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1Z0-414 exam Dumps Source : Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 Implementation Essentials

Test Code : 1Z0-414
Test denomination : Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 Implementation Essentials
Vendor denomination : Oracle
: 75 true Questions

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Oracle Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3

Oracle Spotlights ZFS Storage paraphernalia Adoption for Oracle Engineered programs Backup, Unveils ZS3 train for Backup | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

REDWOOD SHORES, CA--(Marketwired - Apr 28, 2014) - Oracle ( NYSE : ORCL )

information abstract clients across a huge purview of geographies and industries are adopting Oracle ZFS Storage home paraphernalia for Oracle Engineered programs backup and healing. With the recent ZS3 sequence for backup, Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-BA, purchasers Have a pre-configured, pre-racked respond co-engineered with Oracle Database to give extravagant backup and restore efficiency with sophisticated efficiency to assist meet SLAs. apart from extravagant performance, ZS3-BA offers 5x reduce three-yr TCO over EMC facts domain 990(1) for Oracle Engineered systems statistics coverage. 

news facts

  • Spotlighting require for Oracle ZFS Storage appliances for Engineered techniques backup and healing, Oracle these days announced purchasers across the globe are adopting Oracle ZFS Storage home paraphernalia for Oracle Database backup environments.
  • Oracle's ZFS Storage enterprise posted potent yr-over-year growth in fiscal Q3, demonstrating one more quarter of earnings momentum for the NAS product portfolio.
  • Oracle ZFS Storage gives you arresting value for Oracle Database shoppers with facets now not purchasable to NetApp and EMC storage, including Oracle knowing Storage Protocol (OISP), and computerized facts Optimization (ADO) with Oracle Hybrid Columnar Compression.
  • valued clientele cite the surprising efficiency, efficiency, and cost of Oracle's entertaining software Engineered Storage capabilities finished via co-engineering Oracle hardware and software:
  • DB Schenker Rail "as the main rail freight enterprise in Europe, DB Schenker Rail requires rapid and reputable access to colossal quantities of statistics. Oracle Exadata Database desktop and the Oracle ZFS Storage appliance has been the redress respond for us, enabling very quickly backup and restore instances," pointed out Dominic Marx, Head of company Intelligence Competence core, DB Schenker Rail. "we've been impressed with extravagant compression costs received using Hybrid Columnar Compression with the Oracle Exadata and Oracle ZFS Storage appliance, and the fact that the compression stages are maintained by means of the ZFS Storage equipment, so they recognise cost and means discount rates on suitable of extravagant efficiency."

    medical institution Alemão Oswaldo Cruz "Hospitals Have very specific company and IT necessities comparable to availability 24 hours a day, seven days per week. The Oracle ZFS Storage paraphernalia turned into a natural option for Oracle Exadata Database computer backup because of its productive and tall means storage, and it's already completely integrated with Oracle Exadata," spoke of Denis da Costa Rodrigues, supervisor of guidance expertise, hospital Alemão Oswaldo Cruz. "As section of the answer, they besides applied Oracle dynamic data guard, which additional raises their facts coverage capabilities. The yardstick Oracle Exadata - ZFS Storage solution has now not only more desirable their means to bring high-quality healthcare capabilities, but besides offers the towering availability, agility and data insurance plot to assist their operations."

    SunGard Availability functions "Over the remaining 5 - 6 years, we've viewed their information double then triple in measurement, placing true stress on their infrastructure," eminent Hal Moretto, Director, trade Infrastructure, SunGard Availability services. "the usage of RMAN and Oracle's ZFS Storage paraphernalia to backup the Oracle Exadata Database computing device, they now Have been capable of create encrypted backups and leverage the InfiniBand connectivity between ZFS and Exadata to ameliorate throughput, in addition to replicating the backup to their offsite D/R region to a second ZFS storage appliance via storage replication, making that backup set purchasable for offsite restoration if required."

  • further shoppers the usage of Oracle ZFS Storage home paraphernalia for Oracle Engineered methods backup, expose their stories right here.
  • Oracle's recent ZS3 collection for Backup enhances Engineered techniques extreme efficiency, Helps in the reduction of Backup and recuperation random and expense Over EMC

  • ZS3-BA helps exist confident backup and recovery SLAs are met by means of scaling to 26 TB/hr for complete backups and 17 TB/hr for complete restores -- a 30 % increase for backups and eighty % boost for restores over the primitive generation.
  • ZS3-BA presents 5x lower three-year TCO over EMC records area 990 without the necessity for extra expensive agents, media servers and third-party utility required by way of opponents' techniques, and it's attainable in a HA configuration, unlike EMC data area items.
  • ZS3-BA besides helps valued clientele meet backup window and healing time pursuits by means of delivering a totally optimized I/O stack for superior database backup and recuperation efficiency via a massive cache-centric structure (DRAM and flash), symmetric multiprocessing OS, and applied sciences corresponding to OISP, Oracle Direct NFS (dNFS), far off Direct reminiscence access (RDMA), and InfiniBand.
  • ZS3-BA supports Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC), which can compress Oracle Database data by 10-50x, permitting shoppers to tremendously reduce the quantity of storage and bandwidth required. furthermore, HCC compression is maintained total the way through the backup ambiance and for secondary processing together with snaps and clones that may besides exist used natively for building/check/QA. HCC is attainable best with Oracle storage.
  • Oracle ZFS Storage appliance is the best NAS product with direct InfiniBand connectivity to Oracle engineered systems' own InfiniBand backplanes, permitting customers to leverage the fastest bandwidth available to convey 40Gb/sec throughput speeds.
  • ZS3-BA is pre-configured and pre-racked for engineered systems integration to velocity deployment and reduce configuration risk. Oracle's engineered methods backup utility helps additional find rid of installing guesswork to enable snappy and legitimate setup. 
  • assisting Quote

  • "extremely towering velocity streaming efficiency, ease-of-use, and Oracle Database co-engineering supply the ZFS Storage paraphernalia a lucid aggressive talents in Oracle engineered techniques backup and healing use circumstances. clients global are adopting it as their backup solution of alternative," mentioned Scott Tracy, vice chairman, Storage utility, Oracle. "the brand recent ZS3-BA further extends these capabilities while offering advanced TCO for shoppers with annoying Oracle Database and Engineered methods information insurance policy requirements."
  • assisting elements

    About Oracle Oracle engineers hardware and software to drudgery together in the cloud and to your facts middle. For more assistance about Oracle ( NYSE : ORCL ), search recommendation from www.oracle.com.


