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102-400 exam Dumps Source : LPI flat 1 Exam 102, Junior flat Linux Certification, partake 2 of 2

Test Code : 102-400
Test appellation : LPI flat 1 Exam 102, Junior flat Linux Certification, partake 2 of 2
Vendor appellation : LPI
: 120 true Questions

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LPI LPI flat 1 Exam

LPI 701-a hundred exam Dumps launched with legitimate PDF Questions & apply verify utility | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    LPIC-2: Linux professional Institute Certification study guide: exam 201 and exam 202 | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    Full coverage of the newest LPI-stage 2 exams, with premium online check pecuniary institution LPIC-2 is the one-cease training resource for the Linux skilled Institute's advanced flat certification examination. With 100% insurance of indecorous exam targets, this ebook provides pellucid and concise insurance of the Linux administration theme matters you'll should comprehend for tests 201 and 202. practical examples spotlight the precise-world functions of vital concepts, and collectively, the creator group provides insights in keeping with well-nigh fifty years within the IT business. This brand unique second edition has been fully revamped to align with the latest types of the assessments, with authoritative coverage of the Linux kernel, system startup, superior storage, community configuration, device maintenance, internet capabilities, protection, troubleshooting, and greater. You additionally derive entry to online studying tools including digital flashcards, chapter tests, practice assessments, and a thesaurus of essential phrases to assist you solidify your knowing of upper-level Linux administration theme matters. The LPI-degree 2 certification confirms your advanced Linux talent set, and the exact for qualified professionals continues to develop.

    This publication offers you the conceptual counsel and palms-on follow you should pass the examination with flying colours. * grasp into account indecorous of the cloth for each LPIC-2 assessments * benefit perception into real-world functions * verify your handicap with chapter checks and commemorate assessments * access online analyze aids for greater thorough instruction organizations are flocking to the open-source Linux as a brilliant, low-cost, cozy altenative to towering priced working techniques dote Microsoft home windows. because the Linux market partake continues to climb, groups are scrambling to locate network and server directors with expert Linux capabilities and enormously useful competencies. The LPI-degree 2 certification makes you the skilled they need, and LPIC-2 is your choicest engage to getting there.

    Christine Bresnahan, is an Adjunct Professor at Ivy Tech community faculty, the situation she teaches Linux essentials, LPIC-1/CompTIA Linux+ Certification, and Python programming. With over 25 years of IT adventure, Christine makes a speciality of producing tutorial materials for exhaust both inside and outdoors of the lecture room. Richard Blum, is a 20-yr IT industry veteran skilled with programs and network administration for UNIX, Linux, Novell, and Microsoft servers. prosperous is an online Linux teacher for universities nationwide, and is a widely-published knowledgeable on Linux and open-source utility.

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    LPI Certification checks Exceed 250,000 international | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    (Sacramento, CA, united states of america: June 24, 2010) The Linux skilled Institute (LPI), the world’s premier Linux certification organization (http://www.lpi.org), introduced that they delivered over 258,000 tests and 85,000 certifications worldwide.

    “here is a crucial milestone for the Linux professional Institute. It signifies the lengthy-standing dedication to the LPI application from each individual Linux gurus and the industry at tremendous. we've viewed fantastic multiply in the ultimate year due to the enthusiastic response from IT professionals to their revised LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 exams,” eminent Jim Lacey, president and CEO of the Linux knowledgeable Institute. Mr. Lacey credited the outstanding results to a few factors including the need of IT authorities to maintain their learning current in a extremely competitive pecuniary local weather: “IT professionals understand that life-lengthy researching and proven learning play a crucial role of their career movements. They additionally understand that enticing with the international Linux community is on the heart of LPI’s success. The efforts of indecorous who assist the organization on a daily groundwork made this milestone a truth. lastly, this demonstrates the value of dealer-impartial certification general, and showcases the marvelous efforts made with the aid of their community of global affiliates to promote Linux professionalism.”

    industry representatives were short to tender notes of congratulations recognizing LPI’s contribution to the advancement of Linux training and professionalism:

    CompTIA:

    “The expertise adoption curve continues to precipitate up, putting increasing magnitude on the deserve to perpetually supplant the learning of the excessive-tech group of workers,” mentioned Terry Erdle, senior vice chairman, capabilities certification, CompTIA, the non-income trade affiliation for the IT industry.  “On-going education, practicing and certification of technology employees isn’t a luxury, it’s a necessity,” Erdle persisted. “LPI fills a vital role within the expert development of existing and future IT employee; and this milestone is testament to the cost that employers and individual worker's situation on their certification. CompTIA is blissful to confederate with LPI as they toil together to strengthen a strong Linux staff.”

    IBM:

    “IBM acknowledges LPI as a key resource to assist IT specialists benefit Linux capabilities,” talked about Jean Staten Healy, Director of Linux approach at IBM. “Linux continues to grow as a core know-how for a lot of of our customers, and that they require a talented technical community to support them meet their company dreams.”

    Linux groundwork:

    “LPI has performed an additional incredible milestone,” talked about Amanda McPherson, vice chairman of advertising and developer capabilities on the Linux groundwork. “This achievement is a testomony to two things: 1. LPI’s boom and durability as a Linux certification leader and a pair of. the starting to be variety of Linux authorities. They behold vast job boom for Linux professionals even during this down market and LPI certification is a very good piece of that story.”

    Linux international:

    “As President of Linux foreign, I toil with loads of rising economies to develop unique corporations in the IT sector akin to these primarily based on venture Cauã in Brazil.  The indisputable fact that LPI publishes their contemplate at various objectives, sample assessments and separates the conviction of “training” from “certification” allows people in these economies to harvest certification on the lowest feasible can charge.  I cheer LPI for reaching this milestone,” referred to Jon “maddog” hall, President, Linux foreign

    Novell:

    Congratulations to LPI on accomplishing this tremendous milestone.  This achievement demonstrates the price of Linux certification to IT experts.  In specific, for Linux licensed IT gurus, the job outlook will proceed to brighten over the year, primarily for these with the most beneficial capabilities units. Linux professionals that achieve certification may suffer the technical talent and self credit to address nowadays’s different facts heart requirements, specially as cloud computing becomes greater mainstream,” stated Markus Rex, Senior vice president and widespread supervisor, Open Platform options, Novell

    Pearson VUE:

    “LPI continues to play a a must suffer office in offering potential validation for IT workers as Linux continues to gain global popularity” talked about Randy Trask, senior vice chairman of market development at Pearson VUE. Randy continued, “LPI’s fresh success is a reflection of the tough work performed in forging alliances with the a great number of contributors of the Linux ecosystem and clearly demonstrates the exact for certified Linux workers.”

    Prometric:

    “we would want to tender their straightforward congratulations to the Linux skilled Institute for achieving such an spectacular milestone,” said invoice Murtagh, Prometric Senior vp, income and client capabilities. “we're chuffed to aid the start of LPI assessments and their continued boom in any approach they are able to.”

    LPI presents a standardized, multi-country wide and totally respected application to certify degrees of expert learning in Linux. checks are created the usage of business recognized psychometrics and knowledgeable verify building tactics to obtain confident immoderate first-rate exams with direct relevance today’s in-demand abilities. LPI’s certification software is delivered international in dissimilar languages with the assist of employers, companies and trainers. flat One and degree Two certifications (LPIC-1 and LPIC-2) mirror the successful completion of two exams at each and every degree. LPIC-three certification, launched in February 2007, requires completion of a single exam–however additional specialties in “blended environment” (LPI-302) and “protection” (LPI-303) are likewise obtainable.

    The Linux knowledgeable Institute (LPI) is globally supported via the IT industry, enterprise and authorities and within govt and the educational community. LPI’s certification software is delivered global in dissimilar languages at over 7,000 checking out areas and is supported by way of an affiliate community spanning five continents.

    in regards to the Linux skilled Institute:

    The Linux knowledgeable Institute promotes and certifies elementary potential on Linux and Open source applied sciences in the course of the international delivery of finished, choicest, supplier-impartial tests. based as an overseas non-earnings corporation in 1999 by the Linux neighborhood, the Linux knowledgeable Institute continues to exhibit recognized global management within the certification of Linux professionals. LPI advances the Linux and Open supply movement through strategic companions, sponsorships, inventive courses and group development actions. LPI’s fundamental economic sponsors are Platinum Sponsors IBM, Linux Journal, Linux journal, Novell, SGI, and TurboLinux as well as Gold Sponsors, HP and IDG. 




