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eleven.11.02. Oracle nowadays announced the first creation liberate of a commercially purchasable database designed for the Intel(R) Itanium(R) processor family unit, with confirmed performance. Oracle9i Database on Itanium 2-based systems operating HP-UX can be frequently purchasable by means of the quit of the 12 months. moreover, Oracle is saying Oracle9i software Server unencumber 2 Developer's Preview for home windows on Itanium 2-based programs, which is now downloadable for 64-bit windows from the Oracle know-how community.
Oracle has skilled gigantic activity from the developer and commerce group with a record of 2,500 downloads within the remaining 90 days from Oracle know-how network for developer releases of Oracle9i Database on Linux, HP-UX and windows for Itanium 2-based programs. Oracle has had a beta program for Oracle9i Database on windows .web sixty four-bit edition working since July 2002. construction availability for Oracle9i Database on Linux and home windows for Itanium 2 is anticipated in early 2003.
"The Oracle9i Database running on the HP Itanium 2-based server gives us an inexpensive, sturdy and scalable platform for records access with computing capabilities that could not be matched with existing know-how. by artery of removing computing constraints, they foresee streamlining their workflow. Their imaginative and prescient is to maximise the advantages of IT and for this judgement be at the leading edge of expertise," mentioned Olafur Adalsteinsson, IT manager at Landspitali university clinic. "the availability of Oracle9i Database on Itanium 2 demonstrates that this technology is relocating mainstream. They conform with now could be the time to accept a bounce birth with Itanium 2."
"Fiat sees the Itanium 2 Processor household because the strategic approach forward in particular for their backend databases. they fill for this judgement bought Itanium 2-based programs from HP with Oracle9i even application Clusters. we're planning to disappear into construction soon after Oracle creation releases can be found," observed Claudio San Pedro, frequent manager of Fiat in Spain.
Oracle continues to demonstrate leadership and innovation in presenting organizations with commerce utility in accordance with the within your budget Intel Itanium 2 processor. HP, because the key Itanium 2-primarily based construction associate for Oracle, has supported Oracle in offering Oracle9i Database for Itanium 2-based mostly programs to the market in record velocity, surpassing faultless different commerce database companies. via mixed competencies with a big latitude of architectures, operating systems and aid for Itanium 2 processors, mutual Oracle and HP customers gleam the benefits of an optimized platform.
"HP is restful that Oracle is helping their Itanium-primarily based servers with the first attainable commercial database for the Itanium processor family," notable imprint Hudson, vice president, advertising, HP company crucial techniques community, HP. "Our enterprise shoppers will now not best benefit from the step forward efficiency and scalability of their Itanium 2-primarily based options, but will additionally benefit from the efficiency, scalability, reliability and availability of Oracle9i Database."
The comprehensive press unencumber can be establish at:http://www.oracle.com/corporate/press/index.html?1518955.html
Oracle is a registered trademark and Oracle9i is a trademark or registered trademark of Oracle commerce enterprise. Press release textual content courtesy of Oracle.com.
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Oracle provides extensive assist for Java in faultless tiers of deployment.
The enterprise-type Java server platform has an built-in Java virtual computer. elements of the Java digital laptop encompass here:
support for Java 2 EE.
help for shared Java bytecode as well as lightweight Java threads.
reminiscence supervisor and rubbish collector that optimizes using the outfit international enviornment (SGA) and the working system's virtual reminiscence supervisor.
Java classes can also be stored in the database as library instruments and managed similar to different database objects.
aid for JDBC drivers.
SQLJ translator is provided, enabling SQL code to be embedded in Java.
NCOMP Java compiler is supplied to aid the translation of Java bytecode into extra efficient C executables.
guide for usual Java libraries similar to Java.lang, Java.io, and Java.util.
support for Java kept techniques.
LoadJava and DropJava utilities enable Java classes to be loaded into and unloaded from the database, respectively.
CORBA-compliant ORB (Object Request broker) is equipped.
assist for enterprise Java Beans is supplied at the database as well as software server level.
built-in with Oracle commercial enterprise supervisor.
traditional security mechanisms comparable to roles, gives you, and invoker rights that are frequently used with PL/SQL will also be used with Java stored approaches.
entry from nearly any customer is feasible with the encourage of a lot of usual internet protocols such as IIOP, HTTP, cyber web mail (IMAP4, SMTP, and POP3) and Net8.
Java kept approaches, CORBA servers, and EJBs will also be accessed the usage of cozy Sockets Layer (SSL) over Net8 and IIOP.
multiple software servers and databases may also be accessed with a solitary intranet or cyber web sign-on.
aid for company accessories for Java (BC4J).
besides the Java digital machine (JVM) that permits statistics-intensive Java kept classes to hasten in the database server, the JVM is additionally built-in with the Oracle iAS as a Java cartridge. Two styles of programming models are supported by the Java cartridge:
Java purposes may also be rapidly developed and deployed using numerous tools offered:
JDBC drivers enable database connectivity from Java.
An integrated building ambiance (IDE) permits the construction of Java courses. JDeveloper is also integrated with JDBC and the SQLJ translator.
JavaBeans and EJB building.
In-DepthOracle tools method: 10G indicators grid path
within the days ahead, that evolution will prefer some novel steps forward. Oracle is making ready to update some tools -- with more than a passing nod to its database systems roots -- to play better in the rising enviornment of Grid computing.
whereas Oracle-as-toolmaker is continually overshadowed by using Oracle-as-database-maker, the Silicon Valley-based mostly company is a huge constrain in the construction world, and it has increasingly tried to expand its tools past database-centric design. Oracle has committed years and significant elements to its application construction items, and considers its tools company to be nothing less than a using drive in the back of sales of its other offerings.
