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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test cognomen : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 2
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 72 actual Questions

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IBM IBM demur Oriented Analysis

Analyst solid Positions IBM in Leaders Quadrant of Magic Quadrant record | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: IBM

July 12, 2006 08:00 ET

SOMERS, ny -- (MARKET WIRE) -- July 12, 2006 -- IBM today announced that Gartner, Inc. has located IBM in the leaders quadrant in its Magic Quadrant document of the article Oriented evaluation and Design apparatus space. in response to the report*, Gartner estimates that IBM has greater than 50 p.c of the market participate versus its two nearest competitors who mixed grasp 30 % or greater of the market.

model-driven development helps utility construction teams understand, doc and communicate the company system of application and systems construction to clarify structure resilience previous to making plenary scale development investments, and to define a carrier oriented architecture roadmap leading to enterprise transformation.

IBM's leadership within the demur Oriented analysis and Design (OOA&D) tools market for 2H06-2H07 is the influence of a comprehensive portfolio of offerings which abet groups consume fashions or patterns to power their software development, including:

-- IBM Rational application Modeler, IBM Rational application Architect, and IBM Rational systems Developer -- IBM's award-winning mannequin-driven development tools, according to Eclipse, to assist construction groups create powerful applications; -- endured aid of Microsoft environments via IBM Rational Rose demonstrates IBM's commitment to presenting a utility development platform that goals a wide range of implementation technologies; -- IBM WebSphere company Modeler -- the outcomes of IBM's acquisition of Holosofx -- supports company mode analysis to shut the gap between an company's traces of company and their development organization's understanding of the company drivers; -- IBM Rational statistics Architect -- an commerce information modeling and database design tool that additionally helps clients map facts belongings to each and every different to more with ease create database and integration schemas. "Gartner's evaluation of the OOA&D positions IBM in the leaders quadrant which they deem confirms their approach around mannequin-driven construction," said Danny Sabbah, established supervisor, Rational utility, IBM. "IBM's mannequin-pushed apparatus champion geographically distributed software construction groups to talk their designs and necessities visually, getting rid of the risk of mission failures as a result of mis-conversation resulting from language and cultural boundaries."

Gartner's Magic Quadrant positions providers along two dimensions: completeness of vision, and skill to execute on that imaginative and prescient. For 2006, demur Oriented analysis and Design tools are neatly into mainstream consume attaining 20 percent to 50 p.c of the target viewers: counsel architects, analysts and developers. according to the document, most groups occupy converted to OOA&D methods and tools in live performance with enforcing provider oriented architectures (SOAs), leading to a rapid explosion of this market from 2000-2004.

ultra-modern news builds on IBM's management in assisting customers govern their application and methods building. IBM changed into recently named the worldwide market participate chief within the software pile and venture and portfolio administration application industry according to complete utility profits for 2005 for the fifth consecutive 12 months, in keeping with independent analyst enterprise Gartner Inc. according to the independent document**, IBM became the main market participate supplier in total software income with 25.4 percent market share, greater than double the percentage of its nearest competitor.

For extra advice, consult with http://www.ibm.com/software/rational.

about the Gartner Magic Quadrant

The Magic Quadrant is copyrighted June 1, 2006 by means of Gartner, Inc. and is reused with permission. The Magic Quadrant is a graphical illustration of a marketplace at and for a particular time period. It depicts Gartner's analysis of how positive companies measure against standards for that market, as described with the aid of Gartner. Gartner doesn't recommend any dealer, product or service depicted within the Magic Quadrant, and doesn't pose know-how clients to select only those companies placed in the "Leaders" quadrant. The Magic Quadrant is intended totally as a analysis device, and is not supposed to exist a selected ebook to motion. Gartner disclaims entire warranties, categorical or implied, with recognize to this research, including any warranties of merchantability or health for a selected aim.

* The Gartner Magic Quadrant for demur Oriented evaluation and Design (OOA&D) tools, 2H06-2H07 file changed into authored by means of Michael J. Blechar.

** The Gartner market records record is entitled "Market Share: application pile and project and Portfolio administration, worldwide, 2005" authored with the aid of Laurie Wurster and Fabrizio Biscotti.


What Apple, Inc. gets from its unique iOS partnership with IBM | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

 

Editorial

Apple's newly announced mobile partnership with IBM has been greeted through a few analysts and pundits as being each "not that astronomical a deal," or conversely, the stagy reversal of an extended standing contention. each are wrong, birthright here's why. No astronomical deal?

Piper Jaffray analyst Gene Munster offered probably the most least enthusiastic views on the announcement, noting that Apple already has massive commercial enterprise penetration while postulating that even "if half of the Fortune 500 had been to each and every purchase an incremental 2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads above what they were planning to buy as a result of the IBM deal, it might imply a brace of half a p.c to CY15 profits."

Munster additionally offered a broad interpretation of the "exclusive partnership" both agencies targeted, writing, "we are expecting IBM to ultimately offer similar options on Android over time."

"Robert X. Cringely" in a similar fashion provided a dim view of IBM's company apps and flatly estimated that "iOS cloud features from IBM may not happen," concluding that "neither commerce could exist significantly plagued by the different. it exist simply no longer that massive a deal."

IBM's existing cell company apps and cloud services actually don't seem able to dramatically boosting Apple's iOS income on their personal. but this is not what the corporations introduced. as a substitute, both described "exclusive" plans to toil together to "seriously change commercial enterprise mobility through a unique sort of enterprise apps."

As stated in greater detail beneath, the language both corporations consume in describing their partnership indicates that it is not merely an application to promote just a few agencies an extra thousand iPads. Apple and IBM occupy massive dreams in intellect.

Apple and IBM occupy a lot of background as shut allies

on the identical time, Apple and IBM aren't working together for the first time. We're a very long methods from 1982, when IBM entered the unique microcomputer market that Apple had ignited with the Apple II. Apple in the dawn "welcomed" IBM to the laptop market (under), as a a marvelous deal bigger competitor.

It subsequently portrayed astronomical Blue as a 1984 astronomical Brother in 1984 with its iconic original advert for the Macintosh. It then insulted IBM and its clients even more explicitly in "Lemmings," a 2nd and much more provocative SuperBowl ad that portrayed blindfolded laptop users marching themselves off a cliff.

by means of the late 80s, IBM had lost manage of the workstation to Microsoft on its own, and failed to win it back with its proprietary design for brand spanking unique PS/2 techniques. whereas IBM sold notebooks and drugs that competed in opposition t Apple's PowerBooks and Newton MessagePads in the Nineteen Nineties, entire the way through that decade Apple and IBM in reality aligned to toil together in several fundamental initiatives.

The purpose Alliance between Apple, IBM and Motorola scaled down IBM's energy RISC server chipset into the PowerPC processor that turned into used in Macs starting in 1994 and carrying on with into 2006.

Apple besides collaborated with IBM to improve "Macintosh application features" to host PowerPC Mac software on IBM's AIX Unix workstations, and in parallel shipped IBM's AIX by itself lofty finish Apple community Server in 1996.

In parallel with PowerPC, the Taligent assignment teamed Apple's future plans for "red," a brand unique OS intended to supplant device 7, with IBM's parallel efforts for office OS. It intended to foster a unique OS microkernel able to assisting Macs, OS/2 and Unix, and developed demur oriented frameworks pattered after Steve Jobs' subsequent. Taligent primarily aimed to replica subsequent and hook away Jobs' early supporters (together with IBM, and later HP).

After the Taligent partnership collapsed, Apple decided to purchase subsequent because the basis for its superior unique Mac OS X in its place.

Kaleida Labs turned into a 3rd lofty profile partnership between Apple in IBM in the early Nineties, aimed at making a scuttle platform, scriptable multimedia construction platform. The collaboration effectively raided Apple's QuickTime crew of skill and spent tens of tens of millions of greenbacks earlier than collapsing in failure in 1996. Its role became supplanted by using Macromedia Director, and then by the net, chiefly via plugins relish Java and Flash.

Apple & IBM partnerships in the 2000s

Apple's acquisition of Jobs' next in 1996 additional helped to align the enterprise with IBM as a co-competitor to Microsoft and an ally to Unix and open supply software. In 2005 IBM offered its pc commerce to Lenovo. It increasingly threw its sheperd in the back of Linux, and in 2007 created a fork of OpenOffice that it offered as a Microsoft office competitor named IBM Lotus Symphony.

In 2007, IBM's research assistance features performed a examine that supplied employees with MacBook execs instead of home windows machines. worker remarks mentioned comments including, "this may free us from the windows stranglehold," and "I occupy been a loyal pc stalwart for two+ many years, but after making an attempt Vista, i'm able for a metamorphosis."

The subsequent 12 months, IBM ported its Informix information Server to OS X Server and introduced plans to carry Lotus Notes (IBM's competitor to Microsoft's trade) and the Symphony workplace app suite to Apple's Mac and iOS platforms.

IBM now has a portfolio of dozens of commerce apps for iOS, and changed into actually one of the crucial first App save builders to embrace the platform in 2008 before Apple had even launched its iPhone SDK and App keep.

IBM targets huge information on the astronomical platform

The big information of the unique partnership between Apple and IBM therefore is neither that they are actually working together for the primary time, nor that IBM offers some apps for iOS instruments. What's unique is the evidently emphasized exclusivity of the relationship, and the longer term direction for unique iOS apps, management tools and cloud services.

IBM already gives Android cellphone abet roughly on par with iPhone, and Android pill sheperd it is just about the same as its iPad's. It additionally offers assist for BlackBerry, PlayBook, BB10, home windows mobile, windows RT and even Symbian. IBM's unique apps will completely target iOS youngsters.

That makes sense because IBM may exist promoting and leasing iOS devices, however besides because IBM can now focus on developing indigenous apps for the one platform it is already being greatly used in the enterprise, devoid of spending loads of elements checking out and keeping abet for a wide array of OS models and APIs and a bewildering range of hardware gadgets.

In parallel with the pile of Apple's iOS platform over the last seven years, IBM has moved far from selling office apps (abandoning its OpenOffice / Symphony suite) to as an alternative focus on offering managed cloud infrastructure, consulting and management services, in addition to "huge statistics" evaluation.

IBM's SmartCloud hosts public cloud functions for purchasers (corresponding to Amazon internet capabilities) and additionally presents deepest cloud functions, where IBM sells the consumer servers they then personal and operate. machine can then again exist leased from and/or managed onsite by way of IBM.

The partnership exceptionally outlined, "IBM's massive records and analytics capabilities, with the vigour of more than one hundred,000 IBM industry and locality consultants and utility developers behind it," could exist used to "create apps that can transform specific elements of how businesses and personnel toil the consume of iPhone and iPad."

One style of IBM's astronomical records analytics has regarded over the last two holiday browsing seasons. In 2012, the IBM Digital Analytics Benchmark highlighted (below) that most browsing was being completed on iOS devices--even earlier than the media become manipulated to record that Apple had race out of "innovation" and that Android and Samsung had been "taking over" cell instruments.

the following 12 months, IBM's analytics revealed that the divide had grown even stronger, with Apple's iOS clients now accounting for 5 instances the orders of Android clients. The media's handwringing about Apple entire the way through in 2013 had temporality affected the enterprise's stock expense, however wasn't affecting the outcomes that import within the machine market.

The ability to as it should exist determine these styles of tendencies--devoid of the statistics being contaminated via lack of scholarship or wishful thinking--is severely captious to enterprise clients. That explains why the partnership's announcement described unique apps powered by means of such analytics as "enabling businesses to achieve unique ranges of efficiency, effectiveness and client pride."

As Apple noted, IBM has "centered the realm's deepest portfolio in massive information and Analytics consulting and expertise capabilities in keeping with experiences drawn from greater than forty,000 records and analytics customer engagements. This analytics portfolio spans analysis and construction, options, software and hardware, and includes greater than 15,000 analytics consultants, four,000 analytics patents, 6,000 industry respond commerce partners, and four hundred IBM mathematicians who're assisting consumers consume huge facts to radically change their agencies."

iWork commercial enterprise

Apple has its own iWork apps for minute commerce and training clients, it currently received Microsoft's office cellular apps (at the moment completely) on iPad, and is now working with IBM to enhance "a brand unique sort of 'made-for-enterprise apps' focused on selected industry considerations or opportunities in retail, healthcare, banking, commute and transportation, telecommunications and assurance, among others, for you to become accessible dawn this Fall and into 2015."

in preference to just being some unique App save titles listed by IBM, the companies occupy outlined that IBM should exist selling Apple's iOS as a piece of its personal MobileFirst platform, which will "convey the features required for an end-to-end enterprise skill, from analytics, workflow and cloud storage, to fleet-scale device administration, security and integration."

additionally, "more suitable mobile management contains a personal app catalog, records and transaction security services, and productivity suite for entire IBM MobileFirst for iOS solutions. besides on-premise software options, entire these capabilities can exist obtainable on Bluemix--IBM's pile platform on the IBM Cloud marketplace."IBM is offering the entire issues Apple has never been very first rate at or shown a whole lot pastime in doing itself

That means IBM is offering entire the things Apple hasn't ever been very marvelous at or proven lots pastime in doing itself, from selling consultation and assist functions, to pile and protecting server infrastructure and custom apps for valued clientele. That comprises enhancing AppleCare for enterprise users with "on-web page carrier delivered through IBM."

IBM is additionally offering "equipment deliver, activation and management services for iPhone and iPad, with leasing options." those once again are the sorts of functions that HP and Dell had been historically lots superior than Apple at offering for the laptop trade.

With BYOD, Apple acquired its foot in the door and iOS instruments grew to exist extensively adopted by way of enterprise and govt clients. Partnering with IBM, Apple can toil on turning its cell devices into an enterprise volume play.

Apple, IBM are thinking large

up to now, the market looks to occupy considered Apple and IBM as an glaring risk to BlackBerry, which certainly does occupy plenty left to lose: 72 million subscribers as of the first quarter of 2014. iPhones occupy taken a painful gnaw out of BlackBerry's enterprise earnings, however iPads goal some thing different: ordinary PCs.

This makes Munster's estimates of Apple probably promoting handiest an further '2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads' to half of the Fortune 500 via some unique IBM apps in particular puzzling. Apple sort of certainly plans to aggressively target commerce workstation sales--a considerable market--with its submit-laptop cell devices. Tim cook addresses the iPad's broadly mentioned skills to eclipse laptop sales at every possibility.

"We continue to accept as loyal with that the pill market will surpass the computing device market in dimension inside the next few years and they accept as loyal with that Apple should exist an immense beneficiary of this trend," prepare dinner brought up in the enterprise's April revenue name."We proceed to deem that the pill market will surpass the pc market in dimension in the following few years and they dependence that Apple might exist a major beneficiary of this vogue " - Tim cook

Apple already has no issue promoting fleets of tens of thousands of iPhones and iPads to company, executive and education consumers. it might only need IBM's champion to target the everyday laptop for mass eradication throughout the enterprise, pushed the consume of imaginative, exclusive indigenous apps able to radically altering how groups consume know-how. Apple's description of IBM makes it very limpid it is precisely what each groups purpose to achieve.

On its unique iPad commerce web page, the commerce states "Apple and IBM are working collectively to convey iPhone, iPad, and IBM MobileFirst for iOS apps to firms around the globe. Their unique world partnership will convey a unique class of apps that connect users to astronomical data and analytics birthright on their iOS devices with greater ease and effectivity than ever earlier than. Apple and IBM are redefining the cell commerce by using combining the exponential power of corporate data with the world's most fulfilling mobile expertise."

In its original press release Apple cited, "IBM's 5,000 cellular experts were on the forefront of mobile commercial enterprise innovation. IBM has secured greater than four,300 patents in cellular, convivial and safety, that occupy been included into IBM MobileFirst solutions that allow enterprise shoppers to radically streamline and accelerate cell adoption, abet corporations interact greater individuals and seize unique markets."

moreover, "IBM has made a dozen acquisitions in protection in the past decade, has more than 6,000 security researchers and developers in its 25 security labs international that toil on constructing commercial enterprise-class solutions."

Apple's own mode in acquisitions (in addition to in patents) has commonly centered the speedy implementation of differentiating elements and technologies (such as handle id, the custom silicon in the A7 chip, and contours ranging from Siri to physiognomy awareness to iTunes Radio to App store enhancements).

by way of partnering with IBM, Apple can leverage backyard expertise in protection, convivial and cell deployment with out distracting itself from its core competency in pile hardware, utility and structures.

And now, a warning

looking back, the historical partnerships between Apple and IBM didn't occupy an excellent music record. Taligent and Kaleida were total screw ups, whereas PowerPC didn't sustain with the tempo of the stronger market. IBM Lotus Notes and Symphony did not exactly transform the trade on any platform.

however modern-day Apple and IBM participate limited in ordinary with their customary incarnations within the 1990s. Apple is now no longer handiest very a hit and ecocnomic, however has a digital lock on mobile commerce products, and in specific devices with a complicated indigenous app pile platform (as adverse to BlackBerry's messaging-centric platform developed as an effortless Java VM).

where Microsoft once ruled the commercial enterprise and partnered with a sequence of organizations that shut Apple out, it's now frantically trying to hold the fame quo for windows (whilst its clients reject Microsoft's latest direction) as it flip flops between strategic directions in different markets.

From closing year's "contraptions and features" plan, which above entire did not sell instruments, to its newest nebulous cloud mode that did not in fact articulate a specific approach at all, Microsoft is presently presiding over a stagnant market for celebrated PCs that just about each market research company sees as being overtaken with the aid of pills, and specifically Apple's iPad.

That fact highlights another reality: considering that the iPad's debut in 2010, advertising corporations occupy deliberately framed it as a gap apparatus with out a feasible influence on notebook market, using selected statistics teased into conclusions that always flattered Microsoft even with the facts involved.

With an immense ally in IBM helping to promote its products, Apple will likely physiognomy much less brazenly delusive media insurance denying the now limpid and obvious shift occurring as time-honored PCs are replaced and augmented by greater cell--and plenty less complicated to manage--post computer instruments.


The vow of (pretty much) ‘Serverless Computing’ | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The definition of cloud computing may well exist nebulous, but its vow is apparent. as an alternative of filling a warehouse with servers and paying people to control them, a corporation can pay a cloud computing issuer for computing supplies on require and pay handiest for what it definitely makes consume of.

This prospect lured groups starting from startups to big corporations to stodgy executive companies onto cloud offerings from Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and others. those now smartly-established features may hold corporations from buying and managing physical servers, but they attain not rather deliver on the dream of paying handiest for what you employ.

functions relish Amazon’s EC2 nevertheless require you to choose—and pay for—a positive quantity of computing supplies, together with reminiscence and community ability. that you may dial these components up or down as require to your internet application alterations. however that might quiet ebb away you with much less computing energy than you want for a unexpected or unanticipated spike in traffic, leaving your app less conscious of users. So, many cloud customers comply with pay for more substances than they mechanically want.

Worse, these virtual servers quiet require consumers to attain lots of actual preservation, says Donald F. Ferguson, cofounder and CTO of video-streaming commerce Seeka tv and a professor of computing device science at Columbia college. for example, shoppers need to install safety updates and verify them to exist positive they don't damage latest facets. Ferguson, who spent many years as a software architect for businesses together with Dell and Microsoft and helped create IBM’s application server WebSphere, says this consumes more time than you might consider. "for many projects, they would disburse 20 p.c of their time managing cloud environments," he says.

it truly is why Seeka tv depends on a burgeoning mode to cloud computing that eliminates digital servers. The theory goes by the paradoxical identify of serverless computing. So-referred to as serverless services attain in fact dependence on servers. The change is that users don't maneuver the servers. as a substitute of renting and managing digital servers, easily add the code you need to run, or the records you need to store, and pay for the substances you actually use. For the developer, the server is almost invisible.

Ferguson says about ninety nine percent of Seeka tv's code runs on serverless platforms. That’s reduced the time spent managing the cloud ambiance to almost zero, he says.

It’s not simply startups the usage of serverless. Motorola solutions uses serverless computing for some of its toil with legislation enforcement and public safeguard purchasers, says govt Andrew Sinclair. "Serverless services permit us to disburse extra time on constructing unique facets and less time on provisioning and managing servers," he says.

Cloud management enterprise Cloudability saw a nearly seven-fold enhance in serverless utilization amongst its clients in the remaining quarter of 2017, in comparison with the prior quarter, based on a report the company released past this 12 months. "everybody knows about serverless, and everyone is brooding about the situation to consume it," says Craig Lowery, research director at commerce evaluation enterprise Gartner.

'characteristic as a carrier'

Serverless computing has been around for years, however only recently has it develop into manageable to create complete applications in keeping with it. during the last decade, programmers occupy shifted extra of the code for working purposes from servers to either your mobilephone or your browser. Many builders would opt for not to hold servers for the few things that cannot race on the user’s device, relish facts storage and password authentication. The earliest serverless services, which were designed to wield specific tasks, helped builders outsource these sorts of things. Amazon's storage carrier S3, as an instance, allows you to upload data devoid of caring about how many servers it exist stored on, and pay most effectual for what you employ. Twilio presents a provider that lets developers consume its computing infrastructure to ship textual content messages to clients, with out setting up or configuring selected servers. a newer service called Auth0 handles tasks relish password verification.

the first wave of serverless computing proved common with app developers, but builders quiet needed mediocre servers for lots of their customized code. That modified in 2014 with the launch of "characteristic-as-a-provider" choices relish Hook.io and Amazon Lambda, which permit developers to add minute chunks of their own code, and pay simplest for the computing supplies that code consumes. That made it workable for agencies relish Seeka television to dependence virtually solely on serverless computing.

counting on serverless computing presents challenges. For one, developers must write utility differently than in the event that they planned to race an software on a desktop or common cloud provider. and some capabilities, together with Amazon Lambda limit the size of a code equipment, that means builders of tremendous functions need to divide them into items. That’s complicated for present purposes, so serverless is more consummate for creating unique applications which are built with this sort of modularity in intellect.

efficiency can besides exist an issue for serverless computing. a standard, server-based mostly software usually runs continuous, able to reply any question from a user. but services relish Lambda cease working code that isn't in consume and most effectual load it lower back into reminiscence when it exist obligatory. that may leisurely response time for users. further delays strengthen as distinctive serverless components talk with one one more over a network. Sinclair says Motorola options shies far from serverless computing for purposes that need short responses after lengthy intervals of situation of being inactive.

That potential there'll at entire times exist a market for extra established cloud computing services, says Mango Capital founder Robin Vasan, who has invested both in serverless organizations relish Netlify and businesses that offer apparatus for managing greater common cloud functions. "I judge serverless is the long run, however it's now not the future for everything," he says. "no longer each characteristic should quiet reside in a serverless framework."

Ferguson admits that serverless computing is rarely birthright for each difficulty, however says the kinds of efficiency concerns that Vasan describes are hardly ever an issue for Seeka television. Its code is used commonly satisfactory that Amazon Lambda hardly, if ever, has to near it down.

in the meantime, an ecosystem of tools is emerging to assist with the challenges of serverless computing. Motorola solutions uses a carrier called Twistlock to monitor protection of its serverless code, as an example.

Lowery and Ferguson liken serverless computing these days to "object-oriented programming," which made it less complicated for software builders to reuse code, in the Nineteen Eighties. It took time for builders to study the unique approach, and for the apparatus and other substances to mature. by means of the Nineteen Nineties, notwithstanding, it grew to exist the default, however not exclusive, mode to programming. They feel serverless will comply with an analogous path.

"Any software that may besides exist made serverless, may exist made serverless," Lowery says. "If it may not toil as serverless, then you definately'd study other options."

Ferguson's college students are already there. He quiet teaches students to build utility the consume of strategies other than serverless computing. "nevertheless it looks relish i'm punishing the students," he says. "as a result of serverless is so a lot less demanding."

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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test cognomen : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 2
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 72 actual Questions

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 2

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Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Object-Oriented Analysis & DesignJune 2, 3, 9, 10Worcester situation CollegeTaught by Jan Bergandy, Computer Science, UMass, Dartmouth

Seminar Objectives:

  • To develop an in-depth understanding of object-oriented paradigm
  • To obtain a working scholarship of object-oriented analysis & design techniques
  • To learn object-oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  • To learn about basic design patterns and the role of patterns is software development
  • To understand the repercussion of demur paradigm on software development activities
  • To explore synergy between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming
  • To learn about key demur technologies
  • Who should attend:This workshop is addressed to faculty involved in teaching programming, software design, and other courses related to software development. It is addressed to those who physiognomy a transition to demur technology and want to learn about challenges and benefits of this transition. The workshop does not require any prior scholarship of object-oriented programming or scholarship of demur paradigm. generic computer fluency and generic scholarship of issues associated with software and software development are expected.

    Seminar Organization:The course will exist conducted as a project with instructor giving short presentations pertaining to a specific stage of the analysis and design process. During this course the participants will construct an analysis model for a selected problem. This model will exist refined in to the detailed design level providing an break for discussion about the relationship between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming. Each student will receive a copy of the course materials and the textbook.

    Tools & Platforms:Rational-Rose CASE toolThe CASE tool is used exclusively to expedite the process of model construction. The students disburse no more than half an hour of their time during the entire class on learning how to consume the tool. Not using the CASE toll will execute it almost impossible to suffer hands-on entire the elements of the object-oriented analysis and design process.

    Textbooks:M. Fowler, ÒUML DistilledÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-32563-2 (additional/optional )

    E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides, ÒDesign PatternÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63361-2

    Outline:

    June 2, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00Topics to exist addressed:Object paradigm top-down - analysis & design perspectiveObject paradigm bottom-up - programming perspectiveBasic concepts: abstraction, encapsulation, information hiding, modularityResponsibility view of the requirementsClasses and objects emerging from responsibilitiesComparison of procedural and object-oriented paradigmsClasses and relationships as the pile blocks of software architectureCriteria of class qualityIntroduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)Static & dynamic modelActors and consume casesTransitioning from functional requirements to objects - introduction

    Project:Analysis of the requirements for the selected projectIdentifying actors and consume casesConstructing consume case diagrams

    June 3, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to exist addressed:Transitioning from functional requirements to objectsIdentifying the first group of classesClass specificationClass as an encapsulation of a responsibilityClass, Utility Class, Parameterized Class and its instantiationClass diagram - introductionIdentifying relationships between classesAssociation relationshipsAssociation classesRepresenting relationships with cardinalityAggregation versus compositionRepresenting aggregation and composition relationshipsRepresenting generalization/ specialization (inheritance)PolymorphismAbstract classes and interfacesSpecification of relationshipsImplementing classes & relationships (bottom-up view of relationships)Class diagram

    Project:Identifying first group of classes based on responsibilitiesPreliminary class diagramIdentifying relationships between classesDefining cardinalitiesClass diagram

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00 (part I)Topics to exist addressed:Static versus dynamic modelIdentifying scenarios through refinement of consume casesModeling scenarios using object-interaction and sequence diagrams

    Project:Refining consume casesDeveloping and modeling scenariosIdentifying methodsRefining class specifications

    June 10, 2001 (part II)Topics to exist addressed:Events, states and actionsState diagramCriteria for using situation diagramsConcurrency, lively objectsMutual exclusion problemSequential, guarded, and synchronous objectsModeling concurrencyConcurrent situation diagramsActivity diagrams

    Project:Evaluating classes for the need of situation diagramsConstructing situation diagrams for selected classes(Constructing activity diagrams)Refining class specifications

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to exist addressed:Introduction to design patterns: Creational patterns, Abstract Factory, Builder, Prototype, Singleton, Virtual Constructor

    Structural Patterns: Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Façade, Proxy

    Behavioral Patterns: Chain of Responsibility, Command, Iterator, Mediator, Memento

    Other distinguished topics to exist covered in this course:What to await from an object-oriented languageDynamic nature of object-oriented systems and the issues of garbage collectionEffective consume of inheritance and polymorphism and their repercussion on software qualitySingle versus multiple inheritancePolymorphism versus genericsClass design and data normalization (attribute dependence issues)


    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Conceptual Model (Part 2) | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Conceptual Model

    Once we’ve some consume cases or user stories, the next thing they can attain is create a conceptual model of their system. It simply means you’re identifying the most distinguished objects.

    You shouldn’t exist worried about software demur birthright now, but more generically what are the things in the application that they need to exist cognizant of.

    Things relish product, item, shopping cart, order, invoice, paycheck, spaceship, asteroid, level, that’s what we’re identifying here. Some of them will become actual classes and software object, but not entire of them.

    The Process

    So, we’re going to identify those objects, start to refine them, and then draw them in a simple diagram. And they can besides clarify the relationship and interactions between them.

    An Advice

    Creating a simple conceptual model for most applications is not and should not exist a long process. A few hours spent on this is usually more than enough.

    Don’t worry about perfection. First time through it will exist incomplete, and that’s absolutely routine to miss out even distinguished objects, things that you will ascertain later on during programming.

    1. Identifying Objects

    What they attain is to start collecting their consume cases, user stories, and any other written requirements together.

    Now, they are going to identify the most distinguished parts of their software; the most distinguished things, or objects.

    Objects will exist in contour of nouns. Those are the candidate objects, some of them will exist actual objects in the system, and the repose won’t, as you’ll notice later.

    Identifying objects

    You are just identifying the objects, you don’t resolve or judge them. They besides don’t worry about missing one, at the first spin, you may miss some objects, which is normal.

    2. Refining Objects

    After underlying on your candidate objects, you start refining them, you start choosing your actual objects that will exist in the system. So, to attain that, …

    Refining objects
  • Remove any duplicates. They may find same objects with different names, but they actually import the same thing.
  • You may need to combine some objects, or, even splitting them into some other objects.
  • You may identify an credit as an demur instead.
  • You may identify a behavior as an demur instead.
  • An credit is a property or characteristic of the object. For example, when they protest “A car is red”, red here is a property for the car, which is the actual object.

    A behavior is something an demur can attain (responsibility). For example, when they say, “A bird can fly”, sail here is a behavior, while the bird is the actual object.

    You don’t occupy to consume a lot of time refining your objects, don’t eye for perfection, it’s routine to encounter some mistakes, or miss up some objects that will exist figured out through the process.

    3. Drawing Objects

    What you need to attain now is using your pencil and paper, just draw the conceptual model by box entire objects.

    There are some tools you may use, but for now, a pencil, and piece of paper are more than enough.

    Conceptual model 3. Identifying demur Relationships

    You start testify the relationships between your objects.

    It’s very obvious that these objects will interact with each other. For example, a customer can situation an order, a student can enroll in a course, an admin can update a post, and so on.

    Drawing a line between objects, and writing the relationship verbs is enough to denote there is a relationship.

    Define demur relationships 4. Identifying demur Behaviors

    Behaviors are the things (verbs) the demur can do, or, in other words, the responsibilities of an object, that will become the methods in their demur class.

    So, they can ebb back to the consume case or a user story, and eye for verbs and verb phrases to pick responsibilities.

    Identifying demur behaviors (responsibilities)

    Things relish verifies items, provides payment and address, process sale, validate payment, validate order, provide order number, check order status, and transmit order details email.

    Now, not entire of these will become behaviors, some will exist combined, some will need to exist split apart, and some will just not exist needed or exist replaced by something else, but they are a marvelous starting point.

    Assigning responsibilities Whose Responsibility Is This?

    What isn’t always obvious is where these responsibilities belong, particularly if they impress different objects. It’s because the consume case describes what initiates a behavior, not necessarily who’s liable to discharge that behavior.

    So, even though it’s the customer who wants to know the status of the order, it’s the responsibility of the order to check it’s status. The customer should quiz the order demur to report it’s own status.

    When you quiz whose responsibility is this? Always recollect that an demur should exist liable for itself.

    The Generic Verbs

    We can change the generic verb provide to set and glean instead to execute it limpid for what they are trying to do.

    The “System” Object

    Now, here’s another issue that often comes up. It’s common to notice phrases relish “system” validates payment or “system”will transmit the customer an email at consume cases, and that can lead to people creating a system demur and putting a huge amount of responsibilities in it.

    These phrases really import that some piece of this system validates payment, some piece of this system will transmit an email, and it’s their job to device out what piece of the system should exist liable for that behavior.

    The God Object

    If you occupy an demur that has a lot of responsibilities, chances are, you are doing it wrong.

    You may need to re-think about the responsibility of each object, and ration the responsibilities among the objects. recollect that an demur should exist liable for itself as much as possible.

    Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) Cards

    Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) is another technique for organizing the objects.


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, piece 2 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first piece of this analysis they looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular they examined mode dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where sever vtables were eschewed in preference for storing role pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion they will explore a second distinguished aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The contour that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most relish subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" sort inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. They will convene this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can exist said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can exist establish in the Linux kernel, and entire can exist seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but besides the least flexible, is to declare a union as one component of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained barren until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in 2.4.14.2 when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is besides sort of clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every unique filesystem implementation needs to add an extra domain to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not seem relish a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will exist the same size and will exist big enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as they will notice shortly. The second is a actual problem and the generic ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 development chain this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u besides added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only designate reminiscence to store its own structure without any need to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to exist solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first vicissitude is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always situation the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of sort safety and makes it harder to order fields in the inode to glean optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to consume the list_entry() macro to discharge the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to consume this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the atypical name. This exercise lasted until 2.5.28 when a unique container_of() macro was added which implemented the same functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more sort safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second vicissitude was that the filesystem had to exist liable for allocating the inode - it could no longer exist allocated by common code as the common code did not occupy enough information to designate the amend amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As illustrious earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding unique filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more domain that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer domain called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and designate a sever structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced unique problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it besides required writing more error-handling code. besides there was reminiscence used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra reminiscence dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often need to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra reminiscence dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad consume of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is quiet in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the same purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only way to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux embrace files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data sort by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could exist converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effectual vehicle to interject these three patterns they attain not parade the plenary scope of any of them so it is useful to eye further afield and notice what else they can learn.

    A survey of the consume of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide range of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a minute fixed number of subtypes of the base sort and there is limited expectation of more being added. A simple illustration of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file credit information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the dissimilarity encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the same information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever exist extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal sort has a different sort of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to exist the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not limpid whether these examples should exist considered as the same pattern as the original struct inode. attain they really picture different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one sort with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not champion variant types at entire except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to deal entire usages of union as a contour of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to execute a choice. So the respond is not clear.

    For their purposes it doesn't really matter what they convene it as long as they know where to consume each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly clarify that when entire of the variants are understood by a single module, then a union is a very preempt mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to mention to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely sever pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The consume of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an illustration of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so effortless to classify. It would probably exist just to protest that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can exist very useful but they can besides lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you eye at a void pointer, relish looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is relish a "goto destination" command - almost pointless without reading lots of context.

    Examining entire the different uses that void pointers can exist apportion to would exist well beyond the scope of this article. Instead they will restrict their attention to just one unique usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it hard to recognize their consume in data inheritance. The illustration they will consume to clarify this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it effortless to synthesize simple text files relish some of those in /proc. The "seq" piece of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a single line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a unique seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data domain of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward illustration of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base sort and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private domain which is a void pointer and it can exist used by clients of seq_file to add extra situation to the file. For illustration md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private domain of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a single pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to mention to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private domain itself. This certainly seems relish a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a single pointer would exist a dissipate - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you eye at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To execute it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being relish a union of every different workable pointer type. If the value that needs to exist stored is a pointer, it can exist stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a single pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when they notice a void pointer being used it may not exist obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally exist embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure quiet has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private consume by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will exist realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a secrete device which stores your filesystem might exist realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't need to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would exist embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which consume this field, one appears to succeed that purpose while the other two consume it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to exist used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately limpid that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is limpid is that an apparently "private" void pointer can exist intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as they occupy seen in two different circumstances, they may not exist used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly deep examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before they leave unions and void pointers behind a eye at struct page may exist interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden sort of due to historical baggage. This illustration is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux reminiscence is divided into pages, and these pages are apportion to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to respond kmalloc() requests. Others are simply piece of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to exist used. Each of these different consume cases could exist seen as a subtype of the generic class of "page", and in most cases need some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the same struct page describing it, so if the effectual sort of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of reminiscence change over time - the sort of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many sort systems are designed assuming that the sort of an demur is immutable, they find here that the kernel has a very actual need for sort mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first level of subtyping there are only a minute number of different subtypes as listed above; these are entire known to the core reminiscence management code, so a union would exist exemplar here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over entire three, thus hiding the actual structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in consume has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private domain that can exist used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the same size and this is one of them. Most users of this domain actually store a pointer here and occupy to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and glean this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative illustration of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can exist used, and where the list of workable subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to exist increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a plenary understanding of it they will again need to explore a limited bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly titillating going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second consume is the data inheritance embedding that they occupy already discussed. The third is relish it but importantly different. This third consume is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The consume of an embedded anchor relish struct list_head can exist seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a single demur can occupy several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if they embrace the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to judge of this sort of embedding more relish a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can exist mixed-in to other objects, an capricious number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the being of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not exist shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every demur with an independent being will occupy a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more specific struct kref. When an demur is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could exist buried quite deeply. For illustration a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in spin exist embedded in a structure for some specific device) does occupy a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These occupy no reference counter, occupy no independent being and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when apportion this way, it is useful to recollect that a single demur cannot occupy two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to occupy two counters relish s_active and s_count in struct super_block which import different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only contour of multiple inheritance that can toil is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It besides means that, when designing a data structure, it is distinguished to judge about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should occupy its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an demur in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really unique and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an distinguished dissimilarity with void pointers is that it is relatively effortless to change your reason later and switch an extension structure to exist a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the birthright decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing unique instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() role is called which can optionally designate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to exist allocated by the lowest level device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode illustration from above which has an alloc_inode() mode in the super_block to request allocation, they find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() champion functions. The first of these is used when the previous consume of a piece of reminiscence is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when they know that the reminiscence was previously used for some other inode. They notice this same pattern of an initializer role sever from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can exist recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.

    Conclusion

    In exploring the consume of mode dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel they find that while some patterns seem to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost entire data inheritance could exist implemented using structure embedding, unions provide actual value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very distinguished and the ability to delegate methods to a related demur can exist valuable.

    We besides find that there are patterns in consume with limited to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may occupy an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can cause confusion, and could nearly always exist replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to testify default behavior is similarly a poverty-stricken choice - when the default is distinguished there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is besides a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to actual problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to abet improve their mind, and pursue the latter to abet improve the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might exist of interest to some.

    Exercises
  • As inodes now consume structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not exist necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was illustrious in the text, struct seq_file can exist extended both through "void pointer" and a limited contour of "union" data inheritance. clarify how seq_open_private() allows this structure to besides exist extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an illustration by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". deem submitting a patch if this appears to exist an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a demur to accommodate fields that not entire users are interested in. This can testify that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can exist represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could exist a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more generic consume of the proposed open() mode for inodes might abet here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an demur model that would meet entire the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

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