1Z0-058 exam Dumps Source : Oracle existent Application Clusters 11g(R) Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration
Test Code : 1Z0-058
Test denomination : Oracle existent Application Clusters 11g(R) Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration
Vendor denomination : Oracle
: 139 existent Questions
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This chapter introduces Oracle Clusterware and Oracle precise application Clusters (Oracle RAC) by describing these items as well as a pass to installation, administer, and installation them. This chapter describes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC architectures as neatly as the software and hardware accessories for each of those products. This chapter likewise in brief describes workload management, services, and lofty availability for each single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments. This chapter comprises here themes:Oracle Clusterware and Oracle existent application Clusters
A cluster includes multiple interconnected computer systems or servers that appear as if they're one server to conclusion clients and applications. Oracle Database 10g True application Clusters (Oracle RAC) enables the clustering of the Oracle Database. Oracle RAC makes employ of Oracle Clusterware for the infrastructure to bind distinctive servers so that they operate as a solitary system.
Oracle Clusterware is a conveyable cluster administration respond it really is integrated with the Oracle database. The Oracle Clusterware is additionally a required fraction for the usage of Oracle RAC. additionally, Oracle Clusterware enables both single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC databases to employ the Oracle lofty availability infrastructure. The Oracle Clusterware enables you to create a clustered pool of storage for employ by means of any combination of single-example and Oracle RAC databases.
Oracle Clusterware is the simplest clusterware that you simply requisite for most systems on which Oracle RAC operates. that you can additionally employ clusterware from different vendors if the clusterware is certified for Oracle RAC.
Single-example Oracle databases acquire a one-to-one relationship between the Oracle database and the illustration. Oracle RAC environments, although, acquire a one-to-many relationship between the database and cases. In Oracle RAC environments, the cluster database cases access one database. The combined processing vim of the dissimilar servers can supply enhanced throughput and scalability than is accessible from a solitary server. Oracle RAC is the Oracle Database option that offers a solitary rig photograph for multiple servers to entry one Oracle database. In Oracle RAC, each and every Oracle illustration usually runs on a divorce server.
Oracle RAC is a special technology that provides inordinate availability and scalability for complete software varieties. The Oracle RAC infrastructure is likewise a key element for enforcing the Oracle commercial enterprise grid computing architecture. Having dissimilar cases entry a solitary database prevents the server from being a solitary point of failure. Oracle RAC enables you to blend smaller commodity servers perquisite into a cluster to create scalable environments that aid mission crucial company applications. applications that you installation on Oracle RAC databases can office with out code alterations.The Oracle Clusterware structure and Oracle Clusterware Processing
The Oracle Clusterware is application that when installed on servers operating the equal working device, allows for the servers to exist confident collectively to office as if they were one server. The Oracle Clusterware requires two clusterware accessories: a vote casting disk to listing node membership counsel and the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) to listing cluster configuration suggestions. The vote casting disk and the OCR acquire to dwell on shared storage. The Oracle Clusterware requires that every node exist linked to a personal network by the employ of a personal interconnect.
The inner most interconnect that Oracle Clusterware requires is a divorce community that you just configure between the cluster nodes. This interconnect, which is required by means of Oracle RAC, can likewise exist the identical community that the clusterware makes employ of, however the interconnect should no longer exist purchasable through nodes that don't seem to exist a fraction of the cluster.
Oracle recommends that you simply configure a redundant interconnect to sojourn away from the interconnect from being a solitary factor of failure. Oracle additionally recommends that you just employ user Datagram Protocol (UDP) on a Gigabit Ethernet in your cluster interconnect. Crossover cables are not supported to exist used with Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC databases.
The Oracle Clusterware manages node membership and prevents split intellect syndrome wherein two or extra cases try and manipulate the database. this can ensue in cases where there's a spoil in conversation between nodes throughout the interconnect.
The Oracle Clusterware architecture helps inordinate availability via instantly restarting stopped add-ons. The Oracle Clusterware can automatically re-start a node to evade issues with that node from affecting the supply of the leisure of the Oracle RAC environment. In an Oracle RAC atmosphere, complete Oracle techniques are under the manipulate of the Oracle clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware likewise provides an utility programming interface (API) that allows you to control different Oracle processes with Oracle Clusterware.Oracle Clusterware application element Processing particulars
The Oracle Clusterware contains a pair of heritage tactics that facilitate cluster operations. The Cluster Synchronization service (CSS), suffer administration (EVM), and Oracle Cluster components communicate with other cluster fraction layers within the different cases in the equal cluster database ambiance. These components are likewise the main verbal exchange hyperlinks between the Oracle Clusterware inordinate availability accessories and the Oracle Database. additionally, these components computer screen and manage database operations.
the following list describes the services of one of the most well-known Oracle Clusterware accessories. This listing includes these components which are procedures on Unix and Linux working techniques or functions on home windows.
notice:On home windows-based mostly working techniques, most of the add-ons are threads of the Oracle process in its position of divorce strategies.
Cluster Synchronization capabilities (CSS)—Manages the cluster configuration by pass of controlling which nodes are members of the cluster and with the aid of notifying participants when a node joins or leaves the cluster. when you are using third-celebration clusterware, then the css fashion interfaces with your clusterware to manage node membership suggestions.
Cluster ready functions (CRS)—The simple program for managing inordinate availability operations within a cluster. anything else that the crs technique manages is referred to as a cluster useful resource which generally is a database, an illustration, a service, a Listener, a virtual IP (VIP) tackle, an application procedure, and so forth. The crs procedure manages cluster components in line with the resource's configuration guidance that is saved in the OCR. This includes delivery, cease, parade screen and failover operations. The crs process generates activities when a useful resource fame changes. when you've got installed Oracle RAC, crs displays the Oracle instance, Listener, and so on, and instantly restarts these accessories when a failure occurs. by using default, the crs technique makes five attempts to restart a useful resource after which does not invent further restart makes an attempt if the aid does not restart.
adventure administration (EVM)—A historical past fashion that publishes pursuits that crs creates.
Oracle Notification provider (ONS)—A post and subscribe service for communicating quick software Notification (FAN) hobbies.
RACG—Extends clusterware to assist Oracle-selected requirements and complicated materials. Runs server callout scripts when FAN hobbies happen.
system monitor Daemon (OPROCD)—This manner is locked in reminiscence to monitor the cluster and provide I/O fencing. OPROCD performs its assess, stops working, and if the wake up is past the expected time, then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. An OPROCD failure results in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. OPROCD makes employ of the hangcheck timer on Linux systems.