    Killexams.com 102-400 Dumps and true Questions

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    102-400 exam Dumps Source : LPI flat 1 Exam 102, Junior flat Linux Certification, partake 2 of 2

    Test Code : 102-400
    Test appellation : LPI flat 1 Exam 102, Junior flat Linux Certification, partake 2 of 2
    Vendor appellation : LPI
    : 120 true Questions

    it's miles remarkable to suffer 102-400 true exam questions.
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    LPI flat 1 Exam 102, Junior flat Linux Certification, partake 2 of 2

    Pass 4 confident 102-400 dumps | Killexams.com 102-400 true questions | http://www.stargeo.it/new/

    Community efforts in Linux certification | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    June 5, 2000Web posted at: 10:19 a.m. EDT (1419 GMT)

    (IDG) -- I should subsist studying. I should subsist in a classroom. I should subsist cramming for my exam. But I'm not. I'm sitting here at my computer dutifully writing this column, even though I know that at about this time next week, I'll subsist in Austin, Texas, taking the first of two flat 1 LPI Linux certification exams. I know I'm not going to carry out very well, but that's OK; I'm not obligated to humiliate myself by revealing my score. After taking both exams for flat 1, however, I should suffer a pretty ample conviction of what is considered an acceptable flat of learning for a junior Linux system administrator.

    Linux certification is an conviction that has been around for a long time and is now coming to fruition. There are two primary entities working to provide Linux professionals with credentials. The first is SAIR; the second is LPI, the Linux Professional Institute. If you are not confidential with Linux certification, I recommend Eileen Cohen's excellent analysis, which appeared in LinuxWorld earlier this year. The URL is given below in the Resources section of this article.

    The goals of the two primary groups are very similar. The primary incompatibility is that SAIR is a for-profit corporation offering both testing and training, while LPI is a nonprofit organization focusing exclusively on testing. Wave Technologies, which recently purchased SAIR, is in fact a major provider of IT training.

    Both LPI and SAIR search to forward Linux in the enterprise. Each has impeccable credentials of its own. Some of the brightest lights in the open source world serve on SAIR's advisory board. LPI is simply a partake of the Linux community doing something that needs to subsist done.

    Evan Leibovitch, who has been involved with Unix and Linux for a long time, and who has written about Linux for the past five years, is one of the founders of the LPI. Evan asked recently if I would dote to grasp the first-level LPI exam, currently in beta. I hesitated a day before accepting the offer, for no reason other than solicitude of failing.

    At first I hoped that I would subsist able to grasp the test online, but the exams are only given in controlled environments, so that people don't obtain it an open engage test or suffer proxies grasp the exam for them. But VUE (Virtual University Enterprises), which administers the certification exams for LPI, has three locations in the Austin area, so finding a nearby testing heart was not a problem. I'm booked for 10:30 a.m. on May 31. deem ample thoughts for me.

    Community efforts

    I'm always amazed and a slight in awe of what the people in the Linux community grasp it upon themselves to do. LPI is no exception. Now about 1,000 strong, and less than two years old, it is finishing beta testing on its flat 1 certification program as I type. You should subsist able to earn your LPI flat 1 certification as early as this summer. toil is already underway on the flat 2 exams, and a third level, for senior administrators, will follow.

    Evan has been involved with Unix for many years, and with Linux since 1995. As a journalist, he has written about both, and he currently writes a weekly column on Linux for ZDNet. He told me that he can soundless recall when he first got hooked by Linux. It was at the November 1995 Unix Expo in unique York, following Novell's announcement that it was selling its Unix interests to SCO. Evan said, "I spent most of the comfort of the day at the booths of Caldera and Red Hat, which had very tiny booths at that show. And basically that was the start of my getting hooked."

    The current LPI organization is blended from two sever mailing lists and a third Linux community certification project, Digital Metrics. Evan was not satisfied with simply writing about Linux and became an dynamic member of the community. He helped to institute CLUE, the Canadian Linux Users Exchange, and it was from CLUE's common mailing list that the first roots of the LPI appeared.

    Evan said that someone on the list asked what Linux needed to obtain it into the mainstream. The reply that came up most often was certification, and soon the topic warranted a list of its own. Among the early participants on the list was Dr. Tobin Maginnis, founder and president of SAIR.

    In 1998, Dan York wrote an article about certification in the Linux Gazette, and it generated enough interest that a mailing list formed around it as well. Not long afterwards, one of Linux's roving ambassadors, Jon "maddog" Hall, introduced Evan and Dan. The result was a merger of the lists and the formation of LPI.

    LPI has made grandiose strides since its formation a year and a half ago. For one thing, members suffer rethought how LPI would exploit the problem of testing for distribution-specific knowledge. Originally, LPI planned to tender two tests, one common and one distribution specific. Candidates would suffer indecorous had to grasp the common exam, and then pick the distribution for which they wanted to subsist tested in partake two.

    But as LPI members looked more closely at the feedback received from the community about the types of things that a junior, intermediate, and advanced Linux admin should know, they discovered that the places where the distributions were different -- primarily their installation and selection of GUI -- weren't areas that needed to subsist tested that deeply.

    Instead, the people at LPI suffer designed one section of the second exam to deal with differences between dpkg and RPM package management. Evan said, "It was not reasonable to suffer an exam that would cover basic admin tasks that didn't deal with package management." But he added that if you know only dpkg and not RPM, or vice versa, you will subsist able to pass.

    If I'm not totally humiliated by the exam, I'll grasp the second partake as well and provide as many details about it as I'm allowed. I can't report on any specific questions, of course, but I'll cover topics, toughness, and the test environment.

    Looking ahead

    Looking towards the future, LPI plans to suffer the second flat of testing, for the intermediate Linux system administrator, available in less than a year. No timetable has been set for the third-level test, which will subsist released sometime after the second. Evan likewise told me that LPI is working closely with the Linux standard groundwork (LSB), so that when LSB finalizes its specification, it becomes the foundation for the LPI testing.

    Will SAIR and LPI ever merge? I don't believe it would subsist a heinous thing if they did, but I personally don't behold how it can happen. A founding principle of LPI was the separation of training and testing, and SAIR is owned by a training firm. So in certification, just dote so many other aspects of Linux and the open source community, they are blessed with choice.

    My grasp on indecorous of this is that folks dote Evan and Dan and indecorous the others who suffer contributed time, money, ideas, or application to LPI are doing indecorous the comfort of the Linux community a very grandiose service. The enterprise is keen not only for Linux itself, but for qualified professionals to administer it. The certification of a pool of Linux professionals can only aid to precipitate its deployment.

    RELATED STORIES:

    Linux struggles to derive beuond the WebJune 2, 2000Troubleshooting the Linux wayMay 17, 2000Two Linux standards groups combine into oneMay 10, 2000Security solid warns of Red Hat Piranha 'back door'April 27, 2000Linux livin' great on mainframeApril 5, 2000

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    Linux File Management Basics | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the engage  Filesystem Overview

    The filesystem’s structure starts with the root of the filesystem, which is denoted by the forward slash character (/). Every detail on the filesystem is accessible by a solitary unique path from the root of the system, such as /usr/local/bin/foobar, no matter which device that file is stored on.

    Unix evolved its own set of traditions as to where confident files would go. The fragmentation of the commercial and academic Unixes led to differences in conventions depending on which flavor of Unix you were using.

    Linux borrows practices from many different Unixes and has fragmentation of its own in the form of different distributions. The community started working on a standard for filesystem layout called the File System Hierarchy standard (FHS) to obtain it easier for both people and software to know where files can subsist found.

    The latest FHS is always institute at http://www.pathname.com/fhs/.

    LPI bases the exam questions about the directory structure from the FHS 2.3. The FHS isn’t really a standard but a solid set of suggestions that most, but not all, distribution vendors obey. A ample number of questions on the exams reference the FHS.

    What Belongs Where

    The exams obtain quite of a vast deal about what the proper directories and locations are for Linux files, but few things are more vexing than to subsist asked what should positively subsist in the root (/) directory, or what can subsist elsewhere.