    Oracle and Java are registered emblems of Oracle and/or its affiliates. different names may well exist trademarks of their respective owners.


    (1) Three-year TCO calculated the use of non-discounted checklist costs from publicly purchasable statistics. EMC records area DD990, 12xES30 - 15x2TB SATA 7.2K RPM (supply: http://www.ironbow.com/Contracts/ContractVechicles/~/media/data/PDFs/Contracts/IronBow_CATALOG_IV.pdf) with EMC DD990 Replicator (source: http://www.pcsuperstore.com/items/11937588-EMC-LREP990.html) and EMC DD990 VTL includes 2 x PCiE cards, DP, DG (source: http://www.emc.com/microsites/stateofmsepl3658/pdf/EPL_Price_List_-_2013-09.pdf)

    Oracle ZFS Storage paraphernalia equipment overview | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Oracle ZFS Storage appliance is designed for mid-tier NAS environments. the road has two items, the ZS3-2...

    and ZS4-4, that Have variable setup alternatives and a wide array of configurations. Oracle ZFS items aid mechanical tough disk drives (HDDs) for information, and flash-primarily based solid-state drives (SSDs) for metadata and write acceleration.

    The Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-2 suits as much as 184 serial-attached SCSI (SAS) HDDs in capacities of 300 GB, 900 GB and 4 TB, for a optimum 736 TB of storage per lone node. Drives are organized in 24-slot disk shelves. in contrast to many NAS arrays, the Oracle ZFS Storage paraphernalia doesn't aid facts SSDs. as a substitute, Oracle applied a reminiscence skill of 1 TB per node, a study flash cache capacity of 12.8 TB and 28 TB of write flash the use of write accelerators. Write accelerators are drives that save the contents of the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL). products pilot 1.6 TB SSDs for the examine cache and 300 GB SSDs for the write accelerators.

    The ZS3-2 helps as much as four write flash accelerators per disk shelf. it may Have four or eight 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) Base-T ports counting on configuration. It runs on up to 4 eight-core Intel Xeon processors, and nodes can exist clustered as extravagant as three.1 PB.

    Write operations to ZFS Storage drives are atomic, which means they're both performed fully or no longer in any respect.

    The Oracle ZFS Storage ZS4-4 fits up to 544 SAS HDDs in capacities of 900 GB and 4 TB, for a maximum 2.1 PB of storage per lone node. Drives are arranged in 24-slot disk enclosures, with pilot for up to four write accelerators per enclosure. The array can Have up to eight 10 GbE Base-T ports, and runs on eight 15-core Intel Xeon processors and as much as 3 TB of memory. ZS4-4 nodes may besides exist clustered as extravagant as 6.9 PB.

    ZIL is an intent logging feature designed to enhance records availability on ZFS structures. Write operations to ZFS Storage drives are atomic, which means they're both carried out completely or no longer in any respect. A checklist of every operation -- widespread because the "intent to function" -- is logged to the ZIL earlier than it happens. within the experience of an influence failure, the gadget will study the intent log to realize which operations Have been in process when the failure passed off and both revert or redo them. The ZIL is stored on flash-based mostly SSDs, proposing sooner write efficiency than if it was written to mechanical HDDs.

    moreover ZIL, the Oracle ZFS Storage appliance contains application for storage management, monitoring and encryption. The ZFS Storage application has points corresponding to thin provisioning, monitoring and analytics, advocate for iSCSI and Fibre Channel interconnects, and replication inside native ZFS Storage clusters. additional application can besides exist licensed one after the other for remote replication, AES 256-/192-/128-bit encryption and database backup. The ZFS Storage paraphernalia is tuned to drudgery with Oracle databases, and its application contains the Snap management Utility for Oracle Database and the Oracle enterprise manager Plug-in for Oracle ZFS Storage appliance.

    Pricing for the Oracle ZFS Storage appliance depends on configuration. Pricing for the ZS3-2 mannequin levels from $35,600 to $314,600, while the can charge of the ZS4-four is between $135,600 and $988,900. total ZFS Storage items comprise a one-year restricted hardware guarantee with cellphone advocate total over native company hours. Response instances are tiered with the aid of severity: Severity 1 has a 4-hour response time, Severity 2 has an eight-hour response time and Severity 3 has a subsequent-enterprise-day response. An non-compulsory premier guarantee offers 24/7 technical hearten and two-hour on-website aid. Oracle's advanced aid package gives extra aspects such as 24/7 monitoring, gadget setting up and support.

    New Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-BA Proves greatest for Backing Up and Restoring Oracle’s Engineered systems | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Mar three, 2014

    maintaining helpful enterprise suggestions has circle into more crucial than ever as statistics continues to develop with the aid of forty to 50 p.c per year, through some estimates. IT managers physiognomy a catch 22 situation: a way to complete backup and restoration operations within shrinking home windows of time whereas besides cutting back complexity, possibility, and cost.

