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At an immense novel England-area assurance provider, a database engineer who asked not to be recognized listed here, describes the administration of safety for her mainframe databases as "a nearly-not possible, labor-intensive chore - if utter they had to spend had been IBM's personal security administration utilities."
She stories that her trade has over 600 IBM DB2 databases operating in 13 LPARs throughout eight mainframes disbursed across two, geographically part statistics centers.
"About 8,000 End clients at the trade endure managed entry to the literally tons of of volumes of DB2 information on programs which they are migrating to DB2 edition 5.1. we're moreover in the system of migrating from [IBM] MVS to the OS/390 operating device to obtain 12 months 2000 compliance," says the engineer.
"whereas IBM did a very ample job with DB2, its security administration tackle are inadequate to sustain with the adjustments that swirl up in their ambiance on a virtually daily basis: alterations in person entry, the maintenance of expostulate protection and the securing of access to novel transactions. Their database administrators (DBAs) could be spending utter of their time simply doing security labor if utter they had endure been DB2's personal protection utilities. It isn't an selection not to endure a second [security] administration tackle for DB2."
To raise the protection administration capabilities delivered with IBM DB2, the engineer studies that her enterprise uses RC/secure from Platinum technology Inc. (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). With RC/cozy, she says, "we can let their safety administration personnel enact the busywork of [granting and revoking access to DB2 database objects], whereas letting the DBAs focal point on the intelligence labor of database design. Platinum's product gives for cleaner safety operations and productiveness advancements over indigenous DB2 security functions."
In DB2's protection, the engineer concedes that her trade has now not seemed intently at any changes in DB2 protection delivered with the novel edition of the IBM database. Platinum's RC/comfortable has become a fixture at the trade over a length of years and she has itsy-bitsy incentive to exchange whatever thing that works.
DB2 security: a random to boost
IBM, which has delivered DB2 in view that its branding in 1994 to more than eleven,000 businesses and more than forty million End users worldwide, has been actively evolving the product from an MVS-most efficient mainframe database to a universal information base, according to Hershel Harris, Director of Database expertise with IBM's utility options Division.
Harris in short recounts some watershed accomplishments within the progress of DB2. "In 1994, they launched an AIX and OS/2 edition of the product. In 1995, they offered a parallel edition for information warehousing and a UNIX version for sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard. In 1997, they released the commonplace Database (UDB) version, including expostulate extensions, usher for OLAP and OLTP applications and extra assist for parallel databases that enabled records to be split across varied nodes in a clustered environment. This year, they introduced OS/390 DB2 UDB. edition 6, which may soundless be accessible in 1999, extends the skill of UDB to endure in intelligence objects. The family of items now runs across distinctive working environments, including NT, UNIX, OS/390, AIX and different flavors of UNIX. They aren't any longer a handiest mainframe product, however we're blissful with their mainframe heritage."
built around the relational database model, says Hershel, DB2 grants "constructed-in safety based on privileges." He explains that, for every person with a sound id or group membership, DB2 DBAs can spend the product's indigenous safety elements to handle what the person can enact with the database objects.
"This goes beyond entry. For every expostulate and every consumer, confident privileges can moreover be deploy, together with read, write, delete, supplant and run. The objects may moreover be tables, views or techniques, and the privileges may moreover be defined at a very granular degree."
Hershel says that commonplace SQL information control language statements corresponding to provide and REVOKE may well be used with ease to handle expostulate access. He adds that IBM will originate purchasable in version 6 of the OS/390 DB2 UDB product a collection of Administrative tackle similar to those that already ship with distributed platform versions of the product, "we've in version 5.2 [of their distributed systems product], an easy-to-use, NT-primarily based Administration tool that permits each graphical and web-primarily based administration of utter allotted DB2 servers. This device set is being added to [our OS/390 DB2 product] with its unlock in 1999."
Hershel is privy to the supply and spend of third birthday party products along side the IBM database, which he describes as "complimentary to the product."
