer directive in your zone definitions:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { type slave; file "db.yourdomain-com.s"; masters { 192.168.71.1; }; allow-transfer { none; }; };

    Finally, because you will subsist allowing recursive queries through your servers, it's best to enable access control lists for your internal networks. Using a nested, named acl with the allow-query option in the zone definition, you can then restrict recursive queries to internal hosts only as seen in the following example:

    acl internal-net { 192.168.71.0/24; }; acl dmz-net { 172.16.30.0/24; }; acl trusted-hosts { localhost; internal-net; dmz-net; }; zone "yourdomain.com" { type master; file "db.yourdomain-com" allow-query { trusted-hosts; }; };

    Que's Concise guide to DNS and BIND by Nicolai Langfeldt is a wonderful resource to further grok BIND configuration and maintenance.

    Tighten Sendmail Default Options

    Send mail comes with just about every UNIX/Linux installation as the default mail transfer agent (MTA). As a result of being so widely installed, it has been estimated that sendmail handles a majority of the email on the Internet. Because it runs as suid root, sendmail exploits strike millions of machines.

    sendmail version 8.11.0 is available at the time of publication, and supports fresh features such as STARTTLS and SMTP AUTH encryption. Upgrade to the newest version available, if possible, but delight consequence sure that you are running a version no later than version 8.9.3 because of security exploits.

    To enable the Realtime Blackhole List feature, use the following in your sendmail.mc file:

    FEATURE(rbl)dnl

    Additionally, you might want to disable the SMTP VRFY and EXPN commands in sendmail. These commands are often used by intruders to congregate information about your system:

    define(´confPRIVACY_FLAGS', ´novrfy,noexpn')dnl

    There are several additional flags you can set to consequence sendmail gain a more secure stance:

  • authwarnings—Add X-Authentication-Warning header in messages on sure conditions that might testify mail system spoof attempts.

  • needmailhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command first when connecting to send email.

  • needexpnhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any EXPN usage.

  • needvrfyhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any VRFY usage.

  • noreceipts—Disable Delivery Status Notification (DSNs) of delivery and read receipts.

  • goaway—Set complete flags except restrictmailq and restrictqrun.

  • restrictmailq—Prevent users from using the mailq command to view the contents of the mail queue.

  • restrictqrun—Stop users from processing the queue.

  • Better than sendmail: Making Postfix Your MTA

    According to its Web page, Postfix's goals are "to subsist fast, smooth to administer, and secure, while at the very time being sendmail compatible enough to not upset existing users."

    Postfix was primarily written by Wietse Venema of tcp_wrappers fame. Postfix was designed to subsist modular, thus Postfix is not a unique executable fondness sendmail; rather, Postfix comprises a collection of specialized programs that fulfill specific tasks. complete the programs except for the master control process (oddly called master because it runs without root privilege) speed as nonprivileged users, limiting the damage an attacker can inflict on your system. Because of the speed, ease of configuration (and thus less desultory of misconfiguration), and security, it is recommended that you investigate replacing sendmail with Postfix. For those of you who carry out not dream in sendmail.cf syntax, Postfix will consequence email administration both easier and more secure.

    Postfix is now distributed with most GNU/Linux and BSD releases, although it is not often installed by default. Usually, it is a simple matter of installing it via your package management system, or (in the BSD case) via the ports collection.

    If you are using an operating system that does not dole Postfix, discouragement not. You can download and compile the sources easily on a progress workstation and then install the binaries on your mail server. The sources, FAQs, and documentation can subsist organize at http://www.postfix.org/

    Linux-Specific Tasks

    There are many GNU/Linux distributions out there. Each vendor has its own installation process, which usually changes between fresh versions of the vendor's distribution. The "forerunners" of GNU/Linux distributions are Red Hat, SuSE, TurboLinux, Mandrake, Caldera, Slackware, and Debian. That does not import specifically that you should use any one of them because the towering number of distributions allows vendors to tailor their GNU/Linux distributions to specific tasks such as embedded systems, routers, and firewalls. seize the time to carefully investigate the available distributions, and determine which best fits your needs.

    With that said, two of these universal distributions stand out, but for different reasons. Red Hat, because it has had the most title recognition, and is usually the first to regain any sort of corporate back in the course of commercial software or commercial technical service. Many vendors, such as Oracle, IBM, and Check Point, gain released products for Red Hat-specific distributions. This does not import that those software releases will not speed on other GNU/Linux distributions, but if there is a problem, the vendor might not back your installation of its product on a non-Red Hat distribution.

    Debian is the second distribution that deserves mention. First, not because it is entirely free, but because it is maintained by a nonprofit organization made up entirely of volunteers. These volunteers are highly motivated by trait and pride in their efforts to consequence Debian the most stable and completely 100% free distribution available. Debian has proven to subsist extremely stable and smooth to manage and upgrade remotely. The upgrade process is by far the easiest of any of the GNU/Linux distributions. Debian installations can subsist upgraded without the exigency for reboots, replacing every installed package and running process excepting the kernel. Additionally, the Debian packaging system and its front ends allow extremely fine-grained control over which packages, utilities, libraries, and files exist on your system. Debian furthermore is currently available on six different architectures, with more than 3,900 included software packages to select from when installing.

    For both Debian and Red Hat installations, you should choose custom installations, and select the individual packages you want on your system. There should subsist no exigency to install progress packages, any of the fresh KDE or GNOME desktops, and certainly not X Window. Unfortunately, neither distribution yet has a minimal secure server or firewall predefined install-set.

    During the installation process, you should choose to enable shadow password file support; choose to use MD5 hashes for the passwords rather than the proper crypt function. If you miss these options during the install, you can change them after installation. In Red Hat, use the setup utility. In Debian, you can use the shadowconfig utility to enable or disable shadow passwords. To enable MD5 hashes, you gain to edit the usurp files under /etc/pam.d to comprise md5 on the password lines.

    You should furthermore enable ipchains support, even if this is an application server on the DMZ. ipchains provides additional layers of security, and allows you to protect the server from traffic should the firewall fail for some reason. A sample ipchains configuration is discussed later in the article.