    When it involves conserving records kept in Oracle’s engineered techniques, the lately introduced Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3  addresses these challenges with excessive-efficiency streaming throughput and taut integration with Oracle Database it's unavailable to competitors. Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-BA enhances the severe performance of Oracle’s engineered systems, together with Oracle Exadata Database computing device  and Oracle SuperCluster, and provides entertaining performance by way of

  • delivering direct high-speed InfiniBand connectivity
  • preserving Oracle recuperation supervisor most excellent practices with out the want for risky and dear third-birthday party backup utility agents, servers, and talent-sets
  • presenting co-engineered solutions comparable to Oracle Hybrid Columnar Compression that in the reduction of records and raise efficiency throughput
  • Pre-racked, pre-configured and leverages Oracle’s unique Engineered techniques Backup Utility to pace implementation
  • “companies Have shorter windows of time by which to complete backup and restoration operations, which makes towering efficiency fundamental,” says Kerstin Woods, Oracle Senior primary Product advertising Director. “on the selfsame time, these operations necessity to exist handy to save in oblige and authentic, to guarantee that simple facts is without problems purchasable if a failure happens. Oracle’s ZFS Storage ZS3 ensures that vital service-degree agreements are met and streamlines operations for more advantageous IT productiveness.”

    in addition, Oracle ZFS Storage home paraphernalia aid reduce the random of failed restores by way of enhancing availability with twin controllers, predictive self-curative elements, and a fault-administration architecture that automatically detects and diagnoses underlying issues. To ease management complexity, Oracle ZFS Storage equipment’s DTrace Analytics feature provides an intuitive graphical user interface with which to monitor and at once resolve performance bottlenecks total the way through backup and restore operations.

    Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 is equally useful for Oracle Database installations running on Oracle SPARC T5, M5, and M6 methods, as well as non-Oracle servers.

    Get greater particulars about Oracle ZFS Storage appliances and register for an Oracle webcast  that discusses backup and restoration for Oracle’s engineered systems

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    Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 Implementation Essentials

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    New Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-BA Proves example for Backing Up and Restoring Oracle’s Engineered Systems | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Mar 3, 2014

    Protecting valuable trade information has become more famous than ever as data continues to grow by 40 to 50 percent per year, by some estimates. IT managers physiognomy a dilemma: how to complete backup and restore operations within shrinking windows of time while besides reducing complexity, risk, and cost.

    When it comes to protecting data stored in Oracle’s engineered systems, the recently announced Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3  addresses these challenges with high-performance streaming throughput and taut integration with Oracle Database that is unavailable to competitors. Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-BA complements the extreme performance of Oracle’s engineered systems, including Oracle Exadata Database Machine  and Oracle SuperCluster, and provides unique functionality by

  • Delivering direct high-speed InfiniBand connectivity
  • Maintaining Oracle Recovery Manager best practices without the necessity for risky and costly third-party backup software agents, servers, and skill-sets
  • Providing co-engineered solutions such as Oracle Hybrid Columnar Compression that reduce data and increase performance throughput
  • Pre-racked, pre-configured and leverages Oracle’s exclusive Engineered Systems Backup Utility to precipitate implementation
  • “Enterprises Have shorter windows of time in which to complete backup and restore operations, which makes towering performance essential,” says Kerstin Woods, Oracle Senior Principal Product Marketing Director. “At the selfsame time, these operations must exist simple to implement and reliable, to assure that essential data is readily available if a failure occurs. Oracle’s ZFS Storage ZS3 ensures that faultfinding service-level agreements are met and streamlines operations for greater IT productivity.”

    In addition, Oracle ZFS Storage Appliances hearten reduce the risk of failed restores by enhancing availability with dual controllers, predictive self-healing features, and a fault-management architecture that automatically detects and diagnoses underlying problems. To ease management complexity, Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance’s DTrace Analytics feature provides an intuitive graphical user interface with which to monitor and quickly resolve performance bottlenecks during backup and restore operations.

    Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 is equally efficient for Oracle Database installations running on Oracle SPARC T5, M5, and M6 systems, as well as non-Oracle servers.

    Get more details about Oracle ZFS Storage Appliances and register for an Oracle webcast  that discusses backup and restore for Oracle’s engineered systems

    Hybrid storage arrays vs. all-flash arrays: A microscopic flash or a lot? | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Now that solid-state storage prices Have dropped, more vendors offer all-flash arrays; but are they really much...

    better than hybrid storage arrays that mingle flash with spinning disk?

    Comparing technology systems has traditionally relied on a "price-to-performance" analysis that tries to normalize system differences into an apples-to-apples comparison. With respect to storage, the advent of flash (solid-state) drives created a situation where IT buyers had to settle between expense and performance. flash storage offered blazing speeds, but at a very towering cost per gigabyte ($/GB). At the other terminate of the spectrum, multi-terabyte difficult disk drives (HDDs) are very economical, but with just around 75 raw IOPS per drive there better not exist much drudgery in the workload if that's where your data is located.

    HDDs Have an edge in $/GB, while flash has an edge in $/IOPS.

    Hybrid arrays are intended to equipoise that equation. By adding a thin slice of flash storage to an array (i.e., 2% to 5% of total capacity), available IOPS may double and reduce read latency from 10+ milliseconds (ms) down to 3 ms to 5 ms. Even though the flash is expensive by itself, an overall 10% to 20% increase in array expense to succumb a 2X performance gain adds a lot of bang to the buck.

    As majestic as 3 ms to 5 ms latency sounds, for an increasing number of applications this variability is unacceptable. All-flash arrays can deliver sub-millisecond read latency with a guaranteed character of service (QoS). There are no pre-fetch issues with flash and no variability between a cached read and a search because on flash total I/Os are effectively cache reads. To save it in perspective, improving from 10 ms to 5 ms and then down to 0.5 ms is a 20X performance gain from HDD to all-flash on a latency basis. Although the incompatibility between HDD prices and flash has narrowed considerably, most organizations quiet don't Have the budget to deploy hundreds of terabytes of it. So, if deploying flash technology judiciously is famous to an organization, knowing where the breakpoints between hybrid and all-flash are will hearten managers to acquire the best decision.