    The Root of the System

    Starting in the root (/) directory, the Table 5-2 lists common top-level directories and includes a short explanation for each:

    Table 5-2 Common Directories

    Directory

    Description

    bin

    Binaries for indecorous users

    boot

    Kernel, system map, boot files

    dev

    Device files

    etc

    Configuration files for the host

    home

    Home directories for users

    lib

    Necessary shared libraries/modules

    lost+found

    Storage directory for unlinked files (found with fsck)

    media

    Mount points for removable media

    mnt

    Temporary mount point for the sysadmin

    opt

    Third-party application software

    proc

    Kernel and process information

    root

    The root user’s home directory

    sbin

    System binaries needed for boot

    tmp

    Temporary data

    usr

    Sharable, read-only data and programs, no host-specific data

    var

    Variable data, logs, Web, FTP, and so on

    The exam makes a vast deal out of what’s optional and required in the root (/) directory. If you read the FHS 2.3 (highly recommended), you behold that the word “optional” appears next to the /root and /home directories. It is possible that the computer is some kindhearted of application server where users are not expected to log in. This is key because you’ll subsist asked questions about which directories are optional in the root filesystem.

    keytopic.jpg

    The FHS documentation states, “The contents of the root filesystem must subsist adequate to boot, restore, recover, and/or repair the system. To boot a system, enough must subsist present on the root partition to mount other filesystems. This includes utilities, configuration, boot loader information, and other essential start-up data. /usr, /opt, and /var are designed such that they may subsist located on other partitions or filesystems.”

    From this statement you can understand which of the preceding directories exigency to subsist on the root partition and which can subsist moved to other partitions.

    Classifying Data

    FHS makes distinctions between data that changes and data that is static, and data that can subsist shared versus data that’s local to the computer. Data of different categories should subsist separated into different directories.

    Because of the way the FHS is laid out, with the root filesystem being described in section 3 and /usr and /var happening later, it’s light to misunderstand what is really reputed to subsist on the root filesystem as opposed to another device that’s mounted after boot.

    The relationship between /usr and /var is that, long ago in Unix times, /usr used to hold indecorous types of data. The FHS tried to extract the data that changes and is nonsharable to /var, leaving /usr with just static, sharable data.

    Where Programs Live

    The FHS does not allow programs to create their individual named directories in the /usr section. The subdirectories allowed to exist directly under the /usr directory are

  • bin—Contains user commands
  • include—Contains header files for C programs
  • lib—Contains libraries
  • local—Contains local/sharable programs
  • sbin—Contains nonessential system binaries
  • share—Contains data/programs for multiple architectures
  • keytopic.jpg

    The /usr section has a location for programs named /usr/local. This is for the sysadmin to install software in a situation that won’t conflict with the distribution files. Programs in the /usr/local path are likewise allowed for sharing among groups of hosts.

    For example, vow your developers suffer forward up with a program to calculate loans and you want to install it on the workgroup server for other systems to remotely mount and use. Because this is a third-party or custom application, the ratiocinative situation for it is in /usr/local/appname, possibly with a link to the program binary in the /usr/local/bin directory (because that’s where local binaries are expected to subsist found).

    If given a altenative between putting the software package BIGPROG in the /usr/local/BIGPROG section and the /opt/BIGPROG section, it’s difficult to choose. Read any germane exam question closely—the main incompatibility being that the /opt section is not considered to subsist sharable, whereas the /usr section is often shared and mounted by client systems.

    File Management Commands

    A major section of the 101 exam is dedicated to how to sprint commands properly with the privilege options and arguments. As a ample sysadmin, you are expected to know how to create, delete, edit, set permissions, display, move, copy, and determine the type of files and programs.

    Tips for Working with Linux Files

    Because most users and sysadmins forward from a Windows or other OS background, a quick set of recommendations for the less-experienced can subsist of aid here:

  • Hidden files aren’t really hidden—They just originate with a ., such as the .bashrc and .bash_profile files. They are normally not visible unless you explicitly quiz for them to subsist displayed and aren’t deleted by commands such as rm –f *.*.
  • Filenames can hold multiple periods or no period characters—The filenames this.is.a.long.file and thisisalongfile are perfectly reasonable and possible.
  • Spaces in filenames contemplate nice, but are a stitch to type—Use an _ or a - instead of spaces because it’s neater and easier than prefixing indecorous spaces with a \. (To pomp a space in a filename, the system shows a space prefixed with a backslash.)
  • File extensions aren’t mandatory—But they are useful for sorting, selection, and copy/move/delete commands, as well as for quickly identifying a file’s type.
  • Basic Navigation

    The command to change the current working directory, cd, is used frequently and knowing how to saunter around the filesystem is a main focus of the exams.

    The following command simply moves you from wherever you are to the /etc directory. This type of saunter uses absolute pathnames and can subsist used from within any directory:

    cd /etc

    The path is called absolute because it defines a path starting at the root of the filesystem. The light way to uncover whether the path is absolute is that it starts with a slash (/).

    Moving relatively from the current directory to a subdirectory is quick and easy, such as if you are in the /etc/ directory and want to change into the /etc/samba directory. Here’s how:

    cd samba

    This is referred to as a relative path because the option you pass to the cd command is relative to the current directory. You are in /etc and lamentable to samba gets you in /etc/samba. If you were in /home and ran cd samba it would not toil unless /home/samba likewise existed.

    If you derive confused as to where you currently are, exhaust the pwd command to print the working (current) directory:

    # pwd /etc/samba

    By itself, the cd command takes you back to your home directory, wherever you occur to be. The tilde (~) likewise means “home directory,” so cd ~ takes you to your home directory and cd ~sean takes you to Sean’s home directory.

    Advanced Navigation

    It’s ample to derive undergo with some tangled relative path situations. For example, if you were in the directory /home1/user1 and wanted to saunter into the directory /home2/user2, which command could subsist used?

    $ tree / / |-- home1 | `-- user1 `-- home2 `-- user2

    Remember, you aren’t using absolute pathnames, just relative pathnames.

    The reply is

    # cd ../../home2/user2 keytopic.jpg

    Each of the .. pairs takes you up one level: The first takes you to /home1 and the second puts you at the root. From there it’s relative pathnames. practice this method, and recall that going up one flat in this exercise only got you to the /home1 directory. This is a relative path because the path does not start with a /. The directory in which you discontinue up depends on where you started.

    Though this instance of relative and absolute pathnames was used to contemplate at changing directories, it applies to any situation where you’re prompted for a filename.

    Listing Files and Directories

    The ls command is used for listing directories or files, or both.

    If you exhaust the ls command to behold a multicolumn output of the current directory, only the file or directory names are shown, not other details about the file:

    ls file1 file2 file3 file4

    Use the –l long listing option to behold indecorous the details of a particular file or directory, or set of files or directories in a solitary column, dote so:

    $ ls –l total 0 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Jan 24 18:55 file1 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Jan 24 18:55 file2 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Jan 24 18:55 file3 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Jan 24 18:55 file4 keytopic.jpg

    The –l long listing style is the only way to exhaust the ls command and behold the permissions, ownership, and link counts for objects. The only other command that can give such information is the stat command, which shows a solitary filesystem expostulate at a time.

    Other examples of using the ls command include

  • ls /home/user—Shows a unostentatious listing of that directory.
  • ls –a—Lists indecorous files, including hidden . files.
  • ls –d foo—Lists just the directory called foo, not the contents.
  • ls –i—Lists the inode number for the targetfile or directory. Inodes are the way Linux represents a file on disk and are discussed later in the section “Copying Files and Directories.”
  • ls –l—Shows permissions; links; and date, group, and owner information. Permissions prescribe who can access the file and are discussed in detail in Chapter 10, “Permissions.”
  • ls –lh—Shows human-readable output of file sizes, in KB, MB, and GB, along with file details.
  • Chaining the options together produces useful results. For example, if you needed to behold indecorous the files (including hidden ones) in the current directory, their permissions, and their inode numbers, you would exhaust the following command:

    # ls –lai 290305 drwxr-x--- 13 root root 4096 Jan 24 18:55 . 2 drwxr-xr-x 20 root root 4096 Jan 24 17:56 .. 292606 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1354 Jan 21 00:23 anaconda-ks. cfg 292748 -rw------- 1 root root 3470 Jan 24 18:16 .bash_history 290485 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 24 Jun 10 2000 .bash_logout 290486 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 234 Jul 5 2001 .bash_profile 290487 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 176 Aug 23 1995 .bashrc 290488 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 210 Jun 10 2000 .cshrc Determining File Types

    With no requirement for extensions on Linux files, a tool for easily determining file types is essential. The file command can subsist used to read the file’s headers and match that data against a known set of types.