    You should additionally read and monitor the security and errata/updates lists from your distribution vendor. With Debian, it is extremely smooth to automatically install security updates using the apt-get utility. For Red Hat installations starting with the 6.0 release, there is the up2date utility to retrieve updated packages for your release.

    For those people who choose to install Red Hat Linux, there is a security-related project called Bastille Linux, whose aim is not just to season your Linux installation, but to educate the administrators on how to season the system. Bastille Linux supports Red Hat and Mandrake Linux distributions with project goals to become distribution, and UNIX flavor, agnostic. The Bastille Linux product is a set of scripts that asks a chain of questions and then allows you to apply those modifications to your system. The questions report what needs to subsist done, why it should subsist done, and why you might not want to carry out it. It is very educational, especially for those administrators just getting confidential with Linux. Bastille Linux can subsist organize at http://www.bastille-linux.org/.

    Another excellent source of information for administrators is the Linux Administrator's Security Guide. It covers an extremely wide array of topics related to Linux and security. You can find the Linux Administrator's Security guide online at http://www.securityportal.com/lasg/.

    Solaris-Specific Tasks

    Solaris has four default install-sets: Core, End-User, Developer, and Entire Distribution. Installing any install-set higher than the Core installation will enable more services than are required for DMZ servers or firewalls. In reality, you can often remove a significant percentage of the default Core install-set, depending on your server's application requirements.

    For Solaris-based servers, there are several excellent documents from Sun in its Blueprints Online archive at http://www.sun.com/software/solutions/blueprints/online.html. The following three papers are excellent starting points for pile secure Solaris servers:

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Minimization for Security: A Simple, Reproducible and Secure Application Installation Methodology" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. Although this paper specifically covers the iPlanet Web server requirements, similar requirements are necessary for using Apache or other Web servers.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. An overview of universal security options on a Solaris server. This paper includes some specifics for the SPARC architecture; however, most of the material is applicable to Intel architectures as well.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson is another excellent paper on kernel tuning and application parameters that strike network security.

  • As a matter of fact, Sun's Blueprints Online is a wealth of whitepapers outlining Best Practices regarding Solaris Operating Environments, whether it is a DMZ Web server, firewall, or internal highly available database cluster.

    Lance Spitzner furthermore has an excellent Solaris hardening document that details the hardening process for pile a Check Point FireWall-1 firewall on several recent versions of Solaris (through version 8) for the Intel and SPARC platforms. The alive document resides at http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/armoring.html.

    Finally, there is an equivalent to the Bastille-Linux hardening scripts for Solaris called TITAN. The TITAN project and documentation can subsist organize at http://www.fish.com/titan/.

    OpenBSD-Specific Tasks

    This section concentrates on OpenBSD 2.7, which is one of the three more distinguished BSD variants; the others being NetBSD and FreeBSD. Each variant has focused on a different problem: NetBSD is the most portable, FreeBSD has the best performance, and OpenBSD is the most secure.

    One of the distinguished strengths of OpenBSD is the highly secure default stance of a default install of OpenBSD. The OpenBSD Web site claims "three years without a remote hollow in the default install, only one localhost hollow in two years in the default install." Almost complete services are disabled until the administrator has enough suffer to properly configure them.

    Two additional changes necessary for an OpenBSD box to become a firewall are to disable sendmail and enable IP filter support. Both changes are made to the very file, /etc/rc.conf. To disable sendmail, change

    sendmail_flags="-q30m"

    to

    sendmail_flags=NO

    To enable IP filter support, you must change

    ipfilter=NO

    to

    ipfilter=YES

    Additionally, if you will subsist doing Network Address Translation (NAT), providing transparent proxying, or providing back for FTP, you must enable the ipnat option by setting ipnat=YES. Syntax for IP filters will subsist covered briefly later in the chapter.


    1998 in review | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    LWN 1998 Linux timeline

    This is version 1.0 of the 1998 Linux timeline. Thanks to input from many of you, many omissions from the previous version gain been fixed. For those who gain seen the earlier version, check out the changes page to descry what got added. The permanent site for this page is and will remain:

    http://lwn.net/1999/features/1998timeline/

    We're still looking for input for the final version of this page, which will subsist partake of the January 7, 1999 issue of LWN. delight drop us a note with your suggestions for additions to this page.

    This page was produced by Jonathan Corbet at Eklektix, Inc. Contributions gain since compass in from Zachary Beane, Christopher Bohn, token Bolzern, Malcolm Caldwell, Victor Chang, Alan Cox, David Damerell, Joe DeVita, Gael Duval, Sammy Ford, Emmanuel Galanos, Jason Haas, Hans ? (hzo), Tres Hofmeister, "Kerberus," Alexander Kjeldaas, Matthias Kranz, Barry Kwok, Erik Levy, William Mackeown, Rick Moen, Olivier M�ller, Hartmut Niemann, Rodolphe Ortalo, moneyed Payne, Kelly Price, G. Branden Robinson, Greg Roelofs, Daniel Roesen, Seth David Schoen, Dan Shafer, Lewis Tanzos, Jarto Tarpio, Henri de la Vall�e Poussin, Moshe Vainer, Steve Wainstead, David A. Wheeler, Micah Yoder, and James Youngman. Many thanks to complete of these folks!

    You may jump straight to the month of your choice: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, or December.

    The Linux Weekly tidings begins publication. The very first issue, dated January 22, was a just a tiny hint of what LWN was to become. Since then we've gotten better at it, and the Linux world has gotten much more complicated. It has been an inquisitive adventure.

    [Netscape]Netscape announces that they will release the source to their browser under a free software license. This almost certainly remains one of the most requisite events of the year; it opened a lot of eyes to what Linux and free software could provide.

    [RHAD] Red Hat Advanced progress Labs is founded. It has since become one of the higher-profile places where people are paid to develop free software, and an requisite component of the GNOME project. RHAD is able to attract developers fondness "Rasterman" and Federico Mena Quintero.