In here table, if a process has a (r) beside it, then the procedure runs as the root consumer. in any other case the process runs as the oracle person.
table 1-1 checklist of strategies and home windows functions linked to Oracle ClusterwareOracle Clusterware part Linux/Unix system windows servicesWindows processes
process monitor Daemon
Oracle Notification service (ONS)
evmd (r), evmd.bin, evmlogger
Cluster in a position
Cluster Synchronization capabilities
init.cssd (r), ocssd (r), ocssd.bin
ocssd.exeThe Oracle Clusterware software add-ons
When Oracle Clusterware operates, a pair of platform-certain methods or features will likewise exist running on each node within the cluster to aid Oracle Clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware platform-particular UNIX-based mostly procedures and home windows-based services are described below here headings:Oracle Clusterware approaches on UNIX-primarily based techniques
The Oracle Clusterware techniques on UNIX-based programs are:
crsd—Performs inordinate availability healing and management operations corresponding to preserving the OCR and managing utility substances. This technique runs as the root user, or through a consumer within the admin neighborhood on Mac OS X-based programs. This system restarts automatically upon failure.
evmd—adventure supervisor daemon. This system additionally begins the racgevt fashion to manipulate FAN server callouts.
ocssd—Manages cluster node membership and runs because the oracle user; failure of this process results in cluster restart.
oprocd—method parade screen for the cluster. celebrate that this technique best looks on structures that don't employ dealer clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.
notice:Oracle RAC on Linux platforms can acquire multiple threads that seem as divorce methods with divorce procedure identifiers. Oracle Clusterware capabilities on windows-based mostly techniques
The Oracle Clusterware features on windows-primarily based methods are:
OracleCRService—Performs lofty availability restoration and administration operations similar to retaining the OCR and managing application resources. This fashion runs because the root user, or with the aid of a user within the admin community on Mac OS X-primarily based systems. This fashion restarts immediately upon failure.
OracleCSService—Manages cluster node membership and runs as oracle person; failure of this fashion consequences in cluster restart.
OracleEVMService—adventure supervisor daemon. This technique likewise starts the racgevt manner to control FAN server callouts.
OraFenceService—process monitor for the cluster. notice that this fashion handiest appears on systems that don't employ dealer clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.
An Oracle RAC database is a logically or physically shared every puny thing database. complete datafiles, control info, PFILEs, and redo log files in Oracle RAC environments requisite to live on cluster-conscious shared disks so that complete of the cluster database situations can entry them. complete the situations must likewise partake the identical interconnect. additionally, Oracle RAC databases can partake the identical interconnect that Oracle Clusterware makes employ of.
as a result of an Oracle RAC database makes employ of a shared every puny thing architecture, Oracle RAC requires cluster-aware storage for complete database data. it's your option as to the pass to configure your disk, but you requisite to employ a supported cluster-conscious storage solution. Oracle Database 10g offers automated Storage administration (ASM), which is the advised solution to control your disk. despite the fact you may likewise additionally employ a cluster-conscious quantity supervisor or a cluster file device (no longer required). In Oracle RAC, the Oracle Database utility manages disk entry and the Oracle utility is licensed to exist used on a variety of storage architectures. An Oracle RAC database can acquire as much as 100 instances. reckoning on your platform, which you could employ the following file storage alternatives for Oracle RAC:
ASM, which Oracle recommends
Oracle Cluster File device (OCFS), which is purchasable for Linux and windows structures, or a 3rd-birthday celebration cluster file device this is licensed for Oracle RAC
A network file device
Oracle RAC databases fluctuate architecturally from Oracle RACsingle-instance Oracle databases in that every Oracle RAC database illustration likewise has:
All nodes in an Oracle RAC environment should hook up with a endemic zone network (LAN) to allow users and functions to access the database. purposes may quiet employ the Oracle Database capabilities characteristic to hook up with an Oracle database. functions allow you to define suggestions and features to manage how clients and functions hook up with database instances. These traits consist of a special name, workload balancing and failover options, and inordinate availability traits. Oracle web functions allows the weight balancing of utility connections across complete of the circumstances in an Oracle RAC database.
users can entry an Oracle RAC database using a consumer-server configuration or through one or more middle tiers, with or with out connection pooling. clients can exist DBAs, builders, software users, energy users, akin to data miners who create their personal searches, and so on.
Most public networks customarily employ TCP/IP, however you can employ any supported hardware and application aggregate. Oracle RAC database circumstances may likewise exist accessed through a database's described, default IP tackle and thru VIP addresses.
observe:do not to invent employ of the interconnect or the deepest community for person conversation as a result of Cache Fusion uses the inner most interconnect for inter-illustration communications.
apart from the node's host denomination and IP address, you acquire to likewise assign a digital host denomination and an IP manipulate to each and every node. The digital host denomination or VIP may quiet exist used to connect with the database example. for example, you might enter the digital host denomination CRM in the manipulate listing of the tnsnames.ora file.
A virtual IP manipulate is an alternate public tackle that client connections employ as an alternative of the timehonored public IP handle. To configure VIP addresses, you deserve to reserve a spare IP manipulate for every node that makes employ of the equal subnet because the public network.
If a node fails, then the node's VIP fails over to a further node on which the VIP can't settle for connections. often, VIPs fail over when the node on which a VIP runs fails or if complete interfaces for the VIP fail or are disconnected from the network. valued clientele that try to hook up with the VIP receive a speedy connection refused error as a substitute of awaiting TCP connect timeout messages. You configure VIP addresses in the tackle checklist to your database connection definition to allow connectivity. here section describes the Oracle RAC software accessories in additional detail.The Oracle precise software Clusters software add-ons
Oracle RAC databases acquire two or greater database cases that every accommodate remembrance buildings and history procedures. An Oracle RAC database has the identical tactics and reminiscence buildings as a single-example Oracle database in addition to extra system and reminiscence structures that are selected to Oracle RAC. anyone example's database view is practically just fondness another instance's view in the identical Oracle RAC database; the view is a solitary system lifelike of the atmosphere.
each and every instance has a buffer cache in its rig international zone (SGA). the usage of Cache Fusion, Oracle RAC environments logically blend each and every illustration's buffer cache to allow the situations to technique facts as if the statistics resided on a logically combined, solitary cache.
word:The SGA size necessities for Oracle RAC are greater than the SGA requirements for single-illustration Oracle databases as a result of Cache Fusion.
To invent confident that each Oracle RAC database instance obtains the screen that it should fulfill a question or transaction, Oracle RAC situations employ two approaches, the world Cache service (GCS) and the global Enqueue service (GES). The GCS and GES preserve information of the statuses of every facts file and each cached screen using a worldwide aid listing (GRD). The GRD contents are allotted throughout complete the lively cases, which comfortably increases the measurement of the device global zone for an Oracle RAC instance.