    The file command uses several possible sources, including the stat system call, the magic number file (/usr/share/magic), and a table of character sets including ASCII and EBCDIC. Finally, if the file is text and contains recognizable strings from a given programming or other language, it is used to identify the file.

    The output can subsist used, manipulated, and filtered to parade you useful things.

    For example, simply using the file command on a given file shows the type:

    $ file file1 file1: ASCII text

    Running the file command against a known binary shows various elements about the architecture and layout of the file, such as shown here:

    $ file /bin/ls /bin/ls: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.32, stripped

    Running the file command against a directory plenary of files is useful for viewing the possible types, but the true gold lies in filtering the output using the pipe operator (|) and the grep command, showing only the results that hold the word “empty”:

    $ file /etc/* | grep empty /etc/dumpdates: empty /etc/exports: empty /etc/fstab.REVOKE: empty /etc/motd: empty /etc/printconf.local: empty

    This is one way of finding barren files that are littering your system. They are probably required in the /etc directory but only clutter temporary directories such as /tmp.

    One thing that’s sever about Linux (and indecorous Unixes) is that the shell is accountable for expanding the glob to the list of files it matches. If you type ls /tmp/thing* and there are two files that start with thing such as thing1 and thing2, it’s the very thing as if you typed ls /tmp/thing1 /tmp/thing2:

    $ ls thing* thing1 thing2

    This globbing feature is why renaming a group of files is harder. In Windows you could type ren *.foo *.bar and any file with an extension of foo would then suffer an extension of bar. In Linux, typing mv *.foo *.bar would expand the globs to the list of files matched—*.foo would match the files you want to rename and *.bar would match nothing. This is different from what you might expect! The following output shows this problem.

    $ ls *.foo *.bar ls: *.bar: No such file or directory file1.foo file2.foo $ reverberate mv *.foo *.bar mv file1.foo file2.foo *.bar $ mv *.foo *.bar mv: target `*.bar' is not a directory

    In the output, the first command shows there are three files with an extension of foo but null of bar. The reverberate command displays the output that follows it, such that it shows what would subsist executed if you ran the mv command by itself. The *.bar glob shows up because there are no files that match it. The error happens because there is no such directory called *.bar.

    There are other glob operators. instance 5-1 shows some uses of file globs.

    Example 5-1 Examples Using a Glob $ ls file file1 file10 file11 file2 $ ls file* file file1 file10 file11 file2 $ ls file? file1 file2 $ ls *1 file1 file11 $ ls file[123] file1 file2

    Example 5-1 starts by listing indecorous the files in the directory. The very list of files is likewise available with file*, which matches the word “file” followed by anything, or nothing at all. Note how it includes the bare appellation “file”. Next the file? glob matches anything starting with the word “file” and followed by one character. Both “file” and the files with two-digit numbers in their names are excluded.

    Globs don’t suffer to loom at the discontinue of a filename. *1 matches anything ending in the number “1”. Finally, file[123] uses the square bracket operator that means “any one character from the set”. This matches file1 and file2.

    Touching Files

    The paw command seems odd at first, but it comes in handy often. You give it the appellation of one or more files, and it creates the files if they don’t exist or updates their timestamps if they do.

    There are various reasons to exhaust the paw command, such as creating a unique blank log file or updating a file’s modification time to exhaust as a reference such as to know the ultimate time a job was run.

    To create a unique file, you can exhaust the relative pathname for creating one in the current directory:

    touch filename

    Or, you can exhaust absolute pathname to create the file, such as shown here:

    touch /home/rossb/filename keytopic.jpg

    Expect to behold paw on the exams for log file creation, along with using a reference file to tag the ultimate backup. In other words, if a log file is created from a successful backup, that file can subsist used as a date and time reference file because it occurred at a desirable time.

    When you exhaust paw on an existing file, the default action is to update indecorous three of the file’s times:

  • access—The ultimate time a file was written/read from
  • change—The ultimate time the contents of the file were changed, or that the file’s metadata (owner, permission, inode number) was changed
  • modify—The ultimate time the file’s contents were changed
  • A programmer preparing a unique release of a software package would exhaust the paw command to ensure that indecorous files suffer the exact very date and times. Therefore, the release could subsist referred to by the file date, given multiple revisions.

    Setting a file’s date is relatively easy; the following command sets file1’s date to a particular date and time:

    touch -t 201501010830 file1

    The time format used is represented by yyyymmddhhmm, or a four-digit year, two-digit month, two-digit day, two-digit hour, and two-digit minutes.

    Reference files are useful, particularly when you just want to suffer a file or set of files updated to a particular date/time, not the current one. You could use

    touch -r reffile file2update

    The date and time of reffile is applied to the file2update file date and time.

    Copying Files and Directories

    One aspect of copying an expostulate is that the act creates a unique file with a sever inode. This means that the operating system sees the unique file as sever from the outmoded one. Contrast this to a saunter operation where it’s the very file with a unique name.

    When you create an expostulate in a filesystem, it gets its own permissions. cp doesn’t always copy the permissions over to the unique file. This can subsist done, but it requires the exhaust of the -p option to preserve the permissions and ownership. The root user is the only user that can change the ownership of a file; therefore, regular users using this option always own the copied files no matter who the original owner was.

    A balanced copy is simple to perform. You’re essentially causing the file to subsist replicated to the unique location:

    cp file1 /dir1/file2

    A few options that obtain life easier for copying files include

  • -d—Doesn’t follow symbolic links; copies the link instead. Links point one file to another and are explored later in the “Linking Files” section.
  • -f—Force overwriting existing files.
  • -i—Interactively asks before overwriting.
  • -l—Creates a difficult link to the source file.
  • -r or –R—Recursively traverses directories (copying everything).
  • -s—Creates a symlink to the source file.
  • -u—Only updates the copy when the source is newer than the target or the target doesn’t exist.
  • –x—Doesn’t traverse to filesystems mounted from other devices.
  • Copying an existing directory to a unique one is simple:

    # cp –r dir1 dir2

    The -r option is necessary because the cp command doesn’t process directories by default. As long as the target directory does not exist, the previous command makes an identical copy of the source and indecorous subordinate files and directories in the target directory.

    Copying a source directory to an existing target directory doesn’t attempt an overwrite; it makes the source directory into a unique subdirectory of the target.

    For example, if you are in the /test directory and suffer the structure shown in the following, you might assume that issuing a cp –r dir1 dir2 would overwrite dir2, or at least prompt you to behold whether you wanted to:

    $ tree . |-- dir1 | |-- file1 | `-- subdir1 `-- dir2

    When you issue the cp –r dir1 dir2 command, the filesystem (along with the cp command) notices the existing dir2 entry and automatically drops the source directory into dir2 as a subdirectory, dote this:

    |-- dir1 | |-- file1 | `-- subdir1 `-- dir2 `-- dir1 |-- file1 `-- subdir1 keytopic.jpg

    The redress way to copy the contents of dir1 into dir2, thereby mirroring dir1 exactly, is to focus on the word “contents.” By suffixing the source (dir1) with a forward slash and an asterisk (dir1/*), you uncover the cp command to ignore the directory entry and focus on the filenames inside the directory.

    With the very initial setup, if you issue the command cp –r dir1/* dir2, you derive the redress results:

    $ tree . |-- dir1 | |-- file1 | `-- subdir1 `-- dir2 |-- file1 `-- subdir1

    The inability to properly copy a directory or its contents will forward back to haunt you on the exam. In addition, if you behold a source directory with only a trailing forward slash (dir1/) but no asterisk, it’s identical to using (dir1). In other words, to copy just the contents of a directory, you suffer to address them specifically with the forward slash and asterisk (dir1/*).