    The Stampede Linux distribution is announced. Actually, this happened in December, but the tidings took a while to spread... Stampede positions itself as a high-performance "real Linux hacker's" distribution.

    Word gets out that parts of the blockbuster film "Titanic" were rendered on Alpha machines running Linux. This was another requisite step in the "legitimization" of Linux - everybody had heard of The Titanic, and some of its success seemed to rub off on everything associated with it.

    [Qube] The Cobalt Qube is announced and immediately becomes a favorite in the trade press due to its towering performance, low price, and cute form factor. Cobalt's Linux engineering is done by not a soul other than David Miller, source of much that is capable in the Linux kernel.

    [prize] The Linux user community wins InfoWorld's technical back award; Red Hat 5.0 furthermore won their Operating System award. But it was the tech back award that truly opened some eyes; everybody had been saying that Linux had no support. This was the birth of the cease of the "no support" argument.

    [opensource] Red Hat announces that their installation back staff is running behind. They are a victim of their own success, and request for long-suffering while they regain their act together.

    Linux according to Jesse Berst "I mediate it's distinguished if you are willing to promote Linux to your boss. As long as you are vigilant of the risk you are taking. The risk of getting fired." (Feb. 16). "Is a Linux takeover likely? Give me a break. Of course not." (June 23). "I personally mediate Windows NT will subsist the mainstream operating system within a few years." [...] "My belief: Linux will never retreat mainstream" (Sep. 9). "I've always said that Linux could become a grave challenger to Microsoft's Windows NT." Sep. 28).

    Eric Raymond and friends compass up with the "open source" term. They apply for trademark status, and Put up the opensource.org web site. Thus begins the formal effort to thrust Linux for corporate use.

    Linus Torvalds and Richard Stallman win the EFF Pioneer award. The award recognizes their contributions to electronic freedom. Strangely, complete mention of this seems to gain vanished from the Electronic Frontier Foundation web site.

    Caldera 1.2 is released. Unlike Red Hat, which had been shipping libc6 based systems for some time, Caldera sticks with the tried and trusty libc5.

    The OpenBIOS project is launched, in the faith that no system is free if it depends on proprietary BIOS code. A web page is set up for the project.

    [GGI] Major battles rage over whether GGI belongs in the Linux Kernel. GGI, the "Generic Graphics Interface," seeks to produce a better defined, better supported interface to video cards on Linux and other systems. Interestingly, GGI had made no request for kernel inclusion at this time. No resolution was reached, but better communications with a number of kernel hackers did result from this episode.

    The Linux universal Store opens; this is "the first walk-in Linux store." (Web page here).

    [Learning tree] Learning Tree, International adds a Linux administration course to their lineup. This course is offered frequently in the U.S. and Britain. "The trait of Linux software has improved dramatically, making it a low-cost, reliable, supported computing platform usurp for the commerce environment."

    Consumer advocate Ralph Nader asks the great PC vendors (Dell, Gateway, Micron...) to present non-Microsoft systems, including systems with Linux installed. (See InfoPolicy Notes).

    Sun offers 70% discounts for people interested in "upgrading" from Linux to Solaris.

    [Debian] [Sendmail logo] Bruce Perens, once leader of the Debian project, quits entirely in the wake of disagreements on how the project should proceed.

    Sendmail, Inc. is formed by Eric Allman, in an attempt to consequence money selling sendmail back services while keeping the basic sendmail code free.

    John Kirch releases his "Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 versus Unix" paper. This paper remains one of the best advocacy pieces out there, and should subsist required reading for anybody contemplating deployment of either technology.

    [Mozilla] The Mozilla source code hits the net. Netscape throws a huge party. The code is downloaded complete over the world, and people start hacking. fresh features, such as stalwart encryption and a Qt port, are added almost immediately.

    Linus makes Inter@ctive Week's "25 Unsung Heroes of the Net" list. He is in capable company, joining names fondness Steven Bellovin, Van Jacobson, Peter G. Neumann, and others. April was maybe about the eventual time that Linus could subsist said to subsist an "unsung" hero.

    Linus announces Linux 2.1.92 and declares a 2.1 feature freeze. The announcment goes as far as to sigh "...there are probably still bugs with some of the fresh code, but I'll freeze fresh features for the upcoming 2.2 kernel." This freeze turned out to subsist rather slushy, to sigh the least.

    The Open Group announces a fresh licensing policy for the X window system. fresh versions of X will subsist proprietary and only available to paying customers. They immediately withhold some security bugfixes from universal distribution. XFree86 decides that it can not live with the fresh licensing, and declares its intent to retreat its own way.

    [NPR] Linux is covered by the U.S. National Public Radio news, marking one of its first appearances in the mainstream, non-technical press.

    O'Reilly holds the "first ever" Free Software Summit, featuring Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Linus Torvalds, Guido van Rossum, Eric Allman, Phil Zimmermann, Eric Raymond, and Paul Vixie.

    The Linux Weekly tidings daily updates page debuts. Despite LWN's intent to withhold the its weekly focus, the daily page eventually exceeds the weekly newsletter in traffic. The Linux events calendar is furthermore announced.

    Linus 3.0 is announced; the birth of Linus's second daughter causes distinguished joy, and substantial disruption in kernel progress as complete drudgery stops and many patches regain lost. Some grumbling results as it becomes limpid just how dependent the entire process is on Linus's interminable presence.

    RH  back  confederate logo[Avalon] Red Hat announces their commercial back program, based on a worldwide network of "support partners," of which Eklektix, Inc., the producer of the Linux Weekly News, is one.

    The Avalon Beowulf cluster at Los Alamos goes on line and immediately powers itself into the list of the fastest computers on the planet.

    Eric S. Raymond publishes "Homesteading the Noosphere" on the web; This paper gives his view of how economics of open source software can work.

    Kernel hacker Alan Cox goes to drudgery for Red Hat.

    Bruce Perens proposes a fresh Linux distribution (proposal here) based on his suffer with Debian. This distribution never comes about, but much of what's there later gets folded into the Linux criterion foundation project.