     Selecting hybrid and all-flash arrays Price/performance of hybrid storage arrays vs. all-flash arrays

    With price-to-performance being the major consideration in storage purchases, let's examine those two areas first. When it comes to cost, it's an industry truism that the purchase expense is approximately 20% of the three-year cost of ownership for conventional HDD arrays. All-flash storage arrays smash this model, however, partly because the purchase expense goes up but operating costs fade down. For example, Nimbus Data, a maker of all-flash arrays, estimates that its arrays use just 8 watts per TB, whereas HDD arrays may use 80 watts per TB. Moreover, Nimbus advises that users can fully populate a rack with usable space and find up to 90% utilization without performance degradation. This offers the potential for less floor space, cooling and power per TB of storage. High-capacity SATA drives offer gigabyte density, but won't meet even moderate IOPS or latency requirements. Given that flash is following the downward curve of cache memory, it's well worth the time to compare the total cost of ownership (TCO) of all-flash and hybrid storage systems.

    Hewlett-Packard (HP) Co. offers a different perspective on cost metrics: $/transaction. This metric is reflective of the suitable trade cost, whereas $/GB and $/IOPS reflect purchase cost only. The $/transaction metric can exist applied irrespective of media type, making a "non-denominational" comparison between techs. High-transaction workloads may actually discern a lower $/transaction on all-flash arrays, whereas lower transaction environments may Have a lower $/transaction on hybrid storage arrays. Either way, the result is calculable and definitive.

    Although it may exist considered a "soft" cost, IT managers should factor in the value of the user's experience. Justifiably or not, if users perceive an application to exist slow, they're more likely to Have a negative perception of the IT organization or provider. It's a bit fancy the adage that when airline passengers find coffee stains on their tray tables, they question the character of engine maintenance. It may therefore acquire sense to expend a few extra dollars to ameliorate the user's perception of quality, especially in this era of IT outsourcing.

    Deduplication and compression are staples of nearly total storage systems and are frequently used to generate a $/GB figure that's much more propitious than those based on raw capacity. However, a cautionary note is in order. Increasingly, deduplication and single-instance storage (SIS) are taking region at the OS and application layers (i.e., VMware and SIS products for Exchange). Deduplication and compression can't occur twice on the selfsame data, so storage managers may discern less reduction than they anticipate as dedupe moves up the stack.

    For the purposes of commercial computing applications, storage performance has been total about IOPS until very recently. Perhaps this was because storage arrays inherently couldn't guarantee a specific QoS. All-flash arrays change that game, and SolidFire promotes its flash arrays squarely as storage QoS delivery vehicles. SolidFire allows IOPS to exist provisioned on a per-volume basis with minimum, maximum and burst parameters. This throttling, along with dynamic adjustment, gives storage managers an additional mechanism for precisely delivering performance where it's needed. SolidFire besides suggests that guaranteed QoS solves the "noisy neighbor" problem. For example, in a typical hybrid array, applications may compete for the flash tier of storage based on data access, resulting in oversubscribed flash and sub-optimal performance for total applications. Allocating IOPS to each application specifically solves this problem.

    Either or both?

    Established vendors Have extended their traditional HDD products to embrace flash technology, often with hybrid devices and all-flash units. IBM, EMC Corp., NetApp Inc. and HP each offer an "all of the above" portfolio, though the specific implementations disagree in famous ways.

    IBM has extended its SAN Volume Controller (SVC) virtualization capability to manage "fit for purpose" all-flash devices such as the FlashSystem family or hybrid arrays in its XIV Storage System, Storwize and DS product lines. Because total devices can exist managed through SVC, IBM extends the concept of hybrid to not only arrays, but the enterprise storage ecosystem. The intent is to allow ultimate flexibility in deploying both combinations of media, as well as combinations of arrays for scale and performance where needed.

    EMC's VMAX can virtualize hybrid and all-flash systems into a lone ecosystem. Its VMAX, VNX, VNXe and Isilon products can besides exist configured as either hybrid or all-flash. Thus, users can enter at any point and evolve the solution as requirements change over time. In addition, the company's XtremIO arrays offer an all-flash solution from the ground up. Because it doesn't necessarily Have to divorce its hybrid and all-flash offerings, EMC views the market more horizontally. That is, it can offer traditional HDD arrays to the more budget-conscious buyer, hybrid configurations to those needing more performance and all-flash for situations that require guaranteed QoS. Which product line will exist recommended is determined by Reliability, Availability and Serviceability (RAS) requirements, with customers needing up to "six nines" of availability choosing VMAX, regardless of hybrid or all-flash provisioning.

    HP's 3PAR similarly offers everything from all-HDD to hybrid to flash configurations, but with some arresting wrinkles. HP offers both single-level cell and multi-level cell flash in the selfsame arrays. The company recommends using the caching layer for writes and the flash tier for reads. This builds upon its Adaptive Optimization software that enables sub-LUN tiering. 3PAR's OS has a built-in clustered volume manager and virtual recollection implementation that seamlessly virtualizes total media types, including recent media.

    NetApp offers flash across its entire portfolio of FAS, V-series and E-series arrays; the EF540 is an all-flash system. NetApp usually recommends flash Pools in its arrays with 1% to 2% of total capacity in flash. The company suggests that typical workloads, such as email, Web serving, app dev and collaboration are best served with hybrid configurations. In these use cases, workloads require less than 150,000 IOPS and can tolerate 3 ms to 5 ms of latency. For higher IOPS workloads or where QoS demands sub-ms latency, all-flash is prescribed.

    Oracle's ZFS Storage ZS3 are hybrid arrays, but the company says users may find up to a 90% data hit rate using its flash/DRAM architecture and sub-ms latency on those reads. Moreover, the company touts a significant cost edge over competitive all-flash systems. Thus, users may find near all-flash performance at a hybrid price. Oracle's Hybrid Storage Pool dynamically and automatically moves data across DRAM, read-flash and write-flash to optimize array performance.