"IBM encourages complimentary product construction with the aid of different organizations. within the enviornment of DB2 protection administration, there are doubtless a few businesses that deliver products to boost the capabilities delivered with DB2. These tackle may additionally give a graphical consumer interface to security administration using IBM's software programming interface. Some products emphasize more suitable query capabilities or more advantageous reporting. Some are trying to combine system smooth safety with DB2. One trade confirmed me an indication recently of an software that enabled speech attention technology and its spend with DB2 database protection administration. In commonplace, they are very supportive of those efforts."
alternatives to enlarge DB2 in a complimentary fashion had been exploited through a big number of groups, including Platinum expertise, in line with Pete Peterson, vp for Database Administration items at Platinum.
Peterson says that RC/comfy solutions a need within businesses to simplify the model for managing authority, "With DB2 version 5, IBM allows RACF or exterior safety products for spend in administering security inside DB2. It is not a really simple technique and it's problematic to create software and consumer domains using IBM utilities. agencies can gain a lot of [security administration efficiency] if they had a simple approach to circulate a hierarchy of privileges from one person to an additional without needing to redo every itsy-bitsy thing."
RC/relaxed, in keeping with Peterson, is designed as a "management layer on reform of DB2 - however not a run-time layer." He explains that alterations made to safety privileges may well be applied on an advert hoc basis or in batch mode and means that the latter system remains favorite by using protection administrators. He provides that Platinum's RC/query product moreover enhances DB2's question facilities and might be employed in reference to RC/cozy to assess updated objects inside consumer and software domains.
Peterson anticipates a constant require for DB2 enhancement products regardless of IBM's pretense that version 6 will dispose of the want for confident kinds of enhancement items. Says Peterson, while IBM is making an attempt to movement towards a goal of a usual Database to allow administration throughout systems, "there are adjustments in the mainframe DB2 product that were achieve there to cater to the MVS folks and to capitalize on the features of that platform with a view to continue to bog down this purpose."
laptop friends: Enhancement Equals alternative
Mark Combs has the identical persuasion that IBM opened doorways to 3rd parties with version 5 of its DB2 implementation on MVS. Combs, who's Senior vice chairman for research and structure with computing device acquaintances (CA) in Islandia, the sizable apple, sees the chance created much less in terms of improving DB2 than as a random to exchange RACF with both ACF2 or exact clandestine - each CA mainframe security administration products.
"businesses should stream to true, rules-based mostly safety - it's, a situation by which enterprise rules examine entry. nowadays, in many mainframe environments, about 75 percent of the rules are managed by using device administration items reminiscent of CA-ACF2, CA-proper clandestine or RACF from IBM. an additional 25 % are really centered or enforced using an dreadful lot less potent SQL database safety capabilities in products dote DB2. What is needed is an built-in management infrastructure that allow centralized, guidelines-based mostly safety throughout the total ambiance and that supply administrative tackle on the mainframe, as well as graphical consumer interface-primarily based tools on the desktop," says Combs.
i'm attracted to doing certification in DB2 administration for OS/390. i would dote to master the field, not just bag the certification.neatly, the touchstone option to master any topic is by doing it. So, with that in mind, be confident to relaxed a area where you endure got entry to DB2 and need to labor with it to accomplish your job. but, i'm guessing that your purpose is to bag a job and that you just are looking to bag certified to achieve one. if that is the case, then there are some steps you can take. first off, harmonize with acquiring the following books for study and reference: DB2 Developer's e book, fifth edition by artery of Craig S. Mullins Db2 For The Z/os version 8 Certification by artery of Susan Lawson DB2 generic Database for OS/390 v7.1 utility Certification e reserve with the aid of Susan Lawson originate confident to additionally down load, and evaluate, utter of the DB2 for z/OS manuals from the IBM internet web page. additionally, continuously review the in-depth technical articles published through IBM at its developerWorks web page. other first rate internet sites to bookmark and evaluate include Search390.com, SearchDatabase.com, dbazine.com, DB2 for OS390, and DB2 times. related to your ultimate question, i'd verbalize that the optimum fashion to attain my DBA publication is by means of amazon.com.
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At a major novel England-area insurance provider, a database engineer who asked not to be identified in this article, describes the management of security for her mainframe databases as "a nearly-impossible, labor-intensive chore - if utter they had to spend were IBM's own security administration utilities."