“To the extent to which they will accept builders working with the Oracle platform, that’s respectable for their commerce as a whole,” said John Magee (left), vice president of utility servers and outfit in Oracle’s product advertising neighborhood.
“We invest a lot in builders and construction outfit beyond any salary they might immediately generate. extra exceptionally, they view developer productiveness as strategic to their long-time period expand and goals as a corporation,” he pointed out. “where developers go, the mindshare of the platform goes, and that drives their revenues.”
Few observers question that Oracle’s present outfit strategy is intently linked with its purposes and market-leading database companies. because the company has moved to create achievable middleware systems in concomitant years, the hyperlinks fill not always been as tight as some would suspect, although. definitely, developers complained that early types of Oracle’s Java development product provided dinky back for constructing apps that could engage with the Oracle DB. that is a much bawl from when Oracle tools had been tied on the hip to its flagship database.
today, Oracle works relish others to site its app servers and tools as talents standalone offerings. relish others, it seeks to ease the burden of Java construction and to expand commerce developer productivity.
The original incarnation of the AppBuilder for Java device turned into spawned via source code from Borland’s JBuilder, which Oracle licensed in 1997. the employ of that source code as a groundwork, the enterprise released version 1.0 of the implement in 1998.
That early edition developed enormously over a number of generations into an entire IDE, renamed JDeveloper. The three.0 unencumber of the implement delivered company accessories for Java, a J2EE framework designed to give design-time amenities and runtime capabilities to simplify the project of constructing, debugging, customizing and reusing commerce add-ons. The thought changed into to slash back the complexity of constructing commercial enterprise apps with the aid of giving builders constructed-in options for typical requirements. That goal of reducing the complexity of the application construction technique would continue to fill an repercussion on the evolution of the enterprise’s flagship dev device.
In topple 2001, Oracle delivered Oracle9i JDeveloper, a very rewritten and a hundred% unadulterated Java edition of the product. Oracle would soon amalgamate the IDE and enterprise intelligence (BI) tools right into a solitary product bundle, dubbed the Oracle9i Developer Suite. The suite was designed to enable clients to construct transactional apps that can be deployed to multiple channels, together with portals, internet functions and instant structures, and that may be extended with BI capabilities, comparable to advert hoc question and analysis, net reporting and advanced analysis.
the novel outfit suite become exceptionally tailor-made for the three regular-primarily based technologies -- Java, XML and SQL -- Oracle considers basic for offering functions nowadays. The product also embraced the increasingly universal suggestion that building products may noiseless provide for the complete utility development lifestyles cycle, combining tools for modeling, deployment, debugging, edition handle, dependency administration, affect evaluation and performance profiling right into a solitary environment. And it included collaborative construction capabilities for distributed assignment teams.
Magee claims that, in line with informal surveys on the Oracle technology network net web site, greater than half of the app builders at present the usage of JDeveloper are constructing apps for other systems. “That’s a departure from developments of the past yoke of years, and they confidence it’s the result of the emergence of standards-based technologies,” he noted.
“these days, with Java we’ve entered the requisites-based mostly building market,” Magee noted.
nonetheless, Oracle admits that its dev tools are most compatible with its own DB and app server. Its internet website puts it this way: “whereas Oracle9iDS is designed to be open with aid for the latest cyber web requirements -- including J2EE, XML, WSDL, cleaning soap, UML, WebDAV, XMI and SQL -- the suite works best with the Oracle9i Database and with Oracle9i utility Server. Oracle9iDS takes complete expertise of the infrastructure provided by using Oracle’s deployment servers to simplify deployment and database interplay.”
“individuals can -- and execute -- employ their outfit to build apps for other systems,” Magee said. “That’s ok with us,” he quipped, “we’ll simply migrate them later.”
edition 9.0.5 of the JDeveloper IDE, which previewed on the JavaOne array remaining June, emphasized ease-of-use points, such as the novel software development Framework (ADF) that changed into designed for programmers missing the high-stage expertise of systems programmers. The stream -- relish strikes by means of BEA, IBM, solar and others -- may also be viewed as an try and simplify Java development so that greater ranks of developers can labor within the Java house and, now not incidentally, to proffer a competitive alternative similar to Microsoft’s visual basic. along with the extra sophisticated facets favored by means of superior coders, the novel version generates low-stage infrastructure code for tying apps to databases and for passing statistics between user interfaces and company objects.“initially, they credit they had in reality two different types of developers that they desired to serve -- coders with excessive-degree talents and what they convene ‘company builders,’” notable Ted Farrell (left), architect and senior director of approach for application construction outfit at Oracle. however accomplishing a consensus on how to convey such “dual-performance” became not handy.
“JDeveloper has an extensible structure, so they kicked around the theory of literally building and packaging two sunder tools,” observed Farrell. “essentially instantly, they establish ourselves in big arguments over which characteristic should noiseless disappear into which version of the device.
“Then they credit about establishing a ‘vigor mode’ for the coders and a ‘fluff mode’ for the others,” he persevered. “but they ran into the equal issues. at last, they concluded that their evaluation that there are only two styles of clients changed into off. in fact, there are doubtless thousands of types of users on a sliding scale of talents and experience.”
according to the mannequin-View-Controller (MVC) structure, the software development Framework is designed to enable developers to focal point on the enterprise logic instead of on the underlying applied sciences. It provides users who've a less-than-professional command of J2EE with visible, declarative and guided coding elements. builders maneuver the software’s meta records the employ of visual equipment, whereas the framework executes the utility within the ultimate manner the employ of trade-standard J2EE design patterns.