    RAID considerations

    Flash devices necessity to exist protected by RAID just fancy any other storage media. Although most vendors advocate conventional RAID techniques for flash, RAID use can extract a expense in capacity terms as well as processing overhead just as it does for HDDs. IBM addresses this issue with "variable stripe RAID" in its FlashSystem technology where RAID 5 is built into the flash controller. The result is parity-based RAID at line precipitate with the workload distributed across controllers. NetApp deploys Dynamic Disk Pools in its SANtricity (E-series) software that distributes data, parity and spare capacity across drives. NetApp claims this speeds recovery of failed drives while maintaining greater performance. Nimbus uses a RAID 5 algorithm designed to avoid the wear penalty associated with writing to flash.

    Some agreement on guidelines

    Despite differences in architectures, the vendors generally harmonize on some hybrid vs. all-flash guidelines. First, if sub-ms or guaranteed QoS is required, then all-flash arrays are the way to go. Or, in the case of Oracle, a hybrid that can deliver near all-flash performance. QoS application candidates comprise e-commerce where user experience is paramount and conclusion advocate analysis where time is of the essence. Second, if variable and unpredictable workloads are to exist serviced, hybrid devices can often serve the necessity at a lower $/GB. Nimbus, SolidFire and other all-flash vendors may Have different answers to this rule of thumb that Do indeed Have arresting price/performance characteristics and may Have a $/IOPS advantage. Application candidates in this area comprise collaboration, email and anything where data lifecycle issues weigh in that not total data requires immediate access.

    7.2 OpenStack | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the reserve 

    A structured implementation of a private cloud would benefit from well-defined services, which are consumed by the virtual environments that self-service users deploy. One well-liked implementation of those services, along with the management tools necessary to deploy and use a private cloud, is OpenStack. The following subsections record OpenStack briefly, and then discuss the integration of Oracle Solaris and OpenStack.

    7.2.1 What Is OpenStack?

    OpenStack is a community-based open-source project to contour a comprehensive management layer to create and manage private clouds. This project was first undertaken as a joint endeavor of Rackspace and NASA in 2010, but is now driven by the OpenStack Foundation. Since 2010, OpenStack has been the fastest-growing open-source project on a worldwide basis, with thousands of commercial and individual contributors spread across the globe. The community launches two OpenStack releases per year.

    OpenStack can exist considered an operating system for cloud environments. It provides the foundation for Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) clouds. Some recent modules add features required in Platform as a Service (PaaS) clouds. OpenStack should not exist viewed as layered software, however, but rather as an integrated infrastructure component. Thus, although the OpenStack community launches OpenStack releases, infrastructure vendors must integrate the open-source components into their own platforms to deliver the OpenStack functionality. Several operating system, network, and storage vendors offer OpenStack-enabled products.

    OpenStack abstracts compute, network, and storage resources for the user, with those resources being exposed through a web portal with a lone management pane. This integrated approach enables administrators to easily manage a variety of storage devices and hypervisors. The cloud services are based on a train of OpenStack modules, which communicate through a defined RESTful API between the various modules.

    If a vendor plans to offer advocate for confident OpenStack services in its products, it must implement the functionality of those services and provide access to the functionality through the repose APIs. This can exist done by delivering a service plugin, specialized for the product, that fills the gap between the repose API definition and the existing product feature.

    7.2.2 The OpenStack general Architecture

    Figure 7.3 depicts the general architecture of an OpenStack deployment. It consists of services provided by the OpenStack framework, and compute nodes that consume those services. This section describes those services.

    Several OpenStack services are used to contour an OpenStack-based private cloud. The services are interconnected via the repose APIs and depend on each other. But not total services are always needed to contour a cloud, however, and not every vendor delivers total services. Some services Have a special purpose and are configured only when appropriate; others are always needed when setting up a private cloud.

    Because of the clearly defined repose APIs, services are extensible. The following list summarizes the core service modules.

  • Cinder (block storage): Provides shroud storage for OpenStack compute instances and manages the creation, attaching, and detaching of shroud devices to OpenStack instances.

  • Glance (images): Provides discovery, registration, and delivery services for disk and server images. The stored images can exist used as templates for the deployment of VEs.

  • Heat (orchestration): Enables the orchestration of complete application stacks, based on heat templates.

  • Horizon (dashboard): Provides the dashboard management utensil to access and provision cloud-based resources from a browser-based interface.

  • Ironic (bare-metal provisioning): Used to provision bare-metal OpenStack guests, such as physical nodes.

  • Keystone (authentication and authorization): Provides authentication and high-level authorization for the cloud and between cloud services. It consists of a central directory of users mapped to those cloud services they can access.

  • Manila (shared file system): Allows the OpenStack instances to access shared file systems in the cloud.

  • Neutron (network): Manages software-defined network services such as networks, routers, switches, and IP addresses to advocate multitenancy.

  • Nova (compute): The primary service that provides the provisioning of virtual compute environments based on user requirement and available resources.

  • Swift (object storage): A redundant and scalable storage system, with objects and files stored and managed on disk drives across multiple servers.

  • Trove (database as a service): Allows users to quickly provision and manage multiple database instances without the tribulation of handling complex administrative tasks.

  • 7.2.3 Oracle Solaris and OpenStack

    Oracle Solaris 11 includes a complete distribution of OpenStack as a standard, supported section of the platform. The first such release was Oracle Solaris 11.2, which integrated the Havana OpenStack release. The Juno release was integrated into Oracle Solaris 11.2 advocate Repository Update (SRU) 6. In Solaris 11.3 SRU 9, the integrated OpenStack software was updated to the Kilo release.