She reports that her company has over 600 IBM DB2 databases running in 13 LPARs across eight mainframes distributed across two, geographically part data centers.
"About 8,000 End users at the company endure controlled access to the literally hundreds of volumes of DB2 data on systems which they are migrating to DB2 version 5.1. They are moreover in the process of migrating from [IBM] MVS to the OS/390 operating system to achieve Year 2000 compliance," says the engineer.
"While IBM did a Great job with DB2, its security administration tools are inadequate to preserve up with the changes that occur in their environment on an almost daily basis: changes in user access, the maintenance of expostulate security and the securing of access to novel transactions. Their database administrators (DBAs) would be spending utter of their time just doing security labor if utter they had were DB2's own security utilities. It is just not an option not to endure a second [security] administration package for DB2."
To enhance the security administration capabilities delivered with IBM DB2, the engineer reports that her company uses RC/Secure from Platinum Technology Inc. (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). With RC/Secure, she says, "We can let their security administration personnel enact the busywork of [granting and revoking access to DB2 database objects], while letting the DBAs focus on the intelligence labor of database design. Platinum's product provides for cleaner security operations and productivity improvements over indigenous DB2 security applications."
In DB2's defense, the engineer concedes that her company has not looked closely at any changes in DB2 security delivered with the novel version of the IBM database. Platinum's RC/Secure has become a fixture at the company over a term of years and she has itsy-bitsy incentive to change something that works.
DB2 Security: An chance to Enhance
IBM, which has delivered DB2 since its branding in 1994 to more than 11,000 organizations and more than 40 million End users worldwide, has been actively evolving the product from an MVS-only mainframe database to a universal data base, according to Hershel Harris, Director of Database Technology with IBM's Software Solutions Division.
Harris briefly recounts some watershed accomplishments in the progress of DB2. "In 1994, they released an AIX and OS/2 version of the product. In 1995, they provided a parallel edition for data warehousing and a UNIX edition for Sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard. In 1997, they released the Universal Database (UDB) edition, adding expostulate extensions, back for OLAP and OLTP applications and additional back for parallel databases that enabled data to be split across multiple nodes in a clustered environment. This year, they announced OS/390 DB2 UDB. Version 6, which should be available in 1999, extends the capability of UDB to understand objects. The family of products now runs across multiple operating environments, including NT, UNIX, OS/390, AIX and other flavors of UNIX. They are no longer a only mainframe product, but they are disdainful of their mainframe heritage."
Built around the relational database model, says Hershel, DB2 delivers "built-in security based on privileges." He explains that, for every user with a sound ID or group membership, DB2 DBAs can spend the product's indigenous security features to control what the user can enact with the database objects.
"This goes beyond access. For every expostulate and every user, specific privileges can be set up, including read, write, delete, update and run. The objects can be tables, views or procedures, and the privileges can be defined at a very granular level."
Hershel says that generic SQL data control language statements such as award and REVOKE may be used readily to control expostulate access. He adds that IBM will originate available in Version 6 of the OS/390 DB2 UDB product a suite of Administrative Tools similar to those that already ship with distributed platform versions of the product, "We endure in Version 5.2 [of their distributed systems product], an easy-to-use, NT-based Administration tool that allows both graphical and Web-based administration of utter distributed DB2 servers. This tool set is being added to [our OS/390 DB2 product] with its release in 1999."
Hershel is vigilant of the availability and spend of third party products in conjunction with the IBM database, which he describes as "complimentary to the product."
"IBM encourages complimentary product progress by other companies. In the area of DB2 security administration, there are probably a number of companies that deliver products to enhance the capabilities delivered with DB2. These tools may provide a graphical user interface to security administration using IBM's application programming interface. Some products emphasize enhanced query capabilities or enhanced reporting. Some try to integrate system smooth security with DB2. One company showed me a demonstration recently of an application that enabled speech recognition technology and its spend with DB2 database security administration. In general, they are very supportive of these efforts."
Opportunities to enhance DB2 in a complimentary manner endure been exploited by numerous companies, including Platinum Technology, according to Pete Peterson, Vice President for Database Administration Products at Platinum.