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Though many reports fill continued to title that the demand for IT workers far exceeds supply, the daily reality for many in the IT profession has been a requisite of job opportunities.
A recent job market study published by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) finally acknowledges what most of us fill known for some time - it's a tough job market for U.S. IT professionals. According to "Bouncing Back: Jobs, Skills and the Continuing demand for IT Workers," although companies hired 2.1 million IT workers over the previous year, they dismissed 2.6 million.
But many are planning to hire in the coming year. Further, the study establish that hiring managers are placing increasing value on certification as an indicator of candidate technical ability, and predicts an expand in IT hiring in forthcoming months.https://o1.qnsr.com/log/p.gif?;n=203;c=204660774;s=9478;x=7936;f=201812281339040;u=j;z=TIMESTAMP;a=20403972;e=i survey the executive summary (in PDF) and don't miss the FAQ (in PDF).
Sair Linux/GNU Certification Transferred To Linux Professional Group (LPG)
The Sair Linux/GNU certification program will accept novel life, thanks to a partnership between Thomson Learning and the Linux Professional Group (LPG). Ownership of the program has been transferred to LPG, who will update the current exams and continue to develop and promote the program.
Meanwhile Thomson Course Technology will serve as the exclusive provider of authorized training materials for the program, and Thomson's Prometric testing division will continue to administer the exams.
"Thomson is committed to supporting the Sair Linux/GNU certification, and they felt it was in the best interest of the program for it to reside within the Linux community," explained Meagan Walsh, Marketing Manager for Thomson Course Technologies.
A novel Web site, noiseless being rolled out, can be establish at http://www.linuxpg.org.
Oracle Requires Instructor-led Training For novel DBA Candidates
As of June 15, candidates starting out on Oracle Certification tracks will fill to complete a instructor-led course before they can earn certification. The course can be taken online or in a classroom.
Qualifying courses include: Oracle9i Introduction to SQL; Oracle9i Database Fundamentals I; Oracle9i Database Fundamentals II ; Oracle9i Database Performance Tuning; Oracle9i Database novel Features (available to those with Oracle DBA experience on previous releases); and Introduction to Oracle: SQL and PL/SQL.
Candidates who fill completed at least one exam toward earning their OCP credential before June 15 are exempt from this novel requirement. So are students completing their Oracle study with an Oracle Academic Initiative program school or an Oracle Workforce development school. The Oracle Certified Master title already requires two advanced courses from Oracle University as well as a hands-on practicum.
Sun To Release novel Sun Certified Programmer Exam in August
The exam for Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform 1.4 (310-035) will become available in testing centers in August.
The novel exam reflects a gallop toward version specific exams. The current programmer exam (310-025), previously called simply Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform, has been renamed Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform 1.2. It is not scheduled for retirement; both exams will be available simultaneously.
Objectives for both exams are available on Sun's Web site. The novel exam version does not embrace coverage of I/O or the Absract Windowing Toolkit (AWT). Both fill been removed from the novel exam to reflect the world of today's programmers, where not faultless applications developed involve a GUI or I/O. await version numbers to emerge on other Sun Java exams in the near future.
That's faultless for this edition of Certification Watch. gratify sustain your certification tidings and tips coming to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Anne Martinez is the author of Cheap Web Tricks: Build and Promote a Successful Web Site Without Spending A Dime and accept Certified and accept Ahead. She also is the founder of GoCertify.com.RELATED tidings AND ANALYSIS
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Oracle is touted as being unbreakable, if talk weren't so cheap. Well as with any computing system, there are ways to hack it, and Oracle is no exception. In this piece, we'll talk about some of the ways that you can accept at data you're not putative to. We'll start by taking the perspective of the hacker, and they hope as a manager of databases yourself this will illustrate areas where your infrastructure may be vulnerable. We'll then follow that by discussing ways to protect against the vulnerability.1. SQL Injection
With many Oracle databases these days, they are the backend datastore for a web application of one sort or another. The thing about web applications which makes them vulnerable and relatively simple targets for us are threefold. One, they are complex, composed of many components making them difficult to test thoroughly. Two, the barrier to entry for programmers is lower. You don't fill to be a C programming guru to hack together some webpages. We'll demonstrate why that matters to us shortly. The third judgement is urgency. Web apps are always in development mode, so they're constantly changing, rolling out novel features. So, security is necessarily a lower priority. Ok on to the excellent stuff.
SQL Injection is simply entering information in a web form, and secretly adding some unexpected code, tricking the application to execute that on the database, and revert results the programmer had not foreseen. For example, you fill a user login shape which requests username and password. In the username field, you enter:sean'); select username, password from all_users;--
Now if the programmer was not smart enough to "sanitize" their input, i.e. check for things relish this, then this will execute on the remote db and this sensitive data will be dumped back to their browser. Wow!
Here's a remarkable comic which illustrates this quite well: http://xkcd.com/327/
You may assume this is scary, but there's more. David Litchfield in his reserve "Oracle Hacker's Handbook" calls one particular pl/sql injection the "holy grail" because it is vulnerable in Oracle 8 faultless the artery through the current 10g release 2. If it's not obvious, that means you can employ it on almost *any* Oracle database out there.
How's it labor you ask? You shape employ of a package called DBMS_EXPORT_EXTENSION, employ injection to accept their code to execute an exception handler that grants some user or for that matter faultless users, DBA privileges!