After one illustration caches records, every other illustration in the identical cluster database can purchase a screen lifelike from one other illustration in the equal database faster than by means of analyzing the screen from disk. for this reason, Cache Fusion moves existing blocks between situations rather than re-reading the blocks from disk. When a consistent screen is required or a modified screen is required on another illustration, Cache Fusion transfers the screen photograph without leisurely between the affected cases. Oracle RAC uses the deepest interconnect for inter-instance communication and screen transfers. The international Enqueue service parade screen and the instance Enqueue fashion manages entry to Cache Fusion materials in addition to enqueue recuperation processing.
These Oracle RAC methods and the GRD collaborate to allow Cache Fusion. The Oracle RAC strategies and their identifiers are as follows:
LMS—international Cache provider technique
LMD—global Enqueue carrier Daemon
LMON—global Enqueue carrier parade screen
LCK0—instance Enqueue technique
in case you employ community connected Storage (NAS), then you are required to configure a 2nd deepest community. entry to this network is usually controlled by pass of the supplier's utility. The deepest community makes employ of static IP addresses.
be aware:most of the Oracle accessories that this section describes are moreover the add-ons which are described for single-illustration Oracle databases in Oracle Database ideas. Oracle Clusterware accessories and inordinate Availability
should you blend Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC, which you can obtain dazzling scalability and lofty availability. The Oracle Clusterware achieves this the employ of the components that this fraction describes under perquisite here theme matters:The Oracle Clusterware balloting Disk and Oracle Cluster Registry
The Oracle Clusterware requires perquisite here two captious info:
vote casting Disk—Manages cluster membership by the employ of a health examine and arbitrates cluster ownership among the many cases in case of network disasters. Oracle RAC makes employ of the vote casting disk to investigate which cases are contributors of a cluster. The vote casting disk should sojourn on shared disk. for prime availability, Oracle recommends that you've varied balloting disks. The Oracle Clusterware allows several vote casting disks but you should acquire an odd variety of vote casting disks, akin to three, 5, etc. if you define a solitary vote casting disk, then you should definitely employ exterior mirroring to deliver redundancy.
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)—keeps cluster configuration information as well as configuration suggestions about any cluster database inside the cluster. The OCR likewise manages counsel about strategies that Oracle Clusterware controls. The OCR stores configuration suggestions in a sequence of key-value pairs inside a listing tree structure. The OCR ought to reside on shared disk it truly is purchasable by using complete of the nodes on your cluster. The Oracle Clusterware can multiplex the OCR and Oracle recommends that you employ this office to invent confident cluster inordinate availability. that you could change a failed OCR online, and you can supplant the OCR via supported APIs comparable to commercial enterprise supervisor, the Server manipulate Utility (SRVCTL), or the Database Configuration helper (DBCA).
be aware:both the vote casting disks and the OCRs acquire to live on either cluster file gadget data or on shared raw devices that you configure prior to installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle Clusterware lofty Availability and the application Programming Interface
Oracle Clusterware offers a lofty availability application programming interface (API) so you might employ to enable Oracle Clusterware to control functions or approaches that dash a cluster. This makes it viable for you to give inordinate availability for complete your functions. The Oracle Clusterware with ASM makes it viable for you to create a consolidated pool of storage to guide both the single-instance Oracle databases and the Oracle RAC databases which are operating on your cluster.
To maintain inordinate availability, Oracle Clusterware add-ons can respond to status changes to restart functions and tactics based on described inordinate availability suggestions. in addition, that you can employ the Oracle Clusterware lofty availability framework by pass of registering your applications with Oracle Clusterware and configuring the clusterware to start, stop, or relocate your utility methods. this is, you can invent custom functions tremendously obtainable through the employ of Oracle Clusterware to create profiles that computer screen, relocate, and restart your applications. The Oracle Clusterware responds to FAN activities which are created by an Oracle RAC database. Oracle broadcasts FAN pursuits when cluster servers can likewise whirl into unreachable and community interfaces are sluggish or non-practical.Workload management with Oracle existent application Clusters
Workload administration allows you to manipulate the distribution of workloads to deliver optimal efficiency for users and purposes. This includes proposing the highest availability for database connections, speedy failure healing, and balancing workloads optimally throughout the vigorous configuration. Oracle Database 10g with Oracle RAC contains many features that may enlarge workload management equivalent to connection load balancing, quick connection failover (FCF), the load balancing advisory, and Runtime Connection Load Balancing. Workload administration offers the most excellent advantages to Oracle RAC environments. which you can, youngsters, retract competencies of workload administration by using Oracle services in single-example Oracle Databases, especially those who employ information safeguard or Streams. Workload management contains here components:
excessive Availability Framework—The Oracle RAC inordinate availability framework enables the Oracle Database to retain accessories in a running state consistently. Oracle inordinate availability implies that Oracle Clusterware screens and restarts crucial accessories in the event that they cease, unless you override the restart processing. The Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC likewise provide alerts to clients when configurations exchange. This allows for consumers to instantly react to the alterations, enabling software developers to conceal outages and reconfigurations from quit users. The scope of Oracle inordinate availability spans from the restarting of stopped Oracle approaches in an Oracle database instance to failing over the processing of an entire illustration to other available circumstances.
Load Balancing Advisory—here's the capacity of the database to give tips to purposes about the current service levels being offered by pass of the database and its circumstances. applications can retract competencies of this suggestions to direct connection requests to the illustration that will provide the application request with the optimum service first-class to comprehensive the utility's processing. Oracle has integrated its Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) and Oracle facts company for .web (ODP.web) connection pools to labor with the weight balancing counsel. purposes can employ the built-in connection swimming pools devoid of programmatic changes.
capabilities—Oracle Database 10g introduces a powerful computerized workload management facility, referred to as capabilities, to enable the industry grid vision. capabilities are entities for you to outline in Oracle RAC databases. features enable you to community database workloads and route the labor to the optimal situations that are assigned to system the carrier. in addition, that you could employ functions to outline the elements that Oracle assigns to process workloads and to computer screen workload substances. applications that you assign to functions transparently acquire the defined workload administration features, together with lofty availability and cargo balancing guidelines. Many Oracle database points are integrated with services, akin to useful resource supervisor, which allows you to preclude the elements that a carrier can employ within an illustration. Some database features are additionally integrated with Oracle Streams, advanced Queuing, to achieve queue position transparency, and the Oracle Scheduler, to map capabilities to confident job courses.
In Oracle RAC databases, the service performance rules that you just configure manipulate the quantity of labor that Oracle allocates to every attainable illustration for that provider. As you extend your database by pass of including nodes, purposes, accessories of applications, and so forth, you can add extra capabilities.