    [Project Heresy C|Net's "Project Heresy" starts a high-profile attempt to drudgery using only Linux. The result was a long chain of articles and "radio" programs, complete on the Project Heresy page.

    Sun Microsystems joins Linux International.

    [Google] The "Google" search engine pops up. Not only is it one of the best search engines around, but it's based on Linux and features a Linux-specific search page.

    Sm@rt Reseller reports that Oracle and Informix gain no plans to back Linux. "In fact, many doubt that Linux-no matter how stable or how cheap-can ever compete in the corporate marketplace alongside the well-funded Windows NT and Solaris." (article here).

    [SuSE] The SuSE 5.2 distribution is released.

    [Corel] Corel formally embraces Linux. The Netwinder products are featured, and they pledge their back for the Linux system.

    The Association Francophone des Utilsateurs de Linux et des Logiciels Libres (AFUL) is formed in France. AFUL promptly becomes a force in French computer circles.

    O2 tall databases start to arrive. back for Linux is announced by Computer Associates for their Ingres system, and by Ardent Software for their O2 remonstrate database.

    The Linux Core/Layers project was announced and became the first in a chain of attempts at creating standards for Linux systems. The Core/Layers page still exists, but this project is no longer vigorous in this form.

    "But Linux is a communist operating system in a capitalist society. Its popularity is going to lead toward its fragmentation....The tall problem with Linux is that it has no limpid direction. It's in the perquisite Place at the perquisite time, but its 15 minutes are nearly up." (PC Week, May 22).

    The Linux Weekly tidings moved to its own domain at lwn.net.

    A proposal goes out to create the Linux criterion foundation (LSB) project. This proposal, signed by a great number of Linux luminaries, was discussed at Linux Expo and formed into a project, with Bruce Perens at the head. Numerous editorials were written and posted on FreshMeat; the list can subsist organize on the LSB web page. The LSB then disappeared from view for a few months.

    And, yes, Linux Expo was held; a capable time was had by all.

    Red Hat 5.1 was released and immediately started accumulating rather more than the habitual number of updates (partly as a result of the Linux Security Audit program). There was talk of "Red Hat 5.1 service pack 1" as a result. 5.1 did eventually stabilize into a solid release.

    "First, let me sigh that I am uniquely unqualified to write about this week's topic. fondness most of you, I've never used Linux....Linux has a snowball's desultory in hell of making noticeable inroads against Windows." (The infamous John Dodge hatchet job, PC Week, June 8).

    The Open Group offers the possibility of Unix 98 certification to Linux at the Uniforum meeting. The resulting press release says "Since the Linux OS is proving to subsist increasingly inflexible competition for NT in this marketspace, it's in the best interest of complete Unix vendors for Linux to regain branded so that it may compete more effectively and withhold the low cease UNIX 98-compliant." Very exiguous is heard thereafter.

    The Gartner Group says there is exiguous hope for free software. "...these operating systems will not find widespread use in mainstream commercial applications in the next three years, nor will there subsist broad third-party application support."

    [Wilbur] The Gimp 1.0 is released. This long-awaited release of one of Linux's highest profile tools did not disappoint.

    Stable kernel 2.0.34 is released after a long prepatch series.

    [Beowulf] The Beowulf web site shuts down temporarily due to concerns about U.S. export restrictions. Suddenly anybody can create a supercomputer, and people are getting worried. descry this Dr. Dobbs article for some more background. Shortly thereafter the site (www.beowulf.org) is back up as if nothing had happened.

    The Datapro study comes out showing that Linux has the highest user satisfaction of any system; it furthermore shows Linux to subsist the only system other than NT that is increasing market share.

    "Like a lot of products that are free, you regain a loyal following even though it's small. I've never had a customer mention Linux to me." (Bill Gates in PC Week, June 25).

    [Netwinder] Corel launches the Netwinder DM with this press release.

    Debian 2.0 goes into beta test after numerous delays.

    [Adaptec] Adaptec reverses its longstanding nondisclosure policy and announces back for Linux. The initial deal was with Red Hat; other distribution vendors gain since then announced agreements with Adaptec.

    The Chinese Linux Extension project begins; this project is doing a Chinese localization of Linux. (Web page (mix English/Chinese) here).

    IBM announces that it will dole and back the Apache web server, after working a deal with the Apache team.

    [Rocket]

    The Silicon Valley Linux Users Group holds "The distinguished Linux Revolt of 1998", turning Microsoft's Windows 98 product launch celebration into a Linux publicity event at two high-profile retail outlets.

    Not content with that, The Silicon Valley Linux Users Group Launches Windows 98...on a rocket.

    The UK Linux Developers' Conference is held in Manchester (basic web page here).

    Rumors of a merger between Caldera and Red Hat circulate. It hasn't happened yet...

    The desktop wars rage as KDE and GNOME advocates hurl flames at each other. Linus gets in on the act, saying that KDE is OK with him. Those who are feeling nostalgic can head over to this Slashdot discussion just to descry how much fun it really was.

    In this context, KDE 1.0 is released. The first stable release of the K Desktop Environment proves popular, despite the complaints from those who carry out not fondness the licensing of the Qt library.

    NC World magazine shuts down with Nicholas Petreley's devastating criticism of Windows NT. The article, (still available on the net), concludes that Windows NT 5 (now "Windows 2000") can only subsist an absolute disaster.

    Stable kernel 2.0.35 is released.

    The Internet Operating System Counter goes online and finds, after querying hundreds of thousands of hosts, that Linux has the largest web server market partake of any operating system out there. The results are available on the Internet Operating System Counter page.

    LinuxPPC 4.0 is released.

    "IBM, Informix, and Sybase furthermore gain no intentions of releasing versions of their databases on Linux, company representatives said." (InfoWorld, July 6)

    [Oracle] Oracle announces back for Linux in this press release. They vow to consequence a visitation version available by the cease of 1998, a deadline they beat by months. This, seemingly, was one of the acid tests for the potential of long-term success for Linux; a distinguished deal of attention resulted from this announcement.