This was what the celebrated Alert 68 was faultless about, and according to Litchfield was never really properly patched.Defending Against This Attack
In a word, diligence. There is no bulletproof solution, as it involves faultless the subtleties of applications that physiognomy the internet. There are various SQL Injection Testing techniques available. There is an excellent 3-part article at Security Focus called "Penetration Testing for Web Applications"
It is also possible to *detect* SQL Injection to some degree with various intrusion detection tools. Learn more over at Pete Finnigan's security site (search the page for "detecting sql injection") http://www.petefinnigan.com/orasec.htm
For developers there are packages that encourage you *sanitize* your inputs. If you convene the various cleanly and sanitize routine on every value you receive from a form, you are much more protected than otherwise. But of course be confident to test and verify by hitting the application with SQL Injection tools. That's really the only artery to be sure.
Pete Finnigan has reported that Steven Feurstein is working on SQL Guard, a pl/sql package to provide this type of library to developers. Read more here: http://www.petefinnigan.com/weblog/archives/00001115.htm2. Default Passwords
Oracle is such a huge product and there are schemas created for everything. Most of these logins fill default passwords. Is the database administrator diligent? One artery to find out. prefer a gander at some of the more common ones:Username Password applsys apps ctxsys change_on_install dbsnmp dbsnmp outln outln owa owa perfstat perfstat scott tiger system change_on_install system manager sys change_on_install sys manager
What's more even if these are changed, sometimes they are quite simple to guess, give "oracle", "oracl3", "oracle8", "oracle9", "oracle8i" and "oracle9i" a try as well.
Pete Finnigan has a very comprehensive and up to date list of default users and passwords for you to try out. This list also includes hashed passwords, so if you've queried all_users, you can compare against this list.
http://www.petefinnigan.com/default/default_password_list.htmDefending Against the Attack
As a Database Administrator, you should audit faultless your database passwords regularly. If there is commerce resistance to changing easily guessable passwords, interpret calmly, but with a lucid and visual illustration of what could happen, and what the risks are.
Oracle also provides password profile security. You can enable profiles that enforce a inevitable smooth of complexity in your database passwords. You can also enable regular password expiration. Beware enabling this for logins that only happen through a webserver, or middle tier application server, as the application may suddenly break, if no one directly sees the warnings and notifications.3. brute Force
Brute force, as the cognomen implies, is the fashion for banging away at the lock, or keyhole until it breaks. In the case of Oracle it means trying every username and password by automating the process with a dinky bit of code to encourage you.
For years now, a piece of software called John the Ripper has been available to unix administrators for exactly this task. Now there is a patch available for you so you can employ this handy software for banging away at Oracle passwords. Want to hurry this process up even more? Prepare in further a table of faultless password hashes. Such a table is called a Rainbow table. You will fill a different one for each username because the password hashing algorithm uses the username as the salt to the function. They won't accept into that in too much detail, but here's a resource for further study: http://www.antsight.com/zsl/rainbowcrack/
Oracle servers default to automatically lockout a particular account after ten failed logins. Normally though "sys as sysdba" does not fill this restriction. The thinking I guess is if you lockout the administrator, then everyone is locked out! Fortunately, for us this means programs relish OraBrute shape their lives much easier! Author Paul Wright has build together a remarkable program for banging on the front door of your fortress faultless day and faultless night until it opens. Head on over to Paul's blog and download a copy for yourself! http://www.oracleforensics.com/wordpress/index.php/2007/03/04/oracle-passwords-and-orabrute-paper-update/Defending Against the Attack
Defending against this type of bombard can be done with the methods narrate above for default passwords. A inquisitive and proactive DBA might also disappear the extra step to download these tools, and attempt to hack into his own system. This will encourage illustrate your real risks, and better educate how safe you really are.4. Sneaking Data Out The Back Door
(I was going to fill a section called Auditing, but that makes more sense for the article on prevention).
In the security world, this concept is known as data exfiltration. It comes from the military term, contrary of infiltration, it means getting out without being noticed. In the context of getting data from a target database, it could be as simple as picking up some tape backups and restoring the database, or getting a copy from a retired crashed disk. However, it can also involve snooping network traffic for relevant packets of data.
Oracle has a package called UTL_TCP, which can shape outside connections to other servers. It could be used with a dinky programming magic, to sending a low bandwidth stream of data from the database to some remote host. Oracle also comes with some useful packages to mask what might be inside your clandestine stream of data, so shape ample employ of those if you assume an intrusion detection system might be monitoring your activities. They embrace DBMS_OBFUSCATION_TOOLKIT and DBMS_CRYPTO.Defending Against the Attack
The best artery to preserve against these types of attacks is to setup an intrusion detection system. These can watch incoming and outgoing packets on the network. Some provide "deep packet inspection" which actually tests for inevitable SQL, and based on a set of rules, triggers alarms in inevitable circumstances. These tools can notice for telltale signs relish added UNIONs, various types of short- circuiting, truncating with a remark "--" and so on.Conclusion:
So, as you can survey there are a lot of ways to fashion your attack, and accept into a target Oracle database. DBAs should sustain in intelligence that for each vulnerability, there is a artery to preserve against it, so vigilance is key. In fraction II of this series, they will cover the insecurities of the Oracle Listener, privilege escalation to accept more access from a less privileged login they already have, executing operating system commands, which can be very powerful, and under appreciated, and lastly filesystem security. If you can read the raw data out of the binary data files making up your database, you can completely circumvent any security measures build in site by Oracle.