Connection Load Balancing— Oracle internet functions provides connection load balancing for database connections. Connection load balancing occurs when the connection is created. Connections for a given carrier are balanced across complete of the running cases that present the carrier. you should definitely outline the pass you want connections to exist balanced within the service definition. despite the fact, you acquire to nonetheless configure Oracle web functions. when you enable the load balancing advisory, the Listener uses the load balancing advisory for connection load balancing.
This zone introduces the storage alternate options for Oracle RAC and the setting up techniques for both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC under here themes:Oracle Clusterware setting up fashion Description
The Oracle Clusterware is allotted on the Oracle Database 10g installing media. The Oracle conventional Installer (OUI) installs Oracle Clusterware perquisite into a directory constitution, which may likewise exist called CRS_home, that is become independent from other Oracle software working on the laptop. as a result of Oracle Clusterware works carefully with the working equipment, gadget administrator entry is required for some of the installing initiatives. additionally, one of the Oracle Clusterware techniques requisite to dash because the device administrator, which is often the root person on Unix and Linux systems and the system Administrator user on home windows methods.
prior to installing Oracle Clusterware, Oracle recommends that you dash the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to ensure that your atmosphere meets the Oracle Clusterware installation requirements. The OUI additionally instantly runs CVU at the conclusion of the clusterware setting up to examine quite a few clusterware add-ons. The CVU simplifies the setting up, configuration, and measure management of the Oracle Clusterware installing system through settling on complications in cluster environments.
throughout the Oracle Clusterware installing, you should determine three IP addresses for every node that is going to exist fraction of your installation. One IP manipulate is for the deepest interconnect and the other is for the generic public interconnect. The third IP address is the virtual IP tackle that purchasers will employ to connect with every example.
The Oracle Clusterware installation process creates the vote casting disk and OCR on cluster-conscious storage. in case you pick the option for measure redundant copies throughout the setting up manner, then Oracle Clusterware instantly continues redundant copies of these data to avoid the info from becoming solitary elements of failure. The ordinary redundancy feature likewise eliminates the requisite for third birthday celebration storage redundancy options. if you employ accustomed redundancy, Oracle Clusterware instantly keeps two copies of the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) file and three copies of the balloting Disk file.
word:in case you opt for exterior redundancy for the OCR and voting disk, then to permit redundancy, your disk subsystem ought to exist configurable for RAID mirroring. otherwise, your gadget could exist susceptible because the OCR and vote casting disk are solitary elements of failure. Oracle True utility Clusters installation and Database introduction process Description
The Oracle RAC application is disbursed as a fraction of the Oracle Database 10g installation media. via default, the commonplace Oracle Database 10g software installation fashion installs the Oracle RAC election when it recognizes that you're performing the installing on a cluster. The OUI installs Oracle RAC into a directory constitution, which can likewise exist referred to as Oracle_home, this is shatter away different Oracle software running on the laptop. as a result of OUI is cluster-mindful, it installs the Oracle RAC utility on the entire nodes that you just defined to exist a fraction of the cluster. if you're the usage of a certified cluster file gadget for the Oracle home, then only opt for the node that you're connected to for the installing.
You acquire to first installation Oracle Clusterware earlier than setting up Oracle RAC. After Oracle Clusterware is operational, that you would exist able to employ OUI to install the Oracle database utility with the Oracle RAC add-ons. complete through the setting up, OUI runs DBCA to create your Oracle RAC database in response to the alternatives that you simply choose. The DBCA additionally runs the web Configuration helper (NETCA) to configure the community for your Oracle RAC environment.
Oracle recommends that you simply pick ASM during the setting up to simplify storage management; ASM instantly manages the storage of complete database files within disk businesses. which you can likewise configure capabilities perquisite through setting up, counting on your processing necessities. if you are the usage of the Oracle Database 10g generic version, then you definately ought to employ ASM for storing complete the database information.
via default, DBCA creates one carrier on your environment and this service is for the database. The default carrier is attainable on complete circumstances in an Oracle RAC environment, except the database is in restricted mode.Cloning Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC application in Grid Environments
This zone in short summarizes the tactics for deploying Oracle RAC in grid environments that acquire tremendous numbers of nodes using cloned photographs for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle cloning is the preferred components of extending your Oracle RAC atmosphere with the aid of adding nodes and situations. To office the cloning tactics which are summarized in this section, advert to the Oracle commonplace Installer and OPatch consumer's ebook.which you could additionally employ industry manager Grid manipulate to fulfill cloning.
The cloning system assumes that you simply correctly installed an Oracle Clusterware home and an Oracle home with Oracle RAC on at least one node. furthermore, complete root scripts should acquire dash efficiently on the node from which you're extending your cluster database. to invent employ of Oracle cloning, first clone the Oracle Clusterware home and then clone the Oracle home with the Oracle RAC application.
To clone the Oracle Clusterware home, on UNIX-primarily based methods create a tar file of the Oracle Clusterware home and duplicate the file to the newfangled node's Oracle Clusterware domestic. On home windows-based mostly programs you requisite to create zip info. Then on UNIX-based mostly systems create the necessary users and companies on the brand newfangled nodes. On home windows-based techniques, you sequel not requisite to create users and corporations, however the user that performs the cloning should exist the equal consumer that performed the setting up.
Extract the tar file, or unzip the zip file, and dash the Oracle regular Installer (OUI) in clone mode as described within the Oracle frequent Installer and OPatch person's guide. Then dash the setting up scripts and restate these steps on every node that you are including. The system for cloning the Oracle home onto newfangled nodes is comparable to the technique for cloning the Oracle Clusterware home. in addition, you requisite to dash the Oracle net Configuration helper (NETCA) on each and every newfangled node to create a Listener.
if you acquire not already created a database, then which you can dash the Database Configuration helper (DBCA) to create one. at last, celebrate the submit-cloning procedures to comprehensive the extension of your Oracle RAC ambiance onto the brand newfangled nodes.further considerations and contours for Oracle precise application Clusters
in addition to configuring services to manipulate your workloads, additionally accept as True with the employ of the following aspects in the event you installation Oracle RAC:
Scaling Your Oracle RAC Database—As mentioned, that you could add nodes and cases to your Oracle RAC environment the employ of Oracle cloning. if you pick to not employ cloning, then that you can extend your database through the employ of the manual processes that are described in Chapter 10, "including and Deleting Nodes and situations on UNIX-based mostly systems" or Chapter 11, " adding and Deleting Nodes and cases on home windows-primarily based systems".
business manager—Use industry supervisor to administer your total Oracle RAC ambiance, no longer simply the Oracle RAC database. employ enterprise manager to create and modify services, and to delivery and desist the cluster database cases and the cluster database. enterprise manager has extra aspects as exact within the fraction "Overview of using enterprise manager with Oracle actual utility Clusters".
healing manager (RMAN)—RMAN backs up, restores, and recovers datafiles, control information, server parameter data (SPFILEs) and archived redo logs. that you may employ RMAN with a media supervisor to returned up data to external storage. that you can additionally configure parallelism when backing up or recuperating Oracle RAC databases. In Oracle RAC, RMAN channels can exist dynamically allocated across the entire Oracle RAC circumstances. Channel failover makes it viable for failed operations on one node to continue on a different node. that you can employ RMAN in Oracle RAC from the Oracle enterprise manager Backup supervisor or from a command line.
automated undo management—automatically manages undo processing.
computerized segment space management (ASSM)—immediately manages phase freelists and freelist companies.
locally managed tablespaces—Enhances space management efficiency.