Peterson says that RC/Secure answers a need within companies to simplify the model for managing authority, "With DB2 version 5, IBM allows RACF or external security products to be used in administering security within DB2. It is not a very straightforward procedure and it is difficult to create application and user domains using IBM utilities. Companies can gain a lot of [security administration efficiency] if they had a simple artery to pass a hierarchy of privileges from one user to another without having to redo everything."
RC/Secure, according to Peterson, is designed as a "management layer on top of DB2 - but not a run-time layer." He explains that changes made to security privileges may be applied on an ad hoc basis or in batch mode and suggests that the latter fashion continues to be preferred by security administrators. He adds that Platinum's RC/Query product moreover enhances DB2's query facilities and may be employed in connection with RC/Secure to verify updated objects within user and application domains.
Peterson anticipates a continuing require for DB2 enhancement products despite IBM's pretense that Version 6 will eradicate the need for confident types of enhancement products. Says Peterson, while IBM is trying to plug toward a goal of a Universal Database to enable administration across platforms, "there are differences in the mainframe DB2 product that were achieve there to cater to the MVS folks and to capitalize on the characteristics of that platform that will continue to impede this goal."
Computer Associates: Enhancement Equals Replacement
Mark Combs agrees that IBM opened doors to third parties with version 5 of its DB2 implementation on MVS. Combs, who is Senior Vice President for Research and progress with Computer Associates (CA) in Islandia, NY, sees the chance created less in terms of enhancing DB2 than as an chance to supplant RACF with either ACF2 or Top clandestine - both CA mainframe security management products.
"Companies need to plug to real, rules-based security - that is, a situation in which trade rules determine access. Today, in many mainframe environments, about 75 percent of the rules are controlled by system management products such as CA-ACF2, CA-Top clandestine or RACF from IBM. Another 25 percent are actually established or enforced using much less robust SQL database security capabilities in products dote DB2. What is needed is an integrated management infrastructure that enable centralized, rules-based security across the entire environment and that provide administrative tools on the mainframe, as well as graphical user interface-based tools on the desktop," says Combs.
Take a sight at the four primary statements of DML: Select, Update, Insert, and Delete. You will learn the duty each of these can play in your efforts to master DB2. You will moreover sight at various aspects of SQL, a necessary language to understand though the comprehension smooth will vary depending on the user's activity.This chapter is from the reserve
In the previous chapter, they discussed the definitions of various database objects using the Data Definition Language (DDL). In this chapter, they start manipulating the database objects using the portion of SQL known as Data Manipulation Language (DML). They will be populating (inserting) data into the database and retrieving the data using many powerful methods. Depending on the sophistication of the database users, they can spend SQL to query the database. The majority of the SQL statements within a DB2 application involve DML statements. Therefore, application developers must understand the various methods of inserting, updating, and retrieving data from the database. They will start with simple retrieval statements and gradually interpolate more tangled methods of data manipulation. The DB2 Certification database will be used for most of the examples. There are four main DML SQL statements they consider: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.
SQL is based on mathematical principles, specifically on set theory and relational algebra. The data is stored in the database as unordered sets of data records. SQL is a set-oriented language, and many of its language elements are directly related to relational algebraic terms, such as permutation, projection, restriction, and join.
A set of data is represented in a DB2 database as a table or a view and is stored in a DB2 table without respect to order. To retrieve data in a particular order, an ORDER BY phrase must be added to a SELECT statement. Similarly, if the data is to be grouped, then a GROUP BY phrase must be added to the statement.
Now, let's review the DB2CERT database design defined in the previous chapter and manipulate data using various SQL statements. There are three main tables: CANDIDATE, TEST, and TEST_CENTER. Each table represents a set of records that correspond to a test candidate (person), a test, and a test center (location).
There is an associative table, known as the TEST_TAKEN table, that is used to reflect the relationships among the three main tables. The TEST_TAKEN table is used to schedule the test candidates and moreover to maintain their test scores.
The longest SQL statement is 32,765 bytes.