» survey faultless Articles by Columnist Sean Hull
Get the basics of remote server access as well as how you can benefit from this access today. You will experience workable examples that will bring you to an immediate and practical understanding of remote server access.This chapter is from the reserve
After reading this chapter, you will be able to understand:
For this book's purpose, there are two possible installation configurations: remote and local. A remote configuration uses your computer to access a remote server machine. A local configuration first determines whether you requisite to access a remote server machine.
You could be working locally, on a computer that has the Oracle database, application server, and client software faultless installed on the identical machine, or you could be working remotely, using your computer to access a remote server machine. If you fill installed Oracle9i Personal Edition on your computer, then you fill a local installation.
Understand that most real-world databases are housed on a server machine, which is accessed remotely by client machines. If you fill a remote configuration, relish that often establish in a corporate training environment or an educational setting, then you should find the information in this chapter immediately applicable to your work. You may fill been granted access to a remote server machine on which you can complete the exercises in this book. In this case, check with the system administrator to survey if you fill access privileges needed to complete the exercises in this chapter. It is also possible that your company may fill a development configuration where the client, Web server, and database server are on one machine, isolated from the ease of the network. This type of configuration is illustrated as you labor through the exercises in this book.
The identical holds even for Web sites; the majority of Web sites are also housed on server machines (commonly referred to as simply servers), with a connection to the Internet. Web applications, such as the one you build in this book, fill many Web pages that are dynamically generated from database procedures, so there is not a remarkable requisite to store static HTML files on a server. Yet image files can be stored inside the database or they can be stored on a Web server, as can any static HTML pages you wish to employ in your application. It depends on how your database is configured. Documents that require a plug-in to view, and any files of other types other than HTML or image that are used in the application, such as Adobe Acrobat files or Word documents that are intended to be downloaded, can be stored on the Web server or in the database. Chapter 13, "Images," illustrates the fashion for storing and retrieving documents from an Oracle 9i database.
If you execute not fill access to a remote server machine, then advert to Chapter 2, "Oracle 9iAS," in which you learn that your local machine can be used as the server, the client, and the middleware necessary to complete the exercises in this book. recollect that if you install an Oracle9i database on your own machine, the installation includes a basic Oracle 9iAS. You can store static HTML pages or images in your own computer's file directory, and configure the Oracle HTTP Server component of the Oracle 9iAS to find the files you want. This is done by identifying the directory where your images and HTML files are stored in the Oracle 9iAS, and giving that directory a virtual name, as explained in Chapter 2, "Oracle 9iAS."The Server
The server is a big file directory that you requisite to access in order to complete the exercises in this book. You store files there, such as HTML files or image files, that you wish to shape accessible to users on the Internet. You must map specific directories on the server machine to virtual directories in the 9iAS so that the amend directories can be accessed, depending on the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) the user supplies.
About 80% of databases are stored on machines that hasten the UNIX operating system, and are familiarly known as "UNIX boxes." Since databases are also stored on machines running NT, many NT commands, where they vary from UNIX commands, are notable throughout this chapter.Telnet
Telnet is software that provides a user or developer a artery to connect to a server machine. It is a terminal emulator, which means it gives users the faculty to log in to a server machine and labor on it remotely. When a developer connects to a server via Telnet, the developer begins a Telnet "session" on the server. Telnet allows you to cross platforms, significance that if you are on a Windows PC, you can Telnet to a UNIX server and vice versa.
Most computers running Windows further with a basic version of Telnet software installed. The quickest artery to originate a Telnet session is to disappear to the Start menu and elect "Run…." You are asked to "Type the cognomen of a program, folder, or document, and Windows opens it for you." type the word "telnet" and click OK. A window should pop up that has the word "Telnet" in the title bar.
Once you fill successfully invoked a Telnet session, the next step is to connect to a server. No matter what version of Telnet software you use, you must know three things ahead of time in order to be able to successfully connect to a remote server—the cognomen of the server, a login ID, and a password. If you are going to be connecting to a server and working there, chances are the system administrator knows that you are going to be doing this, and has provided you with the cognomen of the machine and a login ID and password. A sample server cognomen might be server4.virgil.com, where server4 is the cognomen of the machine on the virgil network. Some people prefer to convene a machine by its numeric IP address, such as 22.214.171.124.
The fashion you employ to connect to the server depends on the kind of Telnet software installed on your machine. If your Telnet window has a prompt, you can enter the words "open server4.virgil.com" to open a connection. If your version of Telnet does not fill a prompt, then notice on the menu bar for an item called "Connect." This is probably the first item on the menu bar. Click on Connect and you are provided with a site to enter the server name. The host cognomen is another term for server name—the server you are connecting to hosts your guest connection.
You are then prompted for a login cognomen (ID) and password. Enter the login cognomen and password provided by your system administrator. Once you are connected, you should survey a $ prompt, or possibly a % or # prompt. This is moderately anticlimactic. However, be assured that you are connected. You may also survey a list of environment or user settings, or a short message of greeting that was configured by the system administrator.Basic UNIX Commands
Once you fill connected to the server, you requisite to know how to navigate around the directory structure of the server and ply your files. You accomplish this using basic UNIX commands.
The first step in navigation is to know where you are. When a user logs in, the user will always originate from the identical initial directory, called the home directory. This home directory is determined when a user account is created by the system administrator, and is included in the configuration for each user who will be accessing the server. Different users are usually assigned different home directories. In order to find out which directory you are presently in, type the UNIX command pwd. This will print your present working directory. You survey different values for pwd as you travel through the file system. In NT, your prompt is always inclusive of the present working directory.