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—Use CVU to examine the repute of your clusterware in case you journey problems or employ it each time you reconfigure your cluster.
Sequences—if you employ sequence numbers, then complete the time employ CACHE with the NOORDER option for top of the line sequence number generation performance. With the CACHE choice, despite the fact, you can likewise acquire gaps within the sequence numbers. in case your atmosphere cannot tolerate sequence quantity gaps, then employ the NOCACHE alternative or correspond with pre-generating the sequence numbers. if your utility requires sequence number ordering but can tolerate gaps, then employ CACHE and ORDER to cache and order sequence numbers in Oracle RAC. if your application requires ordered sequence numbers with out gaps, then employ NOCACHE and ORDER. This combination has essentially the most contaminated sequel on efficiency in comparison to other caching and ordering combinations.
Indexes—if you employ indexes, confidence options, such as transpose key indexes, to optimize index performance. transpose key indexes are particularly valuable you probably acquire conventional inserts to one side of an index, similar to indexes which are according to insert date.
This zone describes here Oracle RAC ambiance management theme matters:Designing Oracle True application Clusters Environments
believe performing here steps complete through the design and construction of functions that you're deploying on an Oracle RAC database. reckon tuning:
The design and the application
The remembrance and that i/O
The operating equipment
word:If an utility doesn't scale on an SMP computer, then affecting the utility to an Oracle RAC database can't enrich performance.
agree with the usage of hash partitioning for insert-intensive online transaction processing (OLTP) purposes. Hash partitioning:
Reduces contention on concurrent inserts into a solitary database structure
influences sequence-based indexes when indexes are in the community partitioned with a desk and tables are partitioned on sequence-based keys
Is transparent to the software
if you hash partitioned tables and indexes for OLTP environments, then that you may significantly enhance performance to your Oracle RAC database. word that you just can not employ index latitude scans on an index with hash partitioning.
if you're the employ of sequence numbers, then always employ the CACHE choice. if you employ sequence numbers with the CACHE choice, then:Administrative rig for Oracle actual utility Clusters Environments
Oracle permits you to administer a cluster database as a solitary device picture through commercial enterprise supervisor, SQL*Plus, or via Oracle RAC command-line interfaces reminiscent of Server manipulate (SRVCTL). that you would exist able to likewise employ a few rig and utilities to manipulate your Oracle RAC atmosphere and its add-ons as follows:
enterprise manager—enterprise supervisor has each the Database manage and Grid manipulate GUI interfaces for managing each solitary instance and Oracle RAC environments.
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—CVU is a command-line utensil for you to employ to examine a number cluster and Oracle RAC-certain components akin to shared storage instruments, networking configurations, rig requirements, and Oracle Clusterware, in addition to working system corporations and users. you can employ CVU for pre-installing exams as well as for post-setting up assessments of your cluster atmosphere. CVU is notably helpful complete through pre-setting up and throughout setting up of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC components. The OUI runs CVU after Oracle Clusterware and the Oracle installing to check your environment.
Server manage (SRVCTL)—SRVCTL is a command-line interface for you to employ to manipulate an Oracle RAC database from a solitary factor. you can employ SRVCTL to birth and forestall the database and circumstances and to delete or tide instances and features. that you may likewise employ SRVCTL to control configuration advice.
See additionally:Appendix E for extra assistance about SRVCTL
Cluster ready capabilities control (CRSCTL)—CRSCTL is a command-line device so that you can employ to control Oracle Clusterware. that you may employ CRSCTL to delivery and forestall Oracle Clusterware. CRSCTL has many options akin to enabling online debugging,
Oracle Interface Configuration utensil (OIFCFG)—OIFCFG is a command-line device for both single-example Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments so you might employ to earmark and de-allocate network interfaces to add-ons. that you would exist able to additionally employ OIFCFG to direct accessories to invent employ of specific community interfaces and to retrieve component configuration suggestions.
OCR Configuration utensil (OCRCONFIG)—OCRCONFIG is a command-line device for OCR administration. that you can likewise employ the OCRCHECK and OCRDUMP utilities to troubleshoot configuration complications that acquire an sequel on the OCR.
internet-based commercial enterprise supervisor Database control and Grid manipulate permit you to computer screen an Oracle RAC database. The enterprise manager Console is a well-known point of manage for the Oracle atmosphere that you simply access by the employ of a graphical person interface (GUI). employ the enterprise manager Console to stimulate cluster database administration projects. employ commercial enterprise manager Grid control to administer dissimilar Oracle RAC databases. likewise word here aspects about monitoring Oracle RAC environments:
The international views, or GV$ views, are in accordance with V$ views. The catclustdb.sql script creates the GV$ views. dash this script in case you don't create your database with DBCA. otherwise, DBCA runs this script for you.
Statspack is Oracle RAC-mindful.
observe:as a substitute of the usage of Statspak, Oracle recommends that you employ the greater refined administration and monitoring elements of the Oracle Database 10g Diagnostic and Tuning packs which consist of the automated Database Diagnostic parade screen (ADDM).
You don't deserve to fulfill special tuning for Oracle RAC; Oracle RAC scales with out special configuration adjustments. if your utility performed neatly on a single-example Oracle database, then it's going to operate neatly in an Oracle RAC environment. many of the tuning initiatives that you'd fulfill on a single-example Oracle database can likewise better Oracle RAC database efficiency. this is very True in case your atmosphere required scalability throughout a more suitable variety of CPUs.
some of the Oracle RAC performance elements are:
Dynamic useful resource Allocation
Cache Fusion permits A Simplified Tuning Methodology
You sequel not requisite to tune any parameters for Cache Fusion
No software-level tuning is quintessential
that you can employ a bottom-up tuning fashion with essentially no repercussion on your current applications
extra unique efficiency facts
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With quit users getting accustomed to instantaneous response times, Oracle, more than ever, is challenged to provide continuous availability to its database products. An well-known utensil the folks at Redwood Shores acquire to capitalize them accomplish that is Oracle existent Application Clusters (RAC).