    Two special characters used in relative directory naming are often used when copying files. The current directory is represented by a solitary period (.) and the parent directory by two periods (..).

    For example, if you are currently in the /home/rossb directory and want to copy a set of files from the /home/lukec directory, you can avoid typing the plenary path of the current directory with the (.) character. Both of these commands accomplish the very action:

    cp /home/lukec/*.mp3 . cp /home/lukec/*.mp3 /home/rossb Moving Objects

    Where the cp command copies a file by creating a unique file, inode, and data, the mv command simply changes which directory file contains the file or directory entry or alters the entry in the file if it stays in the very directory. By changing just the metadata that points to the file, lamentable a file on the very device is quick. If the file saunter happens across two devices, the file is copied to the unique device and deleted from the outmoded one.

    Create a file named file1; then sprint the stat command on it to check the details, as shown in instance 5-2.

    Example 5-2 Running the stat Command on file1 $ paw file1 $ stat file1 File: `file1' Size: 0 Blocks: 0 IO Block: 4096 regular empty file Device: fd00h/64768d Inode: 2261179 Links: 1 Access: (0664/-rw-rw-r--) Uid: (500/sean) Gid: (500/sean) Access: 2015-02-03 21:47:46.000000000 -0600 Modify: 2015-02-03 21:47:46.000000000 -0600 Change: 2015-02-03 21:47:46.000000000 -0600 Birth: -

    Now saunter the file to a unique appellation with the mv command, as shown in instance 5-3.

    Example 5-3 lamentable Files to a unique Name $ mv file1 file2 $ stat file2 File: `file2' Size: 0 Blocks: 0 IO Block: 4096 regular empty file Device: fd00h/64768d Inode: 2261179 Links: 1 Access: (0664/-rw-rw-r--) Uid: (500/sean) Gid: (500/sean) Access: 2015-02-03 21:47:46.000000000 -0600 Modify: 2015-02-03 21:47:46.000000000 -0600 Change: 2015-02-03 21:48:41.000000000 -0600 Birth: -

    Because the device and inode stayed the very you know this is the very file as before. The change time was modified to reflect the fact that the file was renamed.

    When you saunter a file, the mv command overwrites the destination if it exists. This command supports an option, -i, that first checks the target to behold whether it exists. If it does, mv asks whether you want to overwrite the target. Some distributions obtain -i a default option with a shell alias. Chapter 11, “Customizing Shell Environments,” discusses shell aliases in more detail.

    Another quirk of the command is the lack of an -r, or recursive, option. This is because when you saunter a directory or a file you’re just changing the directory entry for the file. The directory continues to point to the very files so there is no exigency to saunter the files themselves.

    You can avoid the overwriting of newer target files or directories with the -u option, preserving the latest copy of an object.

    Examples of lamentable files and directories involve lamentable a solitary directory to another directory name, as shown here:

    mv -f dir1 dir2

    This merely changes the directory entry dir1 to the unique appellation dir2. It likewise removes the “are-you-sure” prompt with the -f option.

    Just dote the cp command, lamentable directory contents requires a correctly formed command; otherwise, you’ll saunter a directory not to the unique name, but to a subdirectory of the existing directory.

    For example, reckon the /test directory again, with its structure similar to the following:

    $ tree . |-- dir1 | |-- file1 | `-- subdir1 `-- dir2

    If you were a Windows administrator, it would obtain sense to sprint the following command to saunter dir1 to dir2:

    mv dir1 dir2

    If you carry out this on a Linux system and then sprint the tree command, you behold the following output:

    $ tree . `-- dir2 `-- dir1 |-- file1 `-- subdir1

    This moves dir1 under dir2 because dir2 already existed. To properly saunter the contents of the source dir1 to the target dir2, you don’t exigency to exhaust the nonexistent -r option (exam trick). You can just exhaust a forward slash and an asterisk to refer to the files underneath dir1, dote this:

    mv dir1/* dir2

    If you sprint the tree command, you behold the following output:

    $ tree . |-- dir1 `-- dir2 |-- file1 `-- subdir1

    Finally, the directories you pass to the mv command don’t always suffer to subsist underneath your current directory. You can exhaust absolute pathnames, such as mv /dir1 . to saunter dir1, which is off the root directory into the current directory. You can likewise sprint mv /dir1 /tmp from anywhere in the system to saunter that very directory into the temporary directory.

    Transforming Data Formats

    The dd command is useful for a variety of tasks, not the least of which is creating backup images, called ISO files, of CD or DVDs. The two main formats dd interacts with are the raw device file and the plenary path of a file or expostulate on the system.

    For example, when creating a unique boot disk, the .img binary file is read shroud by shroud from the CD-ROM (as a file) and written to a USB disk raw device as a set of blocks:

    dd if=/mnt/cdrom/images/boot.img of=/dev/sdb

    Creating an image of a CD-ROM involves reading the raw USB device shroud by shroud and creating a file on the filesystem that contains indecorous those blocks:

    dd if=/dev/sdb of=/root/usb.img

    To duplicate a USB device named sdb to another USB device named sdc, the command is

    dd if=/dev/sdc of=/dev/sdc

    The if keyword means input file and the of keyword means output file. The exact order is unimportant, but as you can imagine, mixing up the in and out files can reason you to carry out terrible things such as overwriting parts of your difficult drive!

    dd, unlike most other Unix utilities, does not exhaust dashes for its options. Options are specified in the format of option=value.

    The dd command is likewise often used to duplicate a drive or partition of a drive to another dote object.

    For example, to copy the first partition from the /dev/sda disk to the very location on the second difficult drive on the system, you would exhaust the following command:

    dd if=/dev/sda1 of=/dev/sdb1

    You can likewise copy an entire disk device to another on the system by leaving off the partition numbers:

    dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb

    This works only if the second device is as great as or larger than the first; otherwise, you derive truncated and worthless partitions on the second one.

    Backing up the MBR is another trick that dd does well. recall that the master boot record contains the indexes of indecorous the partitions on that drive, and thus is very important. To create a disk file that contains only the first 512 bytes of the first difficult drive in the system, exhaust this command:

    dd if=/dev/sda of=/root/MBR.img count=1 bs=512

    The weigh keyword sets the number of reads from the input file you want to retrieve, and the bs keyword sets the shroud size.

    If you don’t set the weigh and shroud size on this command to back up the MBR, you’ll subsist copying the entire device’s blocks to the filesystem—a snake-eating-its-own-tail operation that is guaranteed to fill up the partition quickly and crash the system.

    The restoration procedure is just the opposite:

    dd if=/root/MBR.img of=/dev/sda count=1 bs=512 Creating and Removing Directories

    A basic task of file management is to subsist able to create and remove directories, sometimes creating or removing whole trees at once. To create a directory named dir1, you exhaust mkdir dir1. To create a directory named subdir1 in the dir1 directory, you exhaust mkdir dir1/subdir1.

    Always deem of the ultimate segment of any directory path as the expostulate being created or removed, and deem of the comfort as supporting or parent objects. The mkdir and rmdir commands are similar in features and options, including the capability of mkdir to create a profound subdirectory tree from scratch in a solitary command:

    mkdir –p /dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4

    One of the quirks about the rmdir command is that it cannot remove anything but an barren directory. For example, the ultimate directory of the chain /dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4 is the true target for this command, and only if that directory is barren (no regular or directory files) can it subsist removed.

    rmdir –p /dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4

    One option to the rmdir command does allow it to remove directories that suffer files and so on in them. It’s called --ignore-fail-on-non-empty and is the longest option I know of in Linux. I’d rather type rm –rf targetdir 20 times than this beast.

    Removing Objects

    It follows that you’ll want to remove objects after creating or copying them, and this is done with the rm command for most objects. rmdir can likewise subsist used.

    Deleting files with the rm command is a matter of choosing the target to subsist removed and the options that toil best.

    If you want to remove a particular file and never subsist prompted by confirmation messages, the command is rm –f target.

    To remove a directory and indecorous its contents, and never derive a confirmation message, the command is rm –rf /full/path/to/target.

    Where Are Those Files?

    Having a mechanism for finding or locating files on a Linux system is essential because the sheer amount of directories and files makes searching manually nearly impossible.

    There are two methods for accomplishing this task—quick and filthy or late and methodical. Most people try the quick locate command before resorting to the plodding find command.