To survey a list of faultless of the contents of the present directory, type ls and enter. The names of faultless of the files and subdirectories in the current directory will be listed. To obtain a list with more details, type ls -l and press the Enter key. The -l after the ls is called an argument. Supplying arguments after UNIX commands is a artery to supply more specifics about what you want the UNIX command to accomplish. Arguments are listed after the command, and the syntax is a minus sign followed by one or more letters that argue what options you'd like. The -l is a sound controversy for the ls command, which tells the server to array a longer description of each file and subdirectory.
As you navigate through directories, pwd and ls -l (or simply reading the prompt itself and typing dir in NT) will probably be the commands you employ most often, to find out where you are and what is in the directory where you are.
If the ls -l command returns more file and directory names than felicitous on the screen, enter ls -l | more instead. The screen fills one page, so to speak, with data, and then UNIX waits for you to press a key before displaying another screen page of data. The identical is accomplished in NT by including /p after the command, to argue that the computer should intermission and wait for a key to be pressed before displaying more information.
Take a notice at the results from ls -l in more detail. Here is some sample output from running the ls -l command in UNIX:-rw-r--r-- 1 bobo devel 118253 Jul 17 12:05 1stlog1.wav drwxr-xr-x 2 bobo devel 4096 Nov 14 18:30 gfx -rw-r--r-- 1 bobo devel 1036 Nov 14 19:04 index.html -rw-r--r-- 1 bobo devel 973 Nov 14 18:32 index_old.html -rw-r--r-- 1 bobo devel 17451 Sep 5 00:35 syllabus.html -rw-r----- 1 bobo devel 0 May 24 2001 test.htm
The first column shows the file permissions, which are discussed in more detail later. Note that the first character is either a "d" or a dash. You could also survey an "l" here (indicating a symbolic link). A "d" in the first spot indicates a directory. The second column (denoted here by a list of numbers) shows the number of links to a file. The third column shows the owner of this file or directory; in this case, the owner is bobo. The owner is the user who has control over the file. The fourth column shows the group that the user bobo belongs to; in this case, devel. The fifth column shows the size of the file in bytes. The sixth column shows the date and time the file was created or eventual changed. Finally, the cognomen of the file is displayed in the seventh column.
One of the most significant columns to pay attention to when developing Web applications or documents is the first column. It indicates what permissions its owner has granted on the file. These permissions are powerful; they determine how much access users can fill to each file, and what users can execute with each file. Through permissions, files are made accessible on the Internet, or blocked from being accessible on the Internet, so it is significant to understand and check file permissions, and to apply them carefully.Table 3.1. File Permissions Permission Character Number Equivalent read r 4 write w 2 execute x 1 none - 0 (Note that a hyphen symbol, "-", is the character displayed when not a thing of the other three permissions is granted for a file.)
There are three types of file permissions that can be granted on a file or directory. Table 3.1 outlines these three types. Though "none" is listed in Table 3.1 in the "Permission" column, it is not a leave type, per se. Rather, it is the option available to you if you execute not elect to enter one of the other three.
There are four levels of users when granting permissions, however. These four levels are outlined in Table 3.2.
Listed in Table 3.3 are some examples of different types of granted permissions. prefer a notice at the permissions listings in the left column. After the first character, which indicates whether the current file is actually a directory or just a file, the other nine characters argue the permissions for each type of user. The second, third, and fourth characters demonstrate permissions at the user level. The next three characters demonstrate permissions at the group level, and the eventual three characters denote permissions for everyone else, the other level. These eventual three characters govern whether the public can read, write, or execute a file. These permissions examples provide a description of what each set of permissions permits, and to whom.Table 3.2. Levels of Users Level Letter Who is This user u The owner of the file, not just any user group g A group of users—users can be associated with groups by the system administrator other o Anyone who is not already included in either of the first two levels all a All users Table 3.3. Examples of File Permissions Sample Permissions Access -rwxrwxrwx The user, group, and everyone else can read, write, and execute -rwxr-xr-x Only the owner can read, write, and execute. Everyone else can only read and execute. -rwxrwx-- Only the owner and group can read and execute.
Remember that file permissions determine whether a file is accessible to the public on the Web. In the examples above, the public would be able to access files with the first two leave sets, but not the third set of permissions. The first file would also be writeable, that is, updateable, by the public.
Always check file permissions to shape confident that they are amend for each file. Files that are not intended for public access on the Web should not be made accessible to the public. When it is time to "publish" a file, the permissions for faultless users must be changed to allow others to view the file.
Each set of permissions has a three-digit numeric equivalent. For example, the permissions -rwxr-xr-x are also known as 755. How is this determined? Each digit corresponds to one of the three levels of permissions; the three digits argue the permissions for the user, group, and other levels, respectively. The number for each smooth is arrived at by adding the numeric equivalents for each level. As listed above, each permission—read, write, and execute—has a numeric equivalent. These numbers are added to arrive at each digit. In 755, the 7 in the user slot means the user can read (4), write (2), and execute (1) the file; 4 + 2 + 1 = 7 and 7 is used. The second slot has the value 5, significance that at the group level, only read (4) and execute (1) permissions fill been granted; 4 + 1 = 5, so 5 is used. The third digit is also 5, significance that the permissions at the "other" smooth are the identical as they are at the group level; everyone else has the faculty to read (4) and execute (1), and 4 + 1 = 5, so 5 is used again.
The UNIX command to change a file's permissions, or "change mode," is chmod.
The 755 indicates what the file permissions should be for the file "myfile". A 755 is a favorite selection for a file that is intended to be accessed by the public, since it prevents anyone but the owner from updating the file, while allowing everyone else to access it.