What is RAC? In a nutshell, it is a software utensil that allows a solitary database to exist accessed by many Oracle programs. If one server fails, transactions can exist redirected to another live server with a minimum of downtime.
Oracle advertises RAC as a remedy for many ailments. IT shops can misunderstand such marketing hype, however, and not recognize the cost and benefits of using RAC in a lofty availability (HA) environment.
Let’s explore some Oracle RAC best practices and in the process shed some light on common mistakes users invent when using this cluster-based technology. In this Oracle RAC guide, we’ll retract a contemplate at:
One of the most common mistakes with Oracle RAC is misunderstanding its functions and limitations. Oracle existent Application Clusters is used as fraction of a comprehensive capacity planning strategy, but the technology’s strengths and limitations are not always understood. Here is a list of the most common misperceptions about the technology.
Oracle RAC is example for scalability
Even though Oracle Corporation wants you to buy tiny “blade servers” and employ their grid computing solution for “horizontal scaling,” that’s not how most shops employ RAC. support in intellect that RAC is only a legitimate scalability option for very great IT shops that requisite more horsepower than a solitary server can deliver.
Instead, it’s an Oracle best drill to scale-up first, and then scale out by first edifice up within a solitary server through “vertical scaling.” Only after you acquire saturated a great server sequel you requisite to employ RAC to “scale out” the application across multiple servers. Today, a solitary server’s remembrance and CPU horsepower can exist significantly expanded compared with just several years ago, making it easier to add resources instead of plunking in a newfangled server to the RAC environment. In real-world environments, a solitary server can manipulate thousands of transactions per second. Only the world’s largest Oracle databases requisite to scale-out using RAC nodes.
Oracle RAC is a standalone high-availability solution
Remember that RAC only protects you against instance failure, and that’s only one of many components that can antecedent an unplanned outage. For True continuous availability, they must deploy triple-mirrored disks (with a mean-time-to-failure rate expressed in centuries) and redundant network components.
For complete availability on each RAC server node, you will want multiple host bus adapters, multiple network cards and multiple power sources. Just as they acquire failover at the instance layer, you requisite to purchase software to allow the multiple host bus adapter cards to automatically failover and issue a notification that one has failed.
As they acquire noted, RAC systems require a cluster interconnect in order to accommodate RAM-to-RAM transfers of data blocks in the RCA cache fusion layer. This interconnect must exist very fast, with lofty bandwidth and low latency. Interconnects include:
This cache fusion bottleneck is another intuition why RAC scale-out, or horizontal scalability, is problematic. If your cluster interconnect cannot manipulate the traffic, extra servers will actually demean your performance instead of helping it. The only pass around this problem is to change your entire application to accommodate RAC, or to purchase faster storage such as Solid state Disk.
Oracle RAC ensures lickety-split response time
Response time for transactions is always important, but it’s especially well-known for RAC databases. This is because of the connection wait-time that is used to detect whether a RAC node, or server, has failed. Consequently, you must project to ensure that newfangled transactions are serviced in less than one second wall-clock time so that you can set a failover time of two seconds.
Oracle RAC does not requisite a disaster recovery component
Except in the rare cases where you can deploy Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology, known as gloomy fiber, you quiet requisite to create a disaster recovery solution. Because RAC nodes are normally located within a few miles of each other, a natural disaster fondness a hurricane would quiet antecedent a global outage. So it has become a RAC best drill to likewise deploy a fast-failover geographical solution fondness Data Guard -- or better still, n-way Streams.
Now that they understand the planning aspect of best practices, let’s retract a closer contemplate at RAC best practices issues after they acquire implemented their newfangled database.
Oracle RAC implementation best practices
Operational RAC databases ensue many of the identical best practices as any Oracle database, but there are some that are unique to Oracle RAC systems. First, it’s an well-known best drill to project RAC servers in a pass that minimizes the geographical distance between the RAC nodes while quiet keeping them separate, in order to avoid a failure of complete nodes.
As a reference, you can retract a contemplate at what I wrote on how to implement RAC implementation guidelines.
In a sedulous RAC database, the speed of the server interconnect is captious for lickety-split response times. It’s a commonly accepted best drill to employ the fastest viable interconnect, typically a fiber optics solution fondness gloomy fiber.
Some shops will position RAC nodes in divorce buildings in the identical neighborhood, but with the advent of the superfast gloomy fiber interconnect, you can employ “Extended RAC” and position RAC nodes up to 100 miles apart. This allows you to combine lofty availability with disaster recovery.
Dark fiber is rather expensive, however. To reduce costs, most shops adopt a best drill where they combine RAC with disaster recovery solutions fondness n-way Streams replication.
The entire point of RAC is to invent quit users automatically reconnect to a surviving server when one server fails. This is done either at the Web-server plane or with the Oracle Transparent Application Failover (TAF) option. Whichever utensil you choose, you should wait about three seconds before assuming that the server is lifeless and re-trying a newfangled RAC server.
Next, let’s retract a closer contemplate at specific RAC technical best practices.
Oracle RAC interconnect best practices
Since RAC is a fashion in which many instances partake the identical database, shared data blocks are transferred between the servers using a high-speed interconnect called “cache fusion.” In order to support performance fast, it’s captious that you pay nigh attention to the interconnect layer and remember these points:
RAC likes minuscule screen sizes, the interconnect must acquire extremely lickety-split network hardware, and RAC load balancing is captious to performance.
Oracle RAC node load balancing best practices
I disagree with Oracle’s drill of load balancing using a least-loaded approach because of the overhead it lays on top of the cache fusion layer. In the existent world, like-minded quit users are directed to the identical RAC server. If they acquire a RAC system with different types of quit users, they would want to load balance according to their data needs. For example, customer processing might exist on node one, order processing on node two, and product processing on node three. Grouping RAC quit users by data needs ensures that cache fusion overhead is minimized.
Oracle RAC disk storage management best practices
In order to implement a RAC system, you should employ a shared storage device because many servers must acquire concurrent access to the disks. A solitary instance database can, however, employ Direct Attached Storage (DAS), which is an array of inexpensive disks connected to a solitary server. You must now employ what is known as a Storage zone Network (SAN). A SAN, which is more expensive and complex, is a disk array capable of connecting to many servers, usually through Fibre Channel. This requires a unique set of hardware, ranging from host bus adapters to the SAN itself. It’s well-known that your DBA acquire complete knowledge of the internals of the data storage layer.
Oracle RAC screen size best practices
It has become a best drill in RAC to employ a minuscule 2 kilobyte screen size in order to minimize the “baggage” shipped across the cache fusion layer. Because the screen size is the unit of work, the smaller the screen size, the higher the granularity of data being transferred, with less overhead. If you acquire long rows (greater than 2 kilobytes), then you will want to rush to a 4 kilobyte screen size.