    [Informix] Informix announces back for Linux on almost the very day with a press release of their own.

    The SVLUG/Taos "Future of Linux" panel is held featuring Linus and numerous other luminaries. (Writeup here). Among other things, this conference is where Intel first started making grave noises about supporting Linux.

    "When I heard that Steve Ballmer was promoted to the office of president at Microsoft, I couldn't befriend but miracle if he was being set up to seize the plunge when Windows NT 5.0 proves to subsist a catastrophic market failure and Linux supplants Windows NT as the future server operating system of choice."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, July 27).

    [Forbes cover] Linus appears on the cover of Forbes magazine. A lengthy record presents Linux in a highly positive manner, and brings the system to the attention of many who had never heard of it before. Linux begins to become a household word. (Yes, it was the August 10 issue, but it came out in July).

    The first release of the Mandrake distribution is announced. Mandrake is a version of the Red Hat distribution with international language back and KDE added.

    Stampede distribution 0.86 is released.

    Debian 2.0 is released with this announcement. It is a huge distribution, containing over 1500 packages and requiring at least two CD's to hold it.

    MkLinux distribution DR3 is released, announced thusly.

    Caldera releases Netware for Linux 1.0 (product info here).

    The EiffelBase library is released under an open source license; this library had previously been proprietary. (Info here).

    Red Hat announces (again) that their installation back staff is running behind (again). Their note on the topic asks for long-suffering while they regain their act together.

    The Open Source Initiative is formed by Bruce Perens, Eric Raymond, Ian Murdock, and Tim Sailer (Russ Nelson and Chip Salzenberg relate the board a month later). Its purpose, among others, is to manage the "open source" trademark.

    Richard Stallman calls for the creation of free documentation for free software in this message to info-gnu.

    [GNOME] GNOME 0.25 is released; this release is codenamed Drooling Macaque.

    The Linux Compatibility Standards project is formed as a cooperative venture between Red Hat and Debian. This project (announcement) was formed out of an increasing frustration with the progress of the Linux criterion Base, which was having wretchedness finding consensus on its goals.

    Bruce Perens then leaves the Linux criterion foundation project and, for a while, dropped out of the free software world entirely.

    Software in the Public Interest (SPI) chooses its fresh officers, recovering from the departure of most of its board. The fresh folks are Ian Jackson, Martin Schulze, Dale Scheetz and Nils Lohner; here's their announcement on the subject.

    [LSB] Red Hat puts out a paper on why they carry out not fondness the Qt license and why they will not subsist including KDE anytime soon. The paper is still available on Red Hat's web site.

    The Linux Standards Association appears out of nowhere and claims that they will produce the existent criterion for Linux systems. The LSA draws almost universal condemnation and slowly fades out of existence, but not before generating a unprejudiced amount of press saying that the Linux community is hostile to standards. One capable consequence of their presence may gain been to befriend drive the Linux Compatibility Standards and Linux criterion foundation projects to merge back together and regain grave about producing something.

    "Organizations should not deem deployment of NT v.5.0 prior to 2001. They believe organizations are better-served in the interim by evaluating the costs and benefits of using alternative products and not waiting on NT v.5.0 to emerge from 'vaporware' status."(Gartner Group, August 11)

    Red Hat makes the progress version of their distribution available as "RawHide".

    "Personally, I mediate open-source software needs a grown-up to step in and lead it without complete this petty bickering."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, August 24).

    Michael McLagan, a founder of the LSA, challenges the validity of the Linux trademark. Linux International responded with a bit of solicitor action, causing the withdrawal of the challenge and the insertion of trademark ® symbols on the (now defunct) LSA web site.

    Kernel 2.1.115 is released; Linus calls a code freeze, for real, this time. Sort of.

    The Linux Internet Server Administration guide project starts up with a page at lisa.8304.ch.

    Linux Magazine France debuts as "the" French print magazine on Linux (information here).

    Stackguard/Immunix 5.1 is released. StackGuard is actually a version of gcc modified to protect against stack overrun attacks; Immunix is a version of the Red Hat distribution built with this compiler.

    Microsoft's Steve Ballmer admits that they are "worried" about free software and suggests that some of the NT source code may subsist made available to developers.

    [SuSE] SuSE 5.3 (English version) is released.

    [Caldera] Caldera splits into two sever companies. "Caldera Systems," under Ransom Love, now handles the Linux business, while "Caldera Thin Clients" does the embedded systems. (Press release here).

    "The Linux community, a temporary, self-managed gathering of diverse individuals engaged in a common task, is a model for a fresh kindly of commerce organization that could form the basis for a fresh kindly of economy."(Harvard commerce Review, September)

    SuSE stops international shipments of their 5.3 release after installation problems swirl up for a wee percentage of users.

    [UDI] The Uniform Driver Interface (UDI) project bursts on the Linux scene with a suggestion that maybe Linux developers would fondness to produce lots of drivers for the UDI interface. A free reference implementation for Linux is promised, but enthusiasm among the Linux community seems low.

    SuSE announces their "Office Suite 99" product, which is a bundling of ApplixWare, KDE, and other capable stuff. This product gets a unprejudiced amount of attention as practicable competition to Microsoft on the desktop.

    [DB2] IBM announces back for DB2 under Linux. (Press release here).

    [Sybase] Sybase announces back for linux (Information here). Sybase makes their database available for free download directly from the distribution vendors. With this announcement, Linux has an essentially complete portfolio of database products.

    Dell has been selling Linux-installed systems to great customers for some time reports Inter@ctive Week. This comes as a surprise to "small" customers who gain been trying to regain Dell to sell them Linux-installed (or at least non-Windows) machines.

    Neomagic allows the source for the driver for their video hardware to subsist released to the XFree86 project and freely distributed. This driver, developed by Precision Insight under the sponsorship of Red Hat, had previously been available in binary format only.

    The Open Group backs down and releases X11R6.4 under an open source license, thus ending a downcast chapter in the history of free software. It is furthermore rumored that TOG has little, if any progress staff working on X at this point, sense that it may not matter much which license they use.