Be extremely observant not to shape files accessible that should not be. To remove access from a level, employ a zero (0) for the corresponding digit. This case gives complete rights on the file to the owner, but revokes access from everyone else:chmod 700 myfile
NT users, note that you may change permissions on your files using basic Windows Explorer functionality.Basic Navigation
Now that you know how to determine which directory you are in and what its contents are, how can you navigate? The cd command lets you change directories in both UNIX and NT. Table 3.4 lists some basic navigation commands you can employ for pitiable up and down in a directory tree.
Table 3.5 lists some additional commands you can employ in a Telnet session on the server to manage your files.
The cp, or copy, command is particularly useful for making backup copies of documents before changing them or creating novel versions of them. The convention is to sustain the identical cognomen for the file, but append to the cognomen the date that you are changing the file. If you are creating a backup file for myfile on March 1, 2002, you might create a copy called myfile20020301.Table 3.4. Basic Navigation Commands Command Description cd directoryname Navigates downward in the directory tree to the subdirectory "directoryname." If you are unable to gallop to that directory, employ ls -l to survey if you are using a sound subdirectory name. cd .. Navigates upward one smooth in the directory tree. cd cd without anything after it takes you to your own home directory (NOTE: In NT, entering this command by itself will simply print your current working directory onto the screen.) cd /mydirectory The forward slash means you want to skip to the highest smooth in the directory tree, start from there, and disappear to the subdirectory "mydirectory." This is the equivalent of typing cd .. repeatedly until you are at the topmost directory, and then typing cd mydirectory. Table 3.5. Additional Commands for File Management and Manipulation Command Example Description rm myfile Deletes or removes the file called "myfile." rm –i Prompts the user before the system deletes the file (as a safety measure). mkdir mydirectory Creates a directory called "mydirectory." rmdir mydirectory Deletes or removes the directory called "mydirectory." cp myfile mynewfile Copies the file "myfile"; the copy is called "mynewfile" and is located in the identical directory as the original "myfile" file. cp myfile /home/app/mynewfile Copies the file "myfile"; the copy is called "mynewfile" and is located in the /home/app/ directory. The cp command can copy files to another directory. mv myfile mynewfile Moves the file, or renames it. In this example, the file will be moved from its present location under the cognomen "myfile" to the identical directory under the cognomen "mynewfile." This effectively renames the file. This is the artery to rename a file in UNIX. mv myfile /home/app/ Moves the file "myfile" to the directory /home/app/. In pitiable the file, it is not also renamed, because no novel cognomen was specified. Absolute vs. Relative Path and Filenames
A complete pathname, a pathname starting at the root or topmost directory, is also known as the absolute pathname. The pathname starting from where you are currently, wherever that may be, is known as the relative pathname. account the following directory structure as an example. classnotes is the topmost directory. homework is a subdirectory of classnotes, and homework_one is a subdirectory of homework.Docroot> classnotes homework homework_one Absolute Paths
An absolute path contains the complete URL (Uniform Resource Locator) for a file. A URL typically consists of four parts: the protocol, the server/domain, the path directory, any subdirectories, and finally, the actual file cognomen itself. An case of an absolute path listing is http://www.server4.virgil.edu/classnotes/homework/homework_one/hw1Answers.htm.
An absolute path is the identical as the path in the address window of a browser (this address window is also referred to as a location). Absolute paths are fine for linking to files outside of your Web site. However, using the absolute path to link to other files within your Web site has disadvantages.
Say that a Web site uses absolute paths for faultless of its links and images. This prevents the Web site from being portable. The result is the site's files cannot be moved to another server without having to change each and every file path to reflect the novel address. This really becomes an issue if there are different environments. A typical network infrastructure has multiple environments, each on its own server machine. These include:
Using absolute paths requires that the links be changed each time the site is moved to the next environment on the next machine. How can you avoid this and at the identical time shape a Web site portable? The answer is to employ relative paths.Relative Paths
It's preferable to employ relative pathnames when linking to documents within your own Web site. There are two types of relative paths: root-relative paths and document-relative paths.
A relative path uses as its starting point either (1) the Web site's docroot, or (2) the location of the page that holds the relative path. Using this starting point, the browser is able to find a file.Root-Relative Paths
A root-relative path always starts with '/' (a forward slash) and does not embrace the protocol and domain names. The starting point is the Web server's docroot based on the current document.
In this case the search begins in the docroot of the Web server on which the current page resides, or www.server4.virgil.edu. To reference the file, hw1Answers.htm, simply start at the topmost directory and drill down to the directory where the file resides.Document-Relative Paths
A document-relative path does not originate with '/' (a forward slash) and, relish a root-relative path, does not embrace the protocol and domain. The starting point is the current document displayed in the browser. Thus, these paths are relative to the document.
To reference a file in the identical directory as the current browser document, just reference the cognomen of the file:
To reference a file located in a directory below the current page, reference the subdirectory and file:
To reference a file located in a directory above the current page, type in two sequential periods, "..". If the current document is located in the directory "homework_one" and you want to reference a document in "homework", then the path would be written relish this:
Add an extra set of ".." for each directory that you requisite to disappear up. For example, to reference a file located two directories up from the current document, you could write the following:
In this case, navigating two directories up from the "homework_one" directory puts you in the "classnotes" directory.Root-Relative versus Document-Relative Paths
Now that you understand that a relative path is preferable to an absolute path for linking to files within your Web site, which type of relative path should you use: root-relative or document-relative paths?