The implementation of a RAC cluster is only the beginning, and it’s captious to constantly monitor the health of your RAC clusters so that you can spot and fix impending problems before you inconvenience your quit users.
Oracle RAC monitoring best practices
To ensure that a RAC node never experiences a global problem, a proper monitoring infrastructure is an absolute requirement. RAC databases rarely fail without warning. If the DBA understands the proper metrics to watch, he can create an alert system that notifies him of a looming problem so that he can fix it before the instance crashes.
The DBA must monitor the cluster, the shared disk setup, ASM (or OCFS), the database instance, listeners, and more in-depth metrics such as cache coherency, interconnect latency, disk times from multiple systems, and a sweep of other things.
While higher-cost performance monitoring tools such as Oracle Grid Control can capitalize fulfill rudimentary RAC monitoring for beginners, a RAC DBA should acquire the coding skills to build his own RAC monitoring infrastructure using dictionary queries, dbms_scheduler and email alert mechanisms.
Wrapping up the discussion of Oracle RAC best practices, let’s focus on the best pass to define job roles for a RAC database.
Oracle RAC staffing best practices
One best drill for RAC databases is to always hire an experienced RAC DBA to manage your cluster, avoiding people who acquire had the RAC training but acquire no job experience.
It’s well-known to recognize that human resource costs are the most expensive fraction of an Oracle shop. Over the decades, hardware costs acquire steadily fallen while manpower costs acquire remained the same.
It’s well-known to note that Oracle professionals with RAC skills command a hefty premium over an ordinary DBA. A recent Oracle salary survey notes that an mediocre DBA earns about $97,000 per year, whereas RAC experts commonly win $140,000 a year. Those who manage multi-billion-dollar RAC databases typically command upwards of $250,000 per year.
Sadly, there is no facile pass to “grow your own” RAC DBA. The training courses are very expensive, and there is no substitute for real-world experience. And training your own DBA in RAC may invent him more marketable. It’s not uncommon to spend tens of thousands of dollars teaching RAC to your DBA only to lose him to a better job offer.
Oracle RAC job role best practices
There is a perpetual combat between systems administrators (SAs), who traditionally manage servers and disks, and the RAC DBAs who are answerable for managing the RAC database. There are likewise clearly defined job roles for network administrators, who are especially challenged in a RAC database environment to manage the cluster interconnect and packet shipping between servers.
If your DBA is going to exist held answerable for the performance of the RAC database, then it’s only unbiased that he exist given root access to the servers and disk storage subsystem. However, not every DBA will acquire the required computer science skills to manage a complicated server and SAN environment, so each shop makes this decision on a case-by-case basis.
Oracle RAC training best practices
One of the confident ways to set your company up for an unplanned outage is to fail to train your SA, DBA and network administrator properly. SAN environments fondness EMC, Tagmastore and NetApp acquire complicated architectures, and they frequently require training classes.
Disk configuration is likewise challenging, and RAC will office only when using specific disk setups such as ASM, OCFS, RAW, or a third-party cluster file system. These tools require training classes.
Network administrators must likewise receive training on how to labor with the cluster interconnect, as well as specialized interconnects such as Infiniband and DWDM.
Of complete those on a RAC staff, DBAs will acquire the greatest learning curve. They will acquire to understand how to set up and administer complete of the complicated RAC components, including the clusterware and file system storage.
In summary, while RAC offers continuous availability, it’s not magic. There is a lot of labor required to ensure that a RAC database is always available. Every RAC database has some unique properties, but there are some well-known perils and pitfalls as well. Using Oracle RAC best practices from other shops is a must for ensuring success. The vast majority of the best practices with RAC relate to properly planning the infrastructure and configuring and deploying the RAC database.
About the author:
Donald K. Burleson is a leading Oracle expert, with more than 25 years of DBA experience. He has authored more than 30 Oracle books, including five officially authorized O books on Oracle tuning. Burleson likewise manages a common DBA website, www.dba-oracle.com.
This latest generation of database builds on the innovations introduced in Oracle Database 11g to capitalize organizations deliver better information throughout the enterprise, at a higher property of service, and at a much lower cost.
In this release, Oracle existent Application Clusters (RAC) delivers grid plug and play and newfangled server pooling capabilities that enable organizations to reduce their server costs by streamlining the provisioning and management of consolidated database grids.
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Most articles about Garbage Collection ignore the fact that the Sun Hotspot JVM is not the only game in town. In fact whenever you acquire to labor with either IBM WebSphere or Oracle WebLogic you will dash on a different runtime. While the concept of Garbage Collection is the same, the implementation is not and neither are the default settings or how to tune it. This often leads to unexpected problems when running the first load tests or in the worst case when going live. So let’s contemplate at the different JVMs, what makes them unique and how to ensure that Garbage Collection is running smooth.
The Garbage Collection ergonomics of the Sun Hotspot JVMEverybody believes to know how Garbage Collection works in the Sun Hotspot JVM, but lets retract a closer contemplate for the purpose of reference.
The Generational HeapThe Hotspot JVM is always using a Generational Heap. Objects are first allocated in the adolescent generation, specifically in the Eden area. Whenever the Eden space is plenary a adolescent generation garbage collection is triggered. This will copy the few remaining live objects into the blank survivor space. In addition objects that acquire been copied to Survivor in the previous garbage collection will exist checked and the live ones will exist copied as well. The result is that objects only exist in one survivor, while eden and the other survivor is empty. This form of Garbage Collection is called copy collection. It is lickety-split as long as nearly complete objects acquire died. In addition allocation is always lickety-split because no fragmentation occurs. Objects that survive a pair of garbage collections are considered used and are promoted into the Tenured/Old space.
Tenured Generation GCsThe label and Sweep algorithms used in the Tenured space are different because they sequel not copy objects. As they acquire seen in one of my previous posts garbage collection takes longer the more objects are alive. Consequently GC runs in tenured are nearly always expensive which is why they want to avoid them. In order to avoid GCs they requisite to ensure that objects are only copied from adolescent to used when they are permanent and in addition ensure that the tenured does not dash full. Therefore generation sizing is the solitary most well-known optimization for the GC in the Hotspot JVM. If they cannot forestall objects from being copied to Tenured space once in a while they can employ the Concurrent label and Sweep algorithm which collects objects concurrent to the application.
While that shortens the suspensions it does not forestall them and they will occur more frequently. The Tenured space likewise suffers from another problem, fragmentation. Fragmentation leads to slower allocation, longer sweep phases and eventually out of remembrance errors when the holes win too minuscule for stout objects.