Remember that to execute any operation, the user must endure the necessary privileges.Retrieving the Entire Table
The most basic of utter retrieval command involves the SELECT statement with no operators other than the denomination of the table. This SQL statement retrieves utter of the candidates who endure taken a DB2 Certification exam. The information requested is contained in the table TEST_TAKEN.SELECT * FROM db2cert.test_taken
SQL is a data access language that consists of language statements and clauses. There are many optional clauses that can be used to modify the output. The output of a SELECT statement is known as a result set or result table. The results from the SELECT statement are shown next. In this example, using an asterisk or star character (*) for column selection, the columns will be returned to the user in the order in which they are defined in the table.CID TCID NUMBER DATE_TAKEN START_TIME FINISH_TIME SCORE PASS_FAIL SEAT_NO --- ---- ------ ---------- ---------- ----------- ----- --------- ------- 111 TX01 500 01/01/2000 11:30:00 12:30:00 65 Y 1 111 TX01 501 02/02/2000 10:30:00 11:45:00 73 Y 1 111 TX01 502 03/03/2000 12:30:00 13:30:00 67 Y 1 222 TR01 500 01/01/2000 14:00:00 15:30:00 55 N 2 222 TR01 502 01/02/2000 09:00:00 10:15:00 53 N 2 222 TR01 502 02/18/2000 10:00:00 11:30:00 75 Y 2 333 TX01 500 03/01/2000 11:30:00 13:00:00 82 Y 2 333 TX01 501 12/29/2000 14:00:00 - - - 1 333 TX01 502 03/02/2000 14:00:00 14:30:00 92 Y 1 9 record(s) selected.
In SQL, the * is used to testify that utter columns of a table are being referenced. In this example, the SQL statement refers to utter of the columns defined for the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table. If the table is altered and a novel column is added to the table definition, the result set would contain the novel column.
Adding a novel column to an existing table will result in default values being populated for the existing rows.
Since the output of the SQL statement using * character varies according to the table definition, it is recommended that you specify utter of the column names you want to contemplate in the SELECT statement. They could endure obtained the identical result as the statement using SELECT * with the following SQL statement.SELECT cid, tcid, number,date_taken,start_time, finish_time,score,seat_no FROM db2cert.test_taken;
The * character is used to refer to utter of the columns defined for a table. The order of the columns in the result table is the identical order as specified in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement.
What is returned to the user is known as the result set. If the result set is big it is advisable to be confident to filter the data using a WHERE predicate.
The FROM clause is required for the DML SQL statement, since it describes the location (table or view) of the data. Their case references a lone table called DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN. The SELECT and FROM clauses are required in utter data retrieval statements. The list of columns following the SELECT keyword is referred to as the select list.Projecting Columns from a Table
Projection is a relational operation that allows you to retrieve a subset of the defined columns from a table. The next case restricts the output from the SELECT command so that only the candidate ID, test center, and test number attributes from the TEST_TAKEN table are shown.SELECT cid,tcid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken
The output of this SELECT statement is shown below.CID TCID NUMBER --- ---- ------ 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 222 TR01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 333 TX01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 9 record(s) selected.
The order of the columns in the result table will always match the order in the select list. The order of the columns as they were defined in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement is ignored when a select list is provided in the SQL statement. In this example, the order of the columns is similar to the order in the CREATE TABLE statement, since the CID column was defined prior to TCID and NUMBER columns.Changing the Order of the Columns
Permutation is the relational operation that allows you to change the order of the columns in your result table. Permutation is used every time you select columns in an order different than the order defined in the CREATE TABLE statement. For example, to parade the test center ID prior to the candidate IDs and the test number, you could execute the following:SELECT tcid,cid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken
The result of this SELECT statement specifies a select list in a different order than was defined in the table definition.TCID CID NUMBER ---- --- ------ TX01 111 500 TX01 111 501 TX01 111 502 TR01 222 500 TR01 222 502 TR01 222 502 TX01 333 500 TX01 333 501 TX01 333 502 9 record(s) selected.
We refer to the output of a SELECT statement as the result table because the output of utter SELECT statements can be considered a relational table.Restricting Rows from a Table
Restriction is a relational operation that will filter the resulting rows of a table. Restriction can be accomplished through the spend of predicates defined in a SQL WHERE clause. To restrict the result set, they need to add a WHERE clause to the SQL statement.