It depends. Both give you the desired portability. If a site has an images directory that will not be moved, then a root-relative path is preferable for such a directory since the path to the images contained in it will always be sound regardless if the Web document (that references this directory) itself is moved to another directory. Document-relative paths, however, attend to be shorter, and may be preferable for that judgement alone. Both types of relative paths can become invalid if a file is moved. So, the selection of whether to employ root-relative or document-relative paths depends on the particular Web site and Web developer.Transferring Files via FTP
There are two options for delivering static files with Oracle 9iAS. You can store the files in the database or you can deliver them using the Apache Web server component. In the latter case, you are delivering, or serving, files from the file system of the server. When you fill files that you want to shape accessible on the Web, you must site them on the server. Files can be transferred to a remote server using FTP. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol, which is an apt description of what it does.
You also employ FTP to retrieve files for editing. This reserve does not dispute how to edit files directly on the server, since the editing tools available within the UNIX and NT environments (save for the book's discussion concerning Notepad) are outside the scope of this book. However, it is just as effective to transfer files from a server to a local machine, edit the files locally using Notepad or another unostentatious text editor, and then transfer the edited file back to the server; in fact, there are developers who prefer to labor this way.
To employ FTP, you requisite the identical three pieces of information you requisite when connecting to the server: the server name, a login ID, and a password for that machine.
You also requisite to know what type of transfer you want to accomplish. There are two modes for transferring files: binary and ASCII. The type of the file being transferred determines which mode should be used. ASCII is used strictly for unostentatious text files only, such as files you open and read in Notepad without affecting the content. faultless other files, including word processing documents, images, and .pdf files, must be transferred in binary mode. If you are not inevitable what type of file you have, try opening it in Notepad and survey if the content is displayed correctly. If not, employ binary mode.
You employ text commands to transfer files via FTP. be alert that products exist that proffer a graphical interface for using FTP, such as WS_FTP and Hummingbird. These can be easier to employ if you find yourself transferring big numbers of files often.
To transfer files, you must first access a "command-line prompt" in MS-DOS. disappear to the Start menu and elect "Run…" off the menu popup. type cmd or command in the space provided and click OK. A window should pop up with a prompt such as C:\WINDOWS>.
The FTP utility can connect a Windows PC to a UNIX server, or a Windows PC to a Windows server. The case used here illustrates a Windows PC connection to a UNIX server. At the prompt, type ftp followed by the cognomen of the server you wish to access.
FOR EXAMPLEC:\WINDOWS> ftp server4.virgil.edu
You will be prompted to supply your user cognomen and password. If successful, you survey an ftp> prompt. To view a list of ftp commands available at this prompt, type encourage followed by the Enter key. To view encourage for a specific command, such as put, type encourage followed by the command, such as encourage put.
The pwd, ls, and cd commands introduced earlier in this chapter are also available at the ftp> prompt, so employ them to navigate to the directory where the file should be placed. be confident you are in the directory where you want to site the document before you proceed.
Set the transfer mode that you want, using either of the two commands, binary or ascii. Below is an case of switching to binary, and then to ASCII mode.
To transfer the file, employ the build command and the path and filename for the file you are transferring. If you stored a file in C:\TEMP\DOCUMENTS called NEWPAGE.HTM, and you want to transfer it, you enter the following:ftp> build c:\temp\documents\newpage.htm
Following are sample messages received after issuing the build command:200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for NEWPAGE.HTM. 226 Transfer complete. ftp: 83 bytes sent in 0.6Seconds 1.38Kbytes/sec. ftp>
You can also retrieve a file from the server to labor with locally. To accomplish this you employ the accept command:ftp> accept myserverfile.htm
The myserverfile.htm file is retrieved, and placed in the directory on your file system that you started from when you issued the ftp command.
If you wish to transfer many files at once, you can employ different versions of the accept and build commands: mget and mput. Since these are commands for many files, instead of specifying one file, employ the asterisk (*) as a "wildcard" character. Using *.* indicates that faultless files should be transferred. Here is an case of mput that will build faultless files with the extension .htm on the server:ftp>mput c:\temp\documents\*.htm
Here is the command with sample output. Note that there are two files, apple.htm and orange.htm, and that the ftp program prompts the user to supply a "y" or an "n" for each file before transferring it. The first file is confirmed for transfer while the second is not:ftp>mput c:\temp\documents\*.htm mput c:\temp\documents\apple.htm? y 200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for orange.htm 226 Transfer complete. ftp: 7330 bytes sent in 0.6Seconds 1.38Kbytes/sec. mput c:\temp\documents\orange.htm? n ftp>
The mget command makes similar employ of the asterisk as a wildcard character. Here is a sample of the mget command that retrieves faultless types of files from the server that originate with an "a":ftp>mget a*.* 200 type set to A. mget apple.htm? y 200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for apple.htm(11 bytes). 226 Transfer complete. ftp: 7330 bytes sent in 0.6Seconds 1.38Kbytes/sec. mget artichoke.pdf? n ftp>
Keep in intelligence whether the current transfer type is binary or ASCII. In the mget example, the transfer type was set to A or ASCII. The second file to be transferred was artichoke.pdf, which is not a unostentatious text file. If the file had been retrieved from the server in ASCII mode, the resulting local file would fill been unreadable. It would fill to be transferred a second time, with the transfer mode set to binary. be mindful of the transfer mode whenever you are transferring files. It is particularly simple to overlook the transfer type when working with multiple files, so the artery the ftp program prompts the user to verify transfer of each individual file is extremely helpful here.
Finally, to quit the FTP session, type quit or bye and press the Enter key.
Once your files are transferred to the server, recollect to connect to the server using Telnet, and check the permissions on the files, changing the permissions as necessary.
3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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