    OpenStack services Have been tightly integrated into the technology foundations of Oracle Solaris. The integration of OpenStack and Solaris leveraged many recent Solaris features that had been designed specifically for cloud environments. Some of the Solaris features integrated into OpenStack include:

  • Solaris Zones driver integration with Nova to deploy Oracle Solaris Zones and Solaris Kernel Zones

  • Neutron driver integration with Oracle Solaris network virtualization, including Elastic Virtual Switch

  • Cinder driver integration with the ZFS file system

  • Unified Archives integration with Glance image management and Heat orchestration

  • Bare-metal provisioning implementation using the Oracle Solaris Automated Installer (AI)

  • Figure 7.4 shows the OpenStack services implemented in Oracle Solaris and the related supporting Oracle Solaris features.

    All services Have been integrated into the Solaris Service Management Framework (SMF) to ensure service reliability, automatic service restart, and node dependency management. SMF properties enable additional configuration options. Oracle Solaris Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) ensures that the OpenStack services, represented by their corresponding SMF services, Run with minimal privileges.

    The OpenStack modules are delivered in divorce Oracle Solaris packages, as shown in this illustration generated in Solaris 11.3:

    # pkg list -af | grep openstack cloud/openstack 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/cinder 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/glance 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/heat 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/horizon 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/ironic 0.2015.2.1- i-- cloud/openstack/keystone 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/neutron 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/nova 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/openstack-common 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/swift 2.3.2- i--

    To easily install the all OpenStack distribution on a system, the cloud/openstack group package may exist installed. It automatically installs total of the theme OpenStack modules and libraries, plus additional packages such as rad, rabbitmq, and mysql.

    The integration of OpenStack with the Solaris Image Packaging System (IPS) greatly simplifies updates of OpenStack on a cloud node, through the use of complete package dependency checking and rollback. This was accomplished through integration with ZFS boot environments. Through a lone update mechanism, an administrator can easily apply the latest software fixes to a system, including the virtual environments.

    7.2.4 Compute Virtualization with Solaris Zones and Solaris Kernel Zones

    Oracle Solaris Zones and Oracle Solaris Kernel Zones are used for OpenStack compute functionality. They provide excellent environments for application workloads and are snappy and simple to provision in a cloud environment.

    The life cycle of Solaris Zones as compute instances in an OpenStack cloud is controlled by the Solaris Nova driver for Solaris Zones. The instances are deployed by using the Nova command-line interface or by using the Horizon dashboard. To launch an instance, the cloud user selects a flavor, a Glance image, and a Neutron network. Figures 7.5 and 7.6 demonstrate the flavors available with Oracle Solaris OpenStack and the launch screen for an OpenStack instance.

    Figure 7.6

    Figure 7.6 OpenStack Instance Launch Screen

    Oracle Solaris options specify the creation of a Solaris native zone or a Solaris kernel zone. Those special properties are assigned as extra_specs, which are typically set through the command line. The property’s keys comprise a set of zone properties that are typically configured with the zonecfg command and that are supported in OpenStack.

    The following keys are supported in both kernel zones and non-global zone flavors:

  • zonecfg:bootargs

  • zonecfg:brand

  • zonecfg:hostid

  • zonecfg:cpu-arch

  • The following keys are supported only in non-global zone flavors:

  • zonecfg:file-mac-profile

  • zonecfg:fs-allowed

  • zonecfg:limitpriv

  • The list of current flavors can exist displayed on the command line:

    +----+-----------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+ | ID | denomination | extra_specs | +----+-----------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+ | 1 | Oracle Solaris kernel zone - tiny | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris-kz'} | | 10 | Oracle Solaris non-global zone - xlarge | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris'} | | 2 | Oracle Solaris kernel zone - small | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris-kz'} | | 3 | Oracle Solaris kernel zone - medium | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris-kz'} | | 4 | Oracle Solaris kernel zone - large | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris-kz'} | | 5 | Oracle Solaris kernel zone - xlarge | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris-kz'} | | 6 | Oracle Solaris non-global zone - tiny | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris'} | | 7 | Oracle Solaris non-global zone - small | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris'} | | 8 | Oracle Solaris non-global zone - medium | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris'} | | 9 | Oracle Solaris non-global zone - large | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris'} |

    The sc_profile key can exist modified only from the command line. This key is used to specify a system configuration profile for the flavor—for example, to preassign DNS or other system configurations to each flavor. For example, the following command will set a specific system configuration file for a flavor in the previously given list (i.e., “Oracle Solaris kernel zone – large”):

    $ nova flavor-key 4 set sc_profile=/system/volatile/profile/sc_profile.xml

    Launching an instance initiates the following actions in an OpenStack environment:

  • The Nova scheduler selects a compute node in the cloud, based on the selected flavor, that meets the hypervisor type, architecture, number of VCPUs, and RAM requirements.

  • On the chosen compute node, the Solaris Nova implementation will forward a request to Cinder to find suitable storage in the cloud that can exist used for the recent instance’s root file system. It then triggers the creation of a volume in that storage. Additionally, Nova obtains networking information and a network port in the selected network for an instance, by communicating with the Neutron service.

  • The Cinder volume service delegates the volume creation to the storage device, receives the related Storage Unified Resource Identifier (SURI), and communicates that SURI back to the selected compute node. Typically this volume will reside on a different system from the compute node and will exist accessed by the instance using shared storage such as FibreChannel, iSCSI, or NFS.

  • The Neutron service assigns a Neutron network port to the instance, based on the cloud networking configuration. total instances instantiated by the compute service use an exclusive IP stack instance. Each instance includes an anet resource with its configure-allowed-address property set to false, and its evs and vport properties set to UUIDs supplied by Neutron that represent a particular virtualized switch segment and port.

  • After the Solaris Zone and OpenStack resources Have been configured, the zone is installed and booted, based on the assigned Glance image. This uses Solaris Unified Archives.