    Locating Files with Locate

    The quickest way to find a file or set of files is to exhaust the locate command. It’s fast, database-driven, and secure. When you sprint the locate command you are searching a database instead of the filesystem, and only files that you suffer access to are shown. The downside of the database is that it’s updated nightly and is therefore unaware of any changes that suffer happened since the ultimate update.

    locate has a quirky way of showing results. You would probably expect that using locate for a file named readme would locate only files named readme, but that’s not quite true. It finds anything that has a filename of readme, including regular files and any partake of the path.

    For example, while attempting to locate the readme file, you sprint the following command:

    locate readme

    This finds both of the following entries, one with the string readme as a partake of the filename and the other a directory:

    /readme /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-8/drivers/net/wan/8253x/readme.txt keytopic.jpg

    Use the locate command to find items you know are on the disk, or that you know existed before the ultimate locate database update. The database that locate uses is updated nightly when the system runs its maintenance routines, or on demand. If you don’t suffer permissions to the object, it isn’t shown in the locate output.

    Use locate with the -i option to ignore the case (upper or lower) and recrudesce anything that matches your search string using a case-insensitive match:

    locate -i string

    The locate database needs to subsist updated regularly to ensure ample results. Your distribution probably puts it in the list of nightly jobs to subsist run. For more details on the nightly jobs, behold Chapter 16, “Schedule and Automate Tasks.” Updating the database can grasp a long time, and it is frustrating having to wait for the updates to finish when you exigency to search.

    The update commands must subsist sprint as root, and either one will carry out the job:

    updatedb

    Sometimes you want to exclude files or directories from the locate database because they either are inappropriate or simply grasp too long to index without any apparent benefit. This is configurable in the /etc/updatedb.conf file. This file is read and the variables are used by the updating commands.

    The two main methods of excluding objects in the configuration file are either by filesystem type or path. The following output is an instance of a working /etc/updatedb.conf file:

    PRUNEFS="devpts NFS nfs afs sfs proc smbfs autofs auto iso9660" PRUNEPATHS="/tmp /usr/tmp /var/tmp /afs /net /sfs" export PRUNEFS export PRUNEPATHS

    The PRUNEFS keyword is for filesystem types you want excluded from the locate database update; as you might expect, the PRUNEPATHS keyword is for directory trees you want excluded. Notice that most of the paths are temporary data locations or exotic file locations.

    keytopic.jpg

    Remember for the exam that locate returns results for the search string in any portion of the path or filename it finds the string in. There will subsist questions that locate is privilege for, and some that really want the whereis command.

    Finding Files

    The find command is the most accurate but time-consuming method for searching the system for file objects because it crawls the list of files in true time versus the locate indexed database. The command consists of several (sometimes confusing) sections. But, if it’s learned properly, it can subsist a powerhouse for the industrious sysadmin.

    The structure of a find command is

    find startpath –options arguments

    To obtain sense of this jumble of sections, let’s grasp a contemplate at a useful find command and match up the sections:

    # find /home –iname *.mp3 /home/snuffy/g3 – red house.mp3

    The previous command sets the start path to the /home directory and then looks for any instance of the string mp3 as a file extension, or after the ultimate . in the filename. It finds a file in the user snuffy’s home directory and returns the plenary path for that file.

    Options for find include

  • group—Based on files belonging to the specified group
  • newer—Based on files more recent than the specified file
  • name—Based on files with names matching a case-sensitive string
  • iname—Based on files with names matching a non-case-sensitive string
  • user—Searches for files belonging to the specified user
  • mtime—The modify time; used for finding files x days old
  • atime—Based on the number of days since ultimate accessed
  • ctime—Based on the number of days since the directory entry was ultimate changed
  • A useful feature of the find command is its capability to execute another command or script on each and every entry normally returned to standard output.

    For example, to find indecorous MP3 files in the user’s home directories and archive a copy into the root user’s home directory, you could exhaust this command:

    find /home –iname *.mp3 –exec cp –f {} .\;

    This command uses the -exec option, which accepts every line returned to standard output one by one and inserts the plenary path and filename between the curly brackets ({}). When each line of output is parsed and the command is executed, it reaches the \; at the discontinue of the line and goes back to standard input for the next line. The ultimate line of output is the ultimate one with a command executed on it; it doesn’t just withhold going and error out.

    Running multiple operators in a solitary command is possible, too. Just subsist confident not to derive the values for one operator mixed up in the next. You could contemplate for indecorous MP3 files owned by a given user with the following command:

    find /home –iname *.mp3 –user snuffy /home/snuffy/bls – indecorous for you.mp3

    The find command is complex, and rather than bore you with more possible options, I’ve worked out a number of examples of how to exhaust find:

    keytopic.jpg

    To find a file and execute cat on it, use

    find /etc –iname fstab –exec cat {} \;

    To delete indecorous core files older than seven days, exhaust the following:

    find /home -mtime +7 -iname core -exec rm -f {} \;

    To find indecorous files on the system owned by bob and change the ownership to root, use

    find / -user bob –exec chown root {} \;

    To find indecorous files by user tjordan and change his group, exhaust this command:

    find /data -user tjordan -exec chGRP users {} \;

    For safety you can exhaust -ok instead of -exec to subsist prompted for confirmation each time the command runs.

    find /data -user tjordan -ok chgrp users {} \;

    To find indecorous inodes related to a difficult link, exhaust the command find / -inum 123456.

    The find command’s operators and the capability to execute commands on the search results will subsist covered on the exam. practice indecorous the examples you behold here and derive inventive with the possibilities. Particularly watch out for the exhaust of -mtime and its cousins: -atime and -ctime.

    Which Command Will Run?

    With the plethora of commands and executable scripts offered on a Linux machine, you exigency to know which of the possible commands will sprint when you type the appellation of it on the command line. This indecorous depends on the contents of the PATH variable. This variable’s contents are used as a sequentially read set of locations to search for executable objects.

    The which command is used to determine the plenary path of commands that are queried from the PATH variable. To determine which command is indeed executed just by typing the name, sprint the following command:

    which ls alias ls='ls --color=tty' /bin/ls

    As you can see, two entries were institute that hold the ls command. The first is an alias, one that sets some color functions to the ls command; the other is the true command binary in /bin/ls.

    When you execute a command, it finds the first available match, which might not subsist the one you wanted, as is the case with the ls command. To obtain it execute a physical binary and ignore any aliases that suffer been set, preface the command with a backslash (\), dote so:

    \ls

    Try it again on a command that has two executables on the system, the gawk command:

    which gawk /bin/gawk

    This returns a solitary entry, but there are multiple gawk commands on a Linux box. The first matching command institute is returned by default, and only if you exhaust the proper switch does it find indecorous possibilities:

    which -a gawk /bin/gawk /usr/bin/gawk Researching a Command

    When you exigency more information about a command than just which one will execute, try whereis. This command shows up to three possible bits of information, including its binary files, the man page path, and any source files that exist for it. Here’s its syntax:

    $ whereis ls ls: /bin/ls /usr/man/man1/ls.1.gz

    Options for whereis include

  • -b—Searches for binaries
  • -m—Searches for manual entries
  • -s—Searches for sources
  • -u—Finds unusual or improperly documented entries
  • keytopic.jpg

    To find a file by appellation but not derive indecorous the entries that hold the appellation in the path, exhaust the whereis command—not the locate command—because it finds the string in indecorous elements of the path.

    In Chapter 11, Customizing Shell Environments, you will learn how to extend the shell to obtain common tasks even easier. The type command will uncover you if a command has been extended. To check what happens when you type ps:

    $ type ps ps is /bin/ps

    The output of the type command above indicates that the /bin/ps application will subsist sprint if you type ps.

    The ls command is often extended to parade common options, such as to add color to the output:

    $ type ls ls is aliased to `ls --color=auto'

    The output above shows that when you sprint ls, you actually derive ls --color=auto. You can behold indecorous the possible variants of ls by using type’s -a option:

    $ type -a ls ls is aliased to `ls --color=auto' ls is /bin/ls

    The -a option shows that the shell knows about both an alias and a file on disk.

    Linking Files

    Links forward in two varieties: symbolic and hard. (Symbolic links are often known as soft links.) Each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Sysadmins exhaust links for a host of purposes; chief among them is the exigency to obtain shortcuts on the system for users to access data without having to navigate multiple directory levels.

    If you suffer users on your Linux systems, you exigency to suffer a solitary mount point accessible to multiple users. The options involve having users navigate to the /mnt/somemount directory to reclaim data or putting a link to that mount point in their home directories. You’re much better off using a link for this task.

    Symbolic Links

    Symbolic links are used primarily to obtain a shortcut from one expostulate to another. A symbolic link creates a tiny file with its own inode and a path to the linked file. Symlinks can span across filesystems and drives, primarily because a symlink has its own inode. figure 5-1 shows the relationship between a symlink and the target file.

    For example, you might mount an external disk on the /mnt/projdata mount point and want each user to subsist able to access that remote partake from her own home directory. You simply suffer to issue the following command in each user’s home directory to accomplish this:

    ln –s /mnt/projdata projdata ls –l projdata lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 Jan 26 12:09 projdata -> /mnt/ projdata

    Notice that the listing for the unique symlink shows exactly where the link points, and the permissions are set to the maximum so as to not meddle with the permissions on the target object.

    Symbolic links always contemplate dote they suffer the very permissions, but don’t try to change them. Changing permissions on a symlink changes the permissions on the target permissions instead.

    Hard Links

    A difficult link is normally used to obtain a file loom in another place. A difficult link is simply an additional appellation in a directory that points to the exact very inode and shares every aspect of the original file except the actual appellation (although the filename could subsist identical if in a different directory). figure 5-2 shows the relationship between a difficult link and the target file.

    Figure 5-2

    Figure 5-2 difficult link detail

    For an instance of using a difficult link, reckon the exigency to ensure that a frequently deleted file is easily restorable for a given user. The user, Jaime, travels a lot, but when he’s in the office he seems to delete things a lot or claims the system has eaten his files. When Jaime is flying, you don’t suffer any issues, so the problem must subsist the user’s actions.

    To anchor or back up an valuable file such as the company contact list in Jaime’s home directory, you first must create a backup directory, something dote /backup.

    Then, you create a difficult link from Jaime’s ccontactlist.txt file to a file in the /backup directory, dote so:

    cd ~jaime ln ccontactlist.txt /backup/home_jaime_ccontactlist.txt ls –l ccontactlist.txt -rw-r--r-- 2 jaime users 0 Jan 26 13:08 ccontactlist.txt

    Notice that the file appears normal, but the number 2 for the link weigh lets you know that another appellation entry for this file exists somewhere.

    Also notice that the listing for the unique difficult link doesn’t parade the target file or look to refer to it in any way. Running the stat command on this file won’t parade you the other filename or look to subsist aware of it outside the higher link count.

    keytopic.jpg

    The appellation and location of a file are the only things about the file not stored in the inode. This appears on the exam in questions for this set of objectives.

    Hard links can’t subsist created if the target is on another filesystem, disk, or remote object. The exigency to associate multiple names to the very inode makes this impossible.

    Be heedful when changing the permissions and ownership on the hard-linked files because indecorous appellation entries point to exactly the very inode. Thus, any changes are instantly made to what would loom to subsist multiple files but what, in reality, are only filenames.

    To delete a file that has multiple difficult links requires the removal of every difficult link or the multiple names. To find indecorous the links for a file, sprint the following command:

    ls –i ccontactlist.txt 17392 ccontactlist.txt find / -inum 17392 /home/jaime/ccontactlist.txt /backup/home_jaime_ccontactlist.txt keytopic.jpg Backup Commands

    As an administrator you often are called upon to deal with file archives, which are one or more files that suffer been packaged into one file and optionally compressed.

    There are several uses for archives:

  • You want to send a few files to someone or copy them to another server and want to package and compress them.
  • You exigency to back up a partition to other media in case a disk fails or the file is otherwise lost.
  • You want to obtain a temporary copy of something before you obtain a change so you can restore it quickly if needed.
  • You exigency to withhold files around but in compressed format, such as for archiving outmoded logs.
  • A number of backup options are available for Linux systems. Some are more useful than others, and some act on files, whereas others toil best on partitions or disks as a unit.

    Backup commands on the exams involve the following:

  • cpio
  • tar
  • gzip and gunzip
  • bzip2 and bunzip2
  • xz
  • Using tar

    The tar command is the workhorse of the archival world. The appellation comes from the term tape archive and goes back to the time when most backup was done to a local tape drive. You can deem of tar as a pipeline that takes in a train of files and outputs a solitary file that is meant to subsist streamed to tape, but this output could subsist sent to a file on disk as well.

    On the way through the pipeline you can carry out some transformations on the files such as chop up the output onto something that fits across multiple tapes, exclude files that weren’t recently changed, or rewrite the directory names stored in the archive.

    tar likewise provides the extraction options. You grasp a .tar file, likewise called a tarball, and sprint it through tar to derive back a copy of the original files. It is possible to extract only confident files and exploit the filenames.

    The tar command likewise can exhaust various compression commands, particularly the gzip/gunzip and bzip2/bunzip2 commands by the exhaust of special option characters. This has the result of creating a compressed archive file, typically named .tar.gz for gzip-compressed files and .tar.bz2 for bzip2-compressed files.

    tar commands suffer an unusual syntax. The command is tar, followed by a dash (-), and then indecorous the options concatenated together such as xvjf. After this is a list of zero or more filenames; the meanings depend on the options you chose.

    keytopic.jpg

    The tar command has three main methods that act on files or tar archives; each has a corresponding letter that must subsist the first letter in the list of options:

  • c—Creates an archive
  • t—Tells you the contents of an archive
  • x—Extracts files from an archive
  • The comfort of the command can subsist optional, but some typical options are

  • v—Be verbose by giving a list of files as they are processed.
  • j or z—Compress or decompress with bzip2 or gzip, respectively.
  • f—The next word is the appellation of the file to operate on.
  • Figure 5-3 shows your choices graphically. They contemplate at examples of each.

    When you’re creating an archive with tar, you should deem about what you want to archive, where you want the resulting archive to subsist created, and what compression if any you want to use.

    keytopic.jpg

    To create a simple tar archive, the options you exigency are as follows:

    tar -cf archive.tar /foo

    In this example, the -c option signals tar to create the file specified after the -f option and specifies the directory you are archiving, which is the /foo directory. Note that you suffer to add the .tar suffix. By default the operation is recursive.

    To create the very archive with gzip compression, you simply insert a -z option and exhaust the letters .gz as the filename suffix:

    tar -czf archive.tar.gz /foo

    This creates a compressed archive file that uses the gzip compression algorithms. If you want slightly higher compression, exhaust the -j option (instead of the -z option) for bzip2 compression and create your archive with a suffix of .bz or.bz2.

    keytopic.jpg

    You will likely behold questions on the exam that test your learning of which compression command has the highest compression. For example, using bzip2 generally results in a smaller archive file at the expense of more CPU cycles to compress and uncompress. The gzip package is almost always partake of the default installation of Linux while bzip2 may not be.

    To create a tar archive and behold the filenames as they are processed exhaust the -v option:

    tar -cvf archive.tar /foo

    This produces the following output:

    tar: Removing leading `/' from member names foo/ foo/install.log foo/install.log.syslog foo/.bash_logout

    If given an absolute directory appellation to archive, tar strips the leading / from the plenary path of the objects in the archive. It would not subsist ample if you could overwrite files in your /usr directory by extracting a file in an unrelated directory!

    You may pass more than one directory or file to tar. For example, tar –cf foo.tar bin var creates an archive called foo.tar containing both the bin and var directories.

    Taking compassion on the Unarchiver

    It’s considered proper and elegant to create tar archives by specifying a directory that contains the files to subsist archived, not just a bunch of files that are in the current directory. This means that when the files are untarred they parade up in a solitary directory instead of in the current directory.

    For example, create an archive of the /etc directory contents with the following command:

    tar -cf etc.tar /etc

    When you unarchive the tar file, by default it creates an etc directory in the current directory, which contains the entirety of the /etc directory you archived.

    Contrast this with the nightmare that happens when you navigate to the /etc directory and create the archive from there with this command:

    tar -cf /root/badetc.tar *

    This archive file contains the very files as the previous one, except they aren’t contained in a top-level etc directory—everything is in the top flat of the archive.

    Imagine what will occur to your system when you unarchive this file in the root user’s home directory. You will suffer spewed approximately 2,400 files directly into the root user’s home directory!

    It really does matter where you are in the filesystem and which path options you exhaust when you create or expand an archive file. It’s best practice to exhaust absolute pathnames.

    To decipher the problem of 2,400 files polluting your root user’s home directory, exhaust the following command, where badetc.tar is the offending archive file:

    tar -tf badetc.tar | xargs rm -rf

    This command produces a list of the paths and filenames of files in the archive and uses the xargs command to feed each line of output as a filename specification to the rm -rf command, removing indecorous the files and directories expanded from the badetc.tar file.

    Useful Creation Options

    A number of other options can subsist used for creating tar archives. Here is a list of the more useful and testable ones:

  • -b—Sets the shroud size to appropriate the media to which you are archiving. This is necessary for some tape devices.
  • -M—This specifies multiple archive targets or spreads a great archive across multiple tapes or media.
  • -g—Creates a unique format incremental backup (only those that suffer changed since the ultimate plenary or incremental).
  • -l—Stays on the local filesystem; it’s used to withhold from backing up the entire NFS network by accident.
  • -L—This is followed by a number that reflects 1024 bytes, so -L 500 equals 500KB. (It’s used for setting the tape length so multiple tapes can subsist used for an archive.)
  • --remove-files—This is unsafe because the specified files are removed from the filesystem after they suffer been added to the archive!
  • Listing Archive Files

    An underrated option, listing is something that typically is used after you don’t derive the results you want or realize what you’ve just done and want to verify how difficult it is going to subsist to clean up.

    To uncover you the contents of a tar archive, exhaust the following command:

    tar -tf archive.tar

    This produces the output shown here:

    etc/ etc/sysconfig/ etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifup-aliases etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-lo

    To list an archive that uses compression, simply insert the necessary letter between the -t and the -f options, such as the bzip2 -j option shown here:

    tar -tjf archive.tar.bz2

    This produces the following output:

    etc/ etc/sysconfig/ etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifup-aliases etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-lo

    To list an archive and behold the file details for its contents, you add the -v option to the existing command to behold an output of the details:

    tar -tvjf archive.tar.bz2

    This returns output similar to the following:

    drwxr-xr-x root/root 0 2015-02-10 03:46 etc/ drwxr-xr-x root/root 0 2015-01-31 10:09 etc/sysconfig/ drwxr-xr-x root/root 0 2014-11-10 22:13 etc/sysconfig/network- scripts/ keytopic.jpg

    When you create an archive with the -v option, a list of the files being archived is shown onscreen. When you unarchive an archive with the -v option, it shows a similar list of the files being unarchived.

    It’s only when you list an archive with the -v option that you derive the type of output that approximates an ls -l command being sprint on the archive contents. This is an exam topic, so subsist ready for it.

    Using cpio

    The cpio command appears extensively in the flat 2 LPI objectives. This flat of the exam might quiz you about the cpio command at only the simplest levels, such as knowing that it exists, how it works in common terms, and whether it can subsist used to back up a Linux system.

    The cpio command actions indecorous treat the filesystem as the home base. If you are copying out, it’s from the filesystem out to another file. The very is privilege with copying in—it’s from a file into the filesystem.

    The cpio command has three options for acting on files and filesystems:

  • -o or --create—This copies files to an archive using a list of files typically created by the find command.
  • -i or --extract—This copies files into the filesystem from an archive or a list of the archive contents.
  • -p or --pass-through—This copies files from one directory tree to another without the exhaust of an archive, essentially performing the very office as the cp -r command.
  • keytopic.jpg

    The cpio command accepts a list of files in a one-file-per-line format and uses this list to send the archived files to either the standard output or an archive file you specify.

    cpio supports a variety of archive formats, including binary, ASCII, crc, and tar, to appellation the most relevant.

    An instance of creating a cpio archive from the files in the current directory is shown here:

    find . "*" | cpio -o > archive.cpio

    This outputs the list of files institute by this particular find command, with the cpio command taking the entirety of the files and sending them to the archive.cpio file by redirecting standard output to the file.

    The cpio command doesn’t accept a list of files to archive on the command line dote the other utilities you’ve seen so far. Instead, it reads the names of the files from the standard input or console. So subsist aware that using either the find or ls command is necessary to feed cpio a list of filenames.

    For example, if you needed to archive indecorous the files that suffer an extension of .txt in the current directory to a cpio archive named txt.cpio, you would exhaust the following command:

    ls *.txt | cpio -o > txt.cpio

    Notice that you’re redirecting the output of cpio to a file rather than letting it write the file itself. Therefore the filename is up to you, and if you want a cpio file extension, you exigency to add it yourself.

    Compression Utilities

    Whereas the tar command is used to congregate files and situation them in a container, the gzip, and bzip2 commands are used to compress that container. Used by themselves, they act on each file they find and supplant that file with a compressed version that has an extension that indicates the file is compressed.

    The gzip and bzip2 compression utilities compress files and are similar in their functions and operations. The main incompatibility is that bzip2 offers slightly better compression than gzip, but gzip is much more widely used.

    These commands supplant the original file with a unique file that has an additional extension, so don’t delete the .gz or .bz2 files that you create. They are the original files in a compressed wrapper!

    To compress indecorous the files in the current directory with gzip or bzip2, exhaust this command:

    gzip *

    This replaces indecorous the regular files (not the directories or their contents) in the current directory with the original filenames plus a .gz extension. So, if you had two files named file1 and file2 in the directory, they would subsist replaced with

    file1.gz file2.gz

    To uncompress these files, just carry out the exact contradictory of the compression:

    gunzip *

    This restores the original files.

    Using bzip2 produces the very sort of results. You can issue the following command in the very directory:

    bzip2 *

    You would then suffer the following two files:

    file1.bz2 file2.bz2

    To uncompress these files, issue this command:

    bunzip2 *

    This restores the files to their original states.

    xz is a third option for compressing files just dote bzip2 and gzip. It is newer, and in some cases has better performance than bzip2 at a cost of more memory. Files are compressed with one of xz, xz -z, or xz --compress, and decompressed with one of unxz, xz -d, xz --uncompress, or xz --decompress.

    The .xz file extension indicates that a file was compressed with xz. To uncompress foo.xz you would sprint xz -d foo.xz, and would subsist left with an uncompressed file called foo.

    Watch for questions that quiz about why you would exhaust either gzip or bzip2 for a particular compression task. bzip2 offers slightly better compression at the expense of increased CPU cycles. gzip2 is faster but doesn’t compress as well. gzip2 likewise has a recursive option (-r) that compresses indecorous files in a directory.

    Summary

    In this chapter you learned about the Linux File System Hierarchy standard (FHS) and what it means for laying out partitions. You likewise learned how to find files in true time with the find command, and through a database lookup with the locate command. This chapter likewise covered the cp, mv, and paw commands for copying, moving, and updating files, along with the proper exhaust of file globs for matching files on the command line.

    Finally you learned about the various archival and compression utilities that Linux makes available to you.


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    Free online Linux courses, whether affiliated with universities or not, are generally intended for self study and aren't offered for academic credit. Some material is offered through schools' OpenCourseWare (OCW) projects. Most Linux course materials involve PDF, video and screenshots. Though content is usually directed toward first time users of Linux systems, IBM and the University of California at Davis' offerings cater to intermediate users. Students may exigency to suffer access to their own computers running Linux in order to complete some lessons.

    Novell
  • Back to Basics: Linux Fundamentals is geared towards individuals interested in learning Linux fundamentals through self-directed study. This course focuses on functions such as restarting and shutting down the Open Enterprise Server, logging in and out and managing the Linux desktop. Students can access a cheat sheet with the most common command terms used in Linux.
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  • Norman Matloff's Unix and Linux Tutorial heart aims to equip novice and intermediate students with a great variety of UNIX and Linux information. PDF files cover beginner to intermediate levels, including the definition and application of shells, as well as how to create, view and modify files and directories. Tutorials involve text editors and C programming. The site likewise has useful links to other software tutorials for related programs such as Java and Perl.
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