    Microsoft lists Linux as a competitive threat in its annual SEC (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission) filing. Speculation abounds that their existent purpose is to strike the upcoming antitrust trial.

    [CLUE] Canadian Linux Users hold a nationwide Installfest with distinguished success. Summaries, pictures, etc. can subsist organize on the Installfest pages.

    Intel and Netscape (and two venture capital firms) announce minority [Intel] investments in Red Hat Software. The money is to subsist used to build an "enterprise back division" within Red Hat. An unbelievable amount of press is generated by this event, which is seen as a big-business endorsement of Linux.

    Intel joins Linux International.

    Net pioneer Jonathan Postel dies, depriving the world of a much-needed leader in the middle of the domain title debate.

    The International Kernel Patch is introduced, providing cryptographic capabilities in a course that does not speed afoul of obnoxious national crypto export laws.

    GNOME 0.30 is released; LWN published a review of this release.

    Linuxpower.org hits the web. This site has since become a capable source of Linux articles and tutorials.

    [eCos] Cygnus releases a real-time embedded operating system (eCos) under an open source license. (Press release here).

    Red Hat finds some security problems in CDE and drops it immediately as a supported product. The note they send out makes a tall thing of the fact that CDE is not open source software, and thus not easily fixable.

    Caldera 1.3 is released. This version includes Sybase, KDE, and StarOffice 4.0, but sticks with libc5. Caldera furthermore announces Linux administration training courses.

    "Gateway Inc., which has been doing certification tests with Linux for six months, most likely will install Linux across its enterprise server line next year.... Red Hat's puerile expects six of the top 10 PC server makers to present Linux on their machines by next March."(PC Week, October 5).

    [LinuxToday] LinuxToday hits the web providing another source of constantly updated Linux news. This is the first of a number of fresh Linux-related web publications that start up over the next month.

    Tensions explode on linux-kernel after Linus drops a few too many patches. Linus walks out in a huff and takes a vacation for a bit. Things revert to normal, of course, but some people regain talking. It becomes limpid once again that the Linux kernel is getting to subsist too tall for one person to withhold on top of. Some ways of reducing the load on Linus are discussed, but nothing is really resolved.

    The "bootX" utility is released, and makes life much easier for PowerPC users.

    "For the moment, however, the company from Redmond, Washington, seems almost grateful for the rising profile of Linux, seeing it as an smooth course of demonstrating that Windows is not a monopoly, ahead of its antitrust trial, scheduled to initiate on October 15th. That may subsist short-sighted. In the long run, Linux and other open-source programs could cause Mr Gates much grief."(The Economist, October 3)

    Oracle8 for Linux becomes available for downloading; at 142 MB it is not something to subsist done lightly.

    AFUL sponsors a French nationwide installation party, the reports testify that it was highly successful.

    Microsoft presents Linux as evidence that it does not hold a monopoly in operating systems; their release furthermore claims that Linux was developed by "a unique individual."

    Larry Wall wins the first annual Free Software Foundation award. Larry, of course, is the developer of Perl and lots of other capable stuff.

    Debian decides to drop KDE from their distribution; their explanation cites worries about licensing issues.

    Novell announces that they will port NDS to Linux in cooperation with Caldera.

    [Allaire] Allaire announces that they will back Linux with "a future version" of their Popular "Cold Fusion" product. (Press release here). This, evidently, is a product that quite a few people gain been waiting for.

    [Compaq] Compaq is reported to subsist ready to back VARs installing Linux on their hardware, though it does not project to sell Linux-installed systems directly. [LinuxWorld]

    LinuxWorld goes online, signalling the arrival of the mainstream trade press. LinuxWorld is edited by Nicholas Petreley, a long time supporter of Linux in the trade press.

    Microsoft publishes an anti-Linux "open letter" in France in what was seen by some as a beta-test of a wider FUD strategy. The epistle (in French) (or translated to English) went after Linux on several fronts, and was widely and easily refuted. The definitive refutation was probably this response from AFUL (also available in English).

    Debian 2.1 goes into feature freeze.

    France Telecom invests in Cobalt Networks.

    The Mexican ScholarNet project is announced; this project will install Linux-based computer labs in 140,000 schools. (LWN coverage here). The project will subsist using GNOME heavily, and expects to contribute to GNOME development.

    "What I saw at the Linux Showcase was enthusiasm, the likes of which I haven't seen in the PC industry for a long time. Sure, some of it was from guys in ponytails and T-shirts, but it was furthermore from guys in suits. Academics and scientists, but furthermore businessmen."(PC Week, October 26).

    The Atlanta Linux Showcase was a tall success. (LWN coverage here).

    Corel announces that Word impeccable 8 for Linux will subsist downloadable for Free for "personal use." They furthermore announce a partnership with Red Hat to supply Linux for the Netwinder. [WineHQ]

    Corel furthermore commits to helping the WINE progress effort, a major boost for this long-awaited project. (Note from Corel here).

    [PHT] Pacific HiTech announces that they will bring TurboLinux to the U.S. market. They gain long claimed to subsist the most Popular distribution in Japan, and mediate it's time to head into other pastures. (Press release here).

    Www.alphalinux.org goes live, providing a unique site for Alpha-related information for the first time.

    [AFUL] AFUL signs an agreement with the French Ministry of Education to back the deployment of free software in French schools. (Information (in French) here).

    Kernel hacker David Miller gets married (pictures here).

    Two internal Microsoft memos on Linux and open source software are leaked to Eric Raymond; he promptly marks them up and makes them [ExtremeLinux] public. The memos confess frankly the strengths of Linux and the sort of threat that it poses to Microsoft, and suggests some practicable responses. The furor in the press was just as great as one might expect. (Eric's Halloween page has the memos, links to press coverage, and translations into a number of languages).

    Extreme Linux makes a splash at Supercomputing '98, as witnessed by this list of events at the conference.

    Linux has a towering profile at COMDEX, though it was not the center of the demonstrate as some pundits had expected.