  • The following illustration shows a Solaris Zones configuration file, created by OpenStack for an iSCSI Cinder volume as boot volume:

    compute-node # zonecfg -z instance-00000008 info zonename: instance-00000008 brand: solaris tenant: 740885068ed745c492e55c9e1c688472 anet: linkname: net0 configure-allowed-address: false evs: a6365a98-7be1-42ec-88af-b84fa151b5a0 vport: 8292e26a-5063-4bbb-87aa-7f3d51ff75c0 rootzpool: storage: iscsi://st01-sn:3260/target.iqn.1986-03.com.sun:02:... capped-cpu: [ncpus: 1.00] capped-memory: [swap: 1G] rctl: name: zone.cpu-cap value: (priv=privileged,limit=100,action=deny) rctl: name: zone.max-swap value: (priv=privileged,limit=1073741824,action=deny) 7.2.5 Cloud Networking with Elastic Virtual Switch

    OpenStack networking creates virtual networks that interconnect VEs instantiated by the OpenStack compute node (Nova). It besides connects these VEs to network services in the cloud, such as DHCP and routing. Neutron provides APIs to create and use multiple networks and to assign multiple VEs to networks, which are themselves assigned to different tenants. Each network tenant is represented in the network layer via an isolated Layer 2 network segment—comparable to VLANs in physical networks. figure 7.7 shows the relationships among these components.

    Subnets are properties that are assigned much fancy blocks of IPv4 or IPv6 addresses—that is, default-router or nameserver. Neutron creates ports in these subnets and assigns them together with several properties to virtual machines. The L3-router functionality of Neutron interconnects tenant networks to external networks and enables VEs to access the Internet through source NAT. Floating IP addresses create a static one-to-one mapping from a public IP address on the external network to a private IP address in the cloud, assigned to one VE.

    Oracle Solaris Zones and Oracle Solaris Kernel Zones, as OpenStack instances, use the Solaris VNIC technology to connect to the tenant networks. total VNICs are bound with virtual network switches to physical network interfaces. If multiple tenants use one physical interface, then multiple virtual switches are created above that physical interface.

    If multiple compute nodes Have been deployed in one cloud and multiple tenants are used, virtual switches from the selfsame tenant are spread over multiple compute nodes, as shown in figure 7.8.

    A technology is needed to control these distributed switches as one switch. The virtual networks can exist created by, for example, VXLAN or VLAN. In the case of Oracle Solaris, the Solaris Elastic Virtual Switch (EVS) feature is used to control the distributed virtual switches. The back-end to OpenStack uses a Neutron plugin.

    Finally, EVS is controlled by a Neutron plugin so that it offers an API to the cloud. In each compute node, the virtual switches are controlled by an EVS plugin to contour a distributed switch for multiple tenants.

    7.2.6 Cloud Storage with ZFS and COMSTAR

    The OpenStack Cinder service provides central management for shroud storage volumes as boot storage and for application data. To create a volume, the Cinder scheduler selects a storage back-end, based on storage size and storage type requirements, and the Cinder volume service controls the volume creation. The Cinder API then sends the necessary access information back to the cloud.

    Different types of storage can exist used to provide storage to the cloud, such as FibreChannel, iSCSI, NFS, or the local disks of the compute nodes. The type used depends on the storage requirements. These requirements comprise characteristics such as capacity, throughput, latency and availability, and requirements for local storage or shared storage. Shared storage is required if migration of OpenStack instances between compute nodes is needed. Local storage may often exist sufficient for short-term, ephemeral data. The cloud user is not watchful of the storage technology that has been chosen, because the Cinder volume service represents the storage simply as a type of storage, not as a specific storage product model.

    The Cinder volume service is configured to use an OpenStack storage plugin, which knows the specifics of a storage device. illustration characteristics comprise the system to create a Cinder volume, and a system to access the data.

    Multiple Cinder storage plugins are available for Oracle Solaris, which are based on ZFS to provide volumes to the OpenStack instances:

  • The ZFSVolumeDriver supports the creation of local volumes for use by Nova on the selfsame node as the Cinder volume service. This system is typically applied when using the local disks in compute nodes.

  • The ZFSISCSIDriver and the ZFSFCDriver advocate the creation and export of iSCSI and FC targets, respectively, for use by remote Nova compute nodes. COMSTAR allows any Oracle Solaris host to become a storage server, serving shroud storage via iSCSI or FC.

  • The ZFSSAISCSIDriver supports the creation and export of iSCSI targets from a remote Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance for use by remote Nova compute nodes.

  • In addition, other storage plugins can exist configured in the Cinder volume service, if the storage vendor has provided the confiscate Cinder storage plugin. For example, the OracleFSFibreChannelDriver enables Oracle FS1 storage to exist used in OpenStack clouds to provide FibreChannel volumes.

    7.2.7 Sample Deployment Options

    The functional enablement of Oracle Solaris for OpenStack is based on two main precepts. The first aspect is the availability and advocate of the OpenStack API with various software libraries and plugins in Oracle Solaris. The second aspect is the creation and integration of OpenStack plugins to enable specific Oracle Solaris functions in OpenStack. As discussed earlier, those plugins Have been developed and provided for Cinder, Neutron, and Nova, as well as for Ironic.

    Deploying an OpenStack-based private cloud with OpenStack for Oracle Solaris is similar to the setup of other OpenStack-based platforms.

  • The design and setup of the hardware platform (server systems, network and storage) for the cloud are very important. heedful design pays off during the configuration and production phases for the cloud.

  • Oracle Solaris must exist installed on the server systems. The installation of Oracle Solaris OpenStack packages can occur with installation of Solaris—a process that can exist automated with the Solaris Automated Installer.

  • After choosing between the storage options, the storage node is installed and integrated into the cloud.

  • The various OpenStack modules must exist configured with their configuration files, yielding a complete functional IaaS private cloud with OpenStack. The OpenStack configuration files are located in the /etc/[cinder, neutron, nova, ..] directories. The final step is the activation of the related SMF services with their dependencies.