This is remedied by a compacting phase. The serial and parallel compacting GC fulfill compaction for every GC dash in the Tenured space. well-known to note is that, while the parallel GC performs compacting every time, it does not compact the entire Tenured heap but just the zone that is worth the effort. Worth the trouble means when the heap has reached a confident plane of fragmentation. In contrast, the Concurrent label and Sweep does not compact at all. Once objects cannot exist allocated anymore a serial major GC is triggered. When choosing the concurrent label and sweep strategy they acquire to exist cognizant of that side affect.
The second stout tuning option is therefore the election of the perquisite GC strategy. It has stout implications for the repercussion the GC has on the application performance. The ultimate and least known tuning option is around fragmentation and compacting. The Hotspot JVM does not provide a lot of options to tune it, so the only pass is to tune the code directly and reduce the number of allocations.
There is another space in the Hotspot JVM that they complete came to fondness over the years, the Permanent Generation. It holds classes and string constants that are fraction of those classes. While Garbage Collection is executed in the permanent generation, it only happens during a major GC. You might want to read up what a Major GC actually is, as it does not denote a used Generation GC. Because a major GC does not betide often and mostly nothing happens in the permanent generation, many people mediate that the Hotspot JVM does not sequel garbage collection there at all.
Over the years complete of us dash into many different forms of the OutOfMemory situations in PermGen and you will exist gratified to hear that Oracle intends to sequel away with it in the future versions of Hotspot.
Oracle JRockitNow that they had a contemplate at Hotspot, let us contemplate at the contrast in the Oracle JRockit. JRockit is used by Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle has announced that it will merge it with the Hotspot JVM in the future.
The biggest contrast is the heap strategy itself. While Oracle JRockit does acquire a generational heap it likewise supports a so called continuous heap. In addition the generational heap looks different as well.
The adolescent space is called Nursery and it only has two areas. When objects are first allocated they are placed in a so called support Area. Objects in the support zone are not considered during garbage collection while complete other objects quiet alive are immediately promoted to tenured. That has major implications for the sizing of the Nursery. While you can configure how often objects are copied between the two survivors in the Hotspot JVM, JRockit promotes objects in the second adolescent Generation GC.
In addition to this contrast JRockit likewise supports a completely continuous heap that does not distinguish between adolescent and used objects. In confident situations, fondness throughput orientated batch jobs, this results in better overall performance. The problem is that this is the default setting on a server JVM and often not the perquisite choice. A typical Web Application is not throughput but response time orientated and you will requisite to explicitly pick the low recess time garbage collection mode or a generational garbage collection strategy.
Mostly Concurrent label and SweepIf you pick Concurrent label and Sweep strategy you should exist cognizant about a pair of differences here as well. The mostly concurrent label phase is divided into four parts:
The sweeping is likewise done concurrent to your application, but in contrast to Hotspot in two divorce steps. It is first sweeping the first half of the heap. During this phase threads are allowed to earmark objects in the second half. After a short synchronization recess the second half is sweeped. This is followed by another short final synchronization pause. The JRockit algorithm therefore stops more often than the Sun Hotspot JVM, but the remark phase should exist shorter. Unlike the Hotspot JVM you can tune the CMS by defining the percentage of free remembrance that triggers a GC run.
CompactingThe JRockit does compacting for complete Tenured Generation GCs, including the Concurrent label and Sweep. It does so in an incremental mode for portions of the heap. You can tune this with various options fondness percentage of heap that should exist compacted each time or how many objects are compacted at max. In addition you can whirl off compacting completely or compel a plenary one for every GC. This means that compacting is a lot more tunable in the JRockit than in the Hotspot JVM and the optimum depends very much on the application itself and needs to exist carefully tested.
Thread Local AllocationHotspot does employ thread local allocation, but it is hard to find anything in the documentation about it or how to tune it. The JRockit uses this on default. This allows threads to earmark objects without any requisite for synchronization, which is advantageous for allocation speed. The size of a TLA can exist configured and a great TLA can exist advantageous for applications where multiple threads earmark a lot of objects. On the other hand a too great TLA can lead to more fragmentation. As a TLA is used exclusively by one thread, the size is naturally limited by the number of threads. Thus both decreasing and increasing the default can exist friendly or contaminated depending on your applications architecture.
Large and minuscule objectsThe JRockit differentiates between great and minuscule objects during allocation. The limit for when an object is considered great depends on the JVM version, the heap size, the garbage collection strategy and the platform used. It is usually somewhere between 2 and 128 KB. great objects are allocated outside thread local zone in in case of a generational heap directly in the used generation. This makes a lot of sense when you start thinking about it. The adolescent generation uses a copy ccollection. At some point copying an object becomes more expensive than traversing it in ever garbage collection.
No permanent GenerationAnd finally it needs to exist renowned that the JRockit does not acquire a permanent generation. complete classes and string constants are allocated within the timehonored heap area. While that makes life easier on the configuration front it means that classes can exist garbage collected immediately if not used anymore. In one of my future posts I will illustrate how this can lead to some hard to find performance problems.
The IBM JVMThe IBM JVM shares a lot of characteristics with JRockit: The default heap is a continuous one. Especially in WebSphere installation this is often the initial antecedent for contaminated performance. It differentiates between great and minuscule objects with the identical implications and uses thread local allocation on default. It likewise does not acquire a permanent generation, but while the IBM JVM likewise supports a generational heap model it looks more fondness Sun’s rather than JRockit.
Allocate and Survivor act fondness Eden and Survivor of the Sun JVM. newfangled objects are allocated in one zone and copied to the other on garbage collection. In contrast to JRockit the two areas are switched upon gc. This means that an object is copied multiple times between the two areas before it gets promoted to Tenured. fondness JRockit the IBM JVM has more options to tune the compaction phase. You can whirl it off or compel it to betide for every GC. In contrast to JRockit the default triggers it due to a string of triggers but will then lead to a plenary compaction. This can exist changed to an incremental one via a configuration flag.
ConclusionWe notice that while the three JVMs are essentially trying to achieve the identical goal, they sequel so via different strategies. This leads to different behaviour that needs tuning. With Java 7 Oracle will finally declare the G1 (Garbage First) production ready and the G1 is a different beast altogether, so sojourn tuned.
If you’re interested in hearing me argue more about WebSphere in a production environment, then check out their upcoming webinar with The Bon-Ton Stores. I’ll exist joined by Dan Gerard, VP of Technical & Web Services at Bon-Ton, to argue the challenges they’ve overcome in operating a complicated Websphere production eCommerce site to deliver worthy web application performance and user experience. Reserve your seat today to hear me rush into more detail about Websphere and production eCommerce environments.
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