    The "Eddie" software suite is released under an open source license; Eddie is a set of applications designed to befriend build high-availability clusters.

    The proprietary I2O bus specification is opened up, so that Linux back can subsist implemented. One of the tall nondisclosure threats to Linux is thus removed. (Press release here).

    Red Hat 5.2 is released. This is supposititious to subsist the last, stablest 5.x release before 6.0, which will contain the 2.2 kernel.

    LinuxPPC 5.0 is announced; the actual release is set for January 5, 1999. (Info here). [Ext2]

    Ext2 hits the net as another monthly Linux magazine.

    Informix and Apropos deploy Linux machines in over 100 Jay Jacobs clothing stores. (Press release here). Linux has truly arrived in the mainstream corporate world.

    Digital Creations releases Principia under an open source license; Principia is eventually rolled together with Bobo and Aqueduct to become Zope. An inquisitive angle on this release is that it was recommended by Digital Creations' venture capital investor (LWN coverage here).

    The Silicon Valley Tea Party celebrates the opening of the Microsoft campus there. (Writeup here). [StarDivision]

    StarOffice 5 for Linux is released, freely downloadable for personal use. (Information here).

    Troll Tech announces that version 2.0 of the Qt library will subsist released under an open source license. This license does not satisfy everyone, since it leaves Troll Tech in a special position and requires that modifications subsist distributed as patches. As a result, though most confess that the QPL is an "open source" license, the desktop wars fail to end.

    Stable kernel 2.0.36 is released. (Linus's announcement here, release notes here).

    OpenBIOS 0.0.1 is released (announcement here).

    Slackware distribution 3.6 is released

    Red Hat and SuSE both announce back programs at COMDEX. Both are aiming at the big-ticket "enterprise support" market. (SuSE's announcement here, and Red Hat's here).

    Netscape buys the "NewHoo" web directory, and promises to consequence its database available.

    Sunsite.unc.edu transforms into MetaLab.unc.edu to better reflect its purpose and to regain away from Sun's trademark. It remains one of the primary Linux repositories and the home of the Linux Documentation Project.

    The CLOWN project creates a 550-node cluster, aiming for a spot in the record books (Coverage here).

    A fight erupts over the ownership of the "open source" trademark. Both Eric Raymond, in the form of the Open Source Initiative, and Software in the Public Interest pretense to own the trademark. SPI has called for a "public comment" epoch on who should control the trademark; that epoch remains open as this is written.

    [BSDI] BSDI announces the talent to speed Linux binaries, giving users of Linux applications "a reliable, commercially supported operating system to speed them on." The implication, of course, is that such a platform had not previously been available. The really inquisitive point, though, is that Linux now has enough applications to consequence other OS vendors envious.

    Linus and Tove are guests of veneration at Finland's Independence Day celebration. They regain to meet the President and are voted "the most inquisitive couple" at the event. (Coverage here, click on "��nestys" for pictures).

    Red Hat hacker (and RPM culprit) Eric Troan gets married, no pictures (yet) available.

    The Linux Kernel Archive Mirror System is established to better regain fresh kernels out to the world. (Mirror page here).

    The Linux Kernel History is published due to the efforts of Riley Williams and others. An almost complete reconstruction of complete the released Linux kernels has been done. (Kernel history page here).

    [Mandrake] [Gecko]

    Mandrake distribution 5.2 is released.

    Netscape's "Gecko" rendering engine is released. Gecko is the first high-profile product out of the Netscape/Mozilla open source progress effort; it is a leaner, meaner, faster, more standards-conformant web page layout engine. (Press release here).

    [YellowDog]

    The "Yellow Dog Linux" distribution for the PowerPC is announced. (Home page here).

    Corel announces a partnership with the KDE progress team which will provide the KDE interface for the Netwinder. (Press release here).

    IBM releases version 3.5 of the AFS filesystem for Linux (press release here). (An earlier version of AFS had been available before 1998, descry the Linux-AFS FAQ for more).

    Electric Lichen announces "Die Linuxbierwanderung" - the Linux Beer Hike, a Linux-training, Alps-walking, beer-drinking adventure in Bavaria next August. (Information here).

    GNOME 1.0 enters code freeze and 0.99 betas are released.

    Compaq releases a Linux driver for its PCI RAID controller, and it is under the GPL. (Press release here).

    LibGGI 2.0 (beta) released (Announcement here).

    IBM releases some software goodies under an open source license, including the Jikes Java compiler and Secure Mailer. They furthermore Put out the beta version of DB2 for free download. [Sun]

    Sun opens up the Java license. It's still not an open source license, but things are headed in the perquisite direction.

    Sun announces back for Linux on UltraSparc systems

    "The question is how to carry out it without exposing IBM and its partners," says one source confidential with IBM's plans. "With a universal public license, there are some exposures with liability and how open are the patents if you modify the code. The best course to unravel this is by cleaning up the license."(Sm@rt Reseller, December 18).

    Silicon Graphics joins Linux International and furthermore announces back for Samba on their systems.

    KDE 1.1 goes into code freeze and beta releases are made available.

    IBM is said to subsist considering becoming a back provider for Linux according to some reports. They are held back by fears about patent and liability issues.

    The first public beta of SuSE 6.0 is released (announcement here).

    Reports sigh that Apple will start selling Power Macintoshes with Linux installed. [Corel]

    WordPerfect 8 becomes available for download; it proves to subsist popular. (Information here).

    The "LinuxPPC on the iMac HOWTO" is released, allowing users to regain Linux on those stylish blue boxes. (HOWTO here).

    The first pre-2.2 kernel is released.

    A report from IDC says that Linux shipments rose by more than 200% in 1998, and its market partake rose by more than 150%. Linux has a 17% market share, and a growth rate unmatched by any other system on the market.

    Eklektix, Inc. Linux powered! Copyright © 1998 Eklektix, Inc., complete rights reservedLinux ® is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds


    Symantec tips hand on CDP roadmap | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    LAS VEGAS -- It's no covert that Symantec Corp. plans to incorporate the continuous data protection (CDP) assets it bought with Revivio Inc. in November into its NetBackup product, but further details were not made publicly available until discussions Wednesday afternoon at the company's annual Vision conference.

    According to Sean Macnew, senior director of the CDP and replication product group for Symantec, the company's Continuous Data Protection and Replication (CDP/R) product is currently being developed as a "joint venture" between his group and the NetBackup group. Each group, he said, has committed 10 engineers to the project, and 10 engineers from Revivio are furthermore partake of the team.

    Symantec is planning to beta test the initial integration of the CDP feature with version 6.0 of NetBackup in August. That integration will allow NetBackup 6.0 users to request snapshots from any point in time from the CDP/R repository. Configuration of the CDP/R repository will subsist managed in its own sever console, called CDP/R Recovery Manager.

    "This way, if the storage administrator controls the CDP/R repository, the NetBackup administrator can still seize data from it," Macnew said.

    For the release of version 6.5.2 of NetBackup, slated for Jan. 2008, NetBackup's Enterprise Disk Foundation, which controls policy-based lifecycle management features, will subsist able to request point-in-time snapshots from the CDP/R repository and automatically hump them to other repositories. However, NetBackup 6.5 will not subsist able to control the configuration of the CDP/R repository, including which hosts and applications are protected using CDP.

    Also, once the snapshot schedule is set within NetBackup, for example, for a snapshot every four hours, the user would not subsist able to retroactively change the policy and receive snapshots from every two hours at a later time. The CDP/R repository will still record every changed block, and applications will subsist recoverable from any point in time, but only within the CDP/R repository in that case.

    According to Macnew, this is due to a fundamental contrast between the NetBackup and CDP/R interfaces. "NetBackup can only descry point-in-time objects," Macnew said, whereas CDP/R will subsist able to descry data grouped by application on an object-oriented basis. "NetBackup will always exigency a quiesced, point-in-time view of a backup image," Macnew said.

    But, by the time NetBackup 7.0 is released (slated for 2009), CDP/R Recovery Manager will become a "pane" within the NetBackup management console. Once that happens, NetBackup will subsist fully able to configure CDP/R and gain an application-oriented view of its backups.

    "The CDP/R console will become partake of a DR-oriented option within the NetBackup management GUI," Macnew said.

    Integration with Storage Foundation, Volume Manager, Veritas Cluster Server

    The next step after integration with NetBackup will subsist integration with Storage Foundation version 6.0. This will allow users to configure an application-oriented view of replication for calamity recovery, and furthermore consequence Symantec's replication more granular using CDP, which functions at the block level, rather than traditional replication, which functions at the byte level.

    Symantec has changed the Revivio software so that CDP happens asynchronously and out-of-band in order to avoid performance bottlenecks in high-performing applications. In the first integration with Storage Foundation, users will gain to use a host-splitter driver to send CDP data to the CDP/R repository.

    However, by next year, there will subsist integration with Veritas Volume Manager, which will eradicate the exigency for the sever driver. Integration with volume manager will furthermore import that CDP policies can subsist set by volume, rather than disk or LUN.

    "It's easier to set up CDP at the volume level because the volume level is the analytic remonstrate you protect," Macnew said. "If you're protecting by LUN or disk, as file systems grow, administrators can forget to add fresh LUNs to the CDP group."

    The final integration, Macnew said, will subsist with Veritas Cluster Server (VCS), furthermore slated for next year, in version 2.1 of CDP/R. VCS has replication management as partake of its Global Cluster feature, and the integration will allow VCS to control CDP/R replication. CDP/R will furthermore subsist integrated with the VCS Fire Drill feature, which will allow users to create virtual point-in-time images for test environments without reserving storage space for another snapshot.

    Partner reaction

    At least one of Symantec's commerce partners is not delighted with the timeline of integration with NetBackup -- even if it's as soon as later this year. "They bought Revivio six months ago, and Revivio already had a product on the market," said Mahesh Vaidyanathan, senior manager, solutions architecture, for STME, Symantec's largest channel confederate in the Middle East.

    "EMC [Corp.] is pushing Kashya, and [Network Appliance Inc.] is pushing Topio," Vaidyanathan said. "We're quite keen on Symantec having this product out, otherwise they may gain to gawk for other solutions to present customers."

    "In great enterprises, CDP is only just starting to find a market," Macnew argued, adding that Symantec has had CDP for smaller enterprises as partake of Backup Exec, since October 2005. He added, "Users don't want to buy another point solution; they don't want to release this unless it's integrated with other products."

    New utilities for Storage Foundation

    Also being discussed on the demonstrate floor at Vision were fresh utilities coming for Storage Foundation in future releases, including a fresh Linux installation utility, which is in the early stages of progress and is currently dubbed Prep Utility.

    The utility will port complete of Symantec's compatibility lists for servers, operating systems and storage into a free software utility that will subsist downloadable from Symantec's Web site, as well as packaged with Storage Foundation, according to William Lang, principal software engineer for Symantec, who is currently putting together the code for the utility.

    Storage Foundation has sever editions for Linux and Windows, Lang said, and the Windows version has its own compatibility discovery engine through Microsoft. "Eventually, they hope to Put compatibility information into Storage Foundation from complete OS types," said Jeff Martin, group product manager, storage and server management group. "That's still a vision, though it's not known yet what the technical challenges will be."

    Still, Lang and Martin said they hope the fresh utility will provide a "one-stop shop" for users looking for compatibility information, rather than the process today, which requires searching through Symantec's Web site for compatibility information. The utility is furthermore slated to comprise direct links to "ReadMe" information about each product or patch in the compatibility matrix.

    Another feature that's coming will subsist a change to the Storage Foundation dynamic multipathing (DMP) process, which currently accesses third-party vendors' host bus adapter (HBA) drivers. The next version of Storage Foundation, Martins said, will access SCSI drivers in the server directly, improving performance.

    Martin said Symantec is currently looking for users to participate in focus groups and beta tests of the fresh Prep Utility this summer. Interested users can contact Symantec.



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