  • The design of the hardware platform is besides very important. Besides OpenStack, a general cloud architecture to exist managed by OpenStack includes these required parts:

  • One or multiple compute nodes for the workload.

  • A cloud network to host the rational network internal to the cloud. Those networks link together network ports of the instances, which together contour one network broadcast domain. This internal rational network is typically composed with VxLAN or tagged VLAN technology.

  • Storage resources to boot the OpenStack instances and sustain application data persistent.

  • A storage network, if shared storage is used, to connect the shared storage with the compute nodes.

  • An internal control network, used by the OpenStack API’s internal messages and to drive the compute, network, and storage parts of the cloud; this network can besides exist used to manage, install, and monitor total cloud nodes.

  • A cloud control part, which runs the various OpenStack control services for the OpenStack cloud fancy the Cinder and Nova scheduler, the Cinder volume service, the MySQL management database, or the RabbitMQ messaging service.

  • Figure 7.9 shows a general OpenStack cloud, based on a multinode architecture with multiple compute nodes, shared storage, isolated networks and controlled cloud access through a centralized network node.

    7.2.8 Single-System Prototype Environment

    You can demonstrate an OpenStack environment in a lone system. In this case, a lone network is used, or multiple networks are created using etherstubs, to contour the internal network of the cloud. “Compute nodes” can then exist instantiated as kernel zones. However, if you use kernel zones as compute nodes, then OpenStack instances can exist only non-global zones. This altenative does not permit application of several features, including Nova migration. This single-node setup can exist implemented very easily with Oracle Solaris, using a Unified Archive of a comprehensive OpenStack installation.

    Such single-system setups are typically implemented so that users can become confidential with OpenStack or to create very small prototypes. Almost total production deployments will use multiple computers to achieve the availability goals of a cloud.

    There is one exception to this guideline: A SPARC system running Oracle Solaris (e.g., SPARC T7-4) can exist configured as a multinode environment, using multiple rational domains, connected with internal virtual networks. The result is quiet a lone physical system, which includes multiple isolated Solaris instances, but is represented fancy a multinode cloud.

    7.2.9 Simple Multinode Environment

    Creating a multinode OpenStack cloud increases the choices available in total parts of the general cloud architecture. The architect makes the conclusion between one unified network or divorce networks when choosing the design for the cloud network, the internal network, and the storage network. Alternatively, those networks might not exist lone networks, but rather networks with redundancy features such as IPMP, DLMP, LACP, or MPXIO. total of these technologies are section of Oracle Solaris and can exist selected to create the network architecture of the cloud.

    Another famous conclusion to exist made is how to connect the cloud to the public or corporate network. The general architecture described earlier shows a controlled cloud access through a centralized network node. While this setup enforces centralized access to the cloud via a network node, it can besides lead to complicated availability or throughput limitations. An alternative setup is a flat cloud, shown in figure 7.10, in which the compute nodes are directly connected to the public network, so that no lone access point limits throughput or availability. It is the responsibility of the cloud architect to settle which option is the most confiscate choice.

    For the compute nodes, the conclusion can exist made between SPARC nodes (SPARC T5, T7, S7, M7, or M10 servers), x86_64 nodes, or a mixed-node cloud that combines both architectures. Oracle Solaris OpenStack will ply both processor architectures in one cloud. Typically, compute nodes with 1 or 2 sockets with medium recollection capacity (512 GB) are chosen. More generally, by using SPARC systems, compute nodes ranging from very small to very large in size can exist combined in one cloud without any special configuration efforts.

    The cloud storage is typically shared storage. In a shared storage architecture, disks storing the running instances are located outside the compute nodes. Cloud instances can then exist easily recovered with migration or evacuation, in case of compute node downtime. Using shared storage is operationally simple because having divorce compute hosts and storage makes the compute nodes “stateless.” Thus, if there are no instances running on a compute node, that node can exist taken offline and its contents erased completely without affecting the remaining parts of the cloud. This type of storage can exist scaled to any amount of storage. Storage decisions can exist made based on performance, cost, and availability. Among the choices are an Oracle ZFS storage appliance, shared storage through a Solaris node as iSCSI or FC target server, or shared storage through a FibreChannel SAN storage system.

    To use local storage, each compute node’s internal disks store total data of the instances that the node hosts. Direct access to disks is very cost-effective, because there is no necessity to maintain a divorce storage network. The disk performance on each compute node is directly related to the number and performance of existing local disks. The chassis size of the compute node will confine the number of spindles able to exist used in a compute node. However, if a compute node fails, the instances on it cannot exist recovered. Also, there is no system to migrate instances. This omission can exist a major issue for cloud services that create persistent data. Other cloud services, however, perform processing services without storing any local data, in which case no local persistent data is created.

    The cloud control plane, implemented as an OpenStack controller, can consist of one or more systems. With Oracle Solaris, typically the OpenStack controller is created in kernel zones for modular setups. Scalability on the controller site can then exist achieved just by adding another kernel zone. The OpenStack control services can total exist combined in one kernel zone. For scalability and reliability reasons, the services can exist grouped into divorce kernel zones, providing the following services:

    7.2.10 OpenStack Summary

    Running OpenStack on Oracle Solaris provides many advantages. A complete OpenStack distribution is section of the Oracle Solaris Repository and, therefore, is available for Oracle Solaris without any additional cost. The taut integration of the comprehensive virtualization features for compute and networking—Solaris Zones, virtual NICs and switches, and the Elastic Virtual Switch—in Oracle Solaris provide significant value not establish in other OpenStack implementations. The integration of OpenStack with Oracle Solaris leverages the Image Packaging System, ZFS boot environments, and the Service Management Facility. As a consequence, an administrator can quickly start an update of the cloud environment, and can quickly update each service and node in a lone operation.

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    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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