A predicate is a condition placed on the data. The result of the condition is TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN.
The WHERE clause specifies conditions or predicates that must be evaluated by DB2 before the result table is returned to the End user. There are many sound types of predicates that can be used. In the following example, the equality (=) predicate is used to restrict the records to only those candidates who endure taken a DB2 Certification test at the test center TR01.SELECT tcid,cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid ='TR01'
The WHERE clause moreover accepts other comparison operators, such as greater than (>), less than (<), greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (<=), and not equal to (<>).This statement is an case of a basic predicate. A basic predicate compares two values. In addition, more tangled predicates, such as LIKE, BETWEEN, and IN, are moreover sound and will be discussed later.
Trying to execute this case SQL statement will result in a data character compatibility error, because the column TCID is defined with a user-defined data character (UDT).Predicate Evaluation for UDTs
The column TCID was defined as a user-defined data type. To originate the comparison in the WHERE clause valid, a casting duty needs to be used. This is not mandatory if the comparison is to a literal or host variable. This technique is however demonstrated below:SELECT tcid, cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid=CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id)
Predicate evaluation requires that the data types be compatible (same data character or a compatible data type). They can accomplish the data character conversion (cast) using one of two methods:
Refer to Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming," for more information on casting for UDTs.
Although not always mandatory, casting is recommended to ensure compatible data types are compared, including length and scale. This allows DB2 to resolve these as indexable rather than stage 2 predicates.Restricting Rows Using Multiple Conditions
It is possible to combine multiple conditions (predicates) in a lone SQL statement. The predicates can be combined using Boolean operators, such as the AND or OR operators. These operators allow you to combine multiple conditions in a lone SQL statement. The order of the predicate evaluation will not strike the result set (known as set closure).
The next case retrieves the records for the test candidates who took a test at test center TR01 and achieved a score greater than 65. The rows that meet the predicates are known as the qualifying rows. The following case is an SQL statement using multiple predicates:SELECT tcid,cid,score FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid= CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id) AND score > 65 Selecting Columns from Multiple Tables
There are basically two operations that combine columns from multiple tables in a lone SQL statement. These operations areCartesian Product
A Cartesian product is a relational operation that will merge utter the values from one table with utter the values from another table. This operation is not used frequently because the result table can be very large. The number of rows in the result table is always equal to the product of the number of rows in the qualifying rows for each of the tables being accessed.
The DB2 optimizer may select to utilize a Cartesian product of unrelated tables if this is deemed to be an efficient fashion of accessing multiple tables. An case would be two single-row tables that are joined with a big table. The cross-product of 1 ∴ 1 = 1; thus the big table access is deferred as late as possible, with a potential enlarge in the restrictive predicates that can be applied without incurring the overhead of a big Cartesian result. This fashion of table access is typical in processing queries against a star schema data model.
The following case is a Cartesian product of utter test numbers and test names from the TEST table, with utter candidates from the TEST_TAKEN table. First, select from the TEST table.SELECT number, denomination FROM db2cert.test NUMBER NAME ------ -------------------------------------------------- 500 DB2 Fundamentals 501 DB2 Administration 502 DB2 Application Development 3 record(s) selected. Next select of utter candidates from the test_taken table. SELECT cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken CID TCID --- ---- 222 TR01 222 TR01 222 TR01 111 TX01 111 TX01 111 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 9 record(s) selected.
Then combine the two tables to form a Cartesian product result table.SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 27 record(s) selected.
There are two tables referenced in the FROM clause of this query. The tables are separated by commas. There is no relationship expression in the WHERE clause. This character of query results in a Cartesian product.
The result table is a representation of utter possible combinations of the input tables. The TEST table has three rows, and the TEST_TAKEN table has nine rows. Therefore, the SELECT statement shown above returns 27 rows. Note the first column denomination in this query. It is necessary to fully qualify the column denomination by providing the schema denomination and table denomination with the column denomination because this column exists in both the TEST table and TEST_TAKEN table. In this case, they needed to specify that the NUMBER column is to be retrieved from the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table and not from the DB2CERT.TEST table.
By adding a predicate to a Cartesian product SQL query, the result table can portray a more useful representation of the data. In the case below, the query represents utter of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111.SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid='111' NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 9 record(s) selected.
Adding a WHERE clause to your query does not always provide the desired result. In the case shown above, you want to know utter of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111, and the query returns nine rows. But they know from previous queries that the candidate took only three tests. The query in the case above has a WHERE clause to filter out the candidate whose ID is 111 from the TEST_TAKEN table, but there was no filter on the TEST_CENTER table. Therefore, the result of the query would always be a multiple of the number of testing centers. Usually, when multiple tables are referenced, you should include a cross-table relationship using a table merge or relate method, as shown in the following example. They will examine table relate methods further in the next section.SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid= '111' AND db2cert.test_taken.number=db2cert.test.number NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 3 record(s) selected.
To avoid data redundancy, it is recommended that the database tables be normalized. Following a normalization process, a number of related tables will exist. To meet some of the required queries, the tables must be reconstructed. The tables are reconstructed temporarily, using a table relate strategy to produce a single-result table.
The result tables in the previous examples usually provided candidate ID numbers and not the complete denomination of the test candidates. The candidate IDs are stored in the TEST_TAKEN table, and the complete names are stored in the CANDIDATE table. To obtain the denomination of a candidate, the data must be retrieved from the CANDIDATE table, using a relationship or relate strategy.
Consider an case that will list the names and phone numbers of candidates who were registered to consume a DB2 Certification test in 2000. To accomplish this, they need to select data from two different tables:
Let's retrieve a list of candidate names, phone numbers, and IDs from the CANDIDATE table. The candidate names were stored in multiple columns to allow for simple retrieval by ultimate name.SELECT fname,initial,lname,hphone,cid FROM db2cert.candidate
The output of this case follows. Pay special attention to the values in the CID column. It will be used as the relate column in the next example.FNAME INITIAL LNAME HPHONE CID -------- ------- ---------- ---------- --- Bill B Wong 1115551234 111 George Baklarz 2226543455 222 Susan M Visser 4442314244 333 Glen R Sheffield 5552143244 444 Jim G Stittle 6662341234 555 Kevin W Street 7773142134 666 Bert F Nicol 8886534534 777 Paul C Zikopoulos 9992112212 888 8 record(s) selected.
Now, let's retrieve the ID numbers of those candidates who were registered to consume the test in 2000.SELECT distinct cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 CID --- 222 111 333 3 record(s) selected.
The candidate IDs in the TEST_TAKEN table must correspond to a candidate ID in the CANDIDATE table because of the declarative referential integrity constraints. The parent table in the relationship is the CANDIDATE table and the child table (dependent table) is the TEST_TAKEN table.
The result table from the above query does not include the test candidate 444, since that candidate did not endure a test scheduled for 2000. They need to relate the two result tables based on the candidate ID values. This column is known as the relate column.
Query performance can significantly help if the relate columns are appropriately indexed.
The following lone query will meet the end-user requirement.SELECT distinct fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.candidate WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND db2cert.test_taken.cid=db2cert.candidate.cid
A table relate requires a predicate that includes an expression based on columns from the tables referenced in the FROM clause. This is known as a relate predicate. The FROM clause has not changed from the Cartesian product examples. The only dissimilarity is in the relate predicate (test_taken.cid = candidate.cid).
An alternative form of the FROM clause for joins involves explicitly coding the relate keyword between the tables (rather than using a comma) and coding the relate predicates in the ON clause rather than in the WHERE clause. This fashion of coding will be covered in more detail in Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding."
The table names needed to be explicitly stated because there is a column named CID in both of the referenced tables. When multiple tables are being accessed in a lone query, any selected columns that occur in more than one table must be qualified with the table name.
An oversight will occur if the columns being referenced are ambiguous (not properly qualified).
The maximum number of basis tables that can be in a lone SQL statement is 225; however, you are limited to 15 tables in a relate (the FROM clause).
The 15-table circumscribe can be increased by updating the macro SPRMMXT to a value greater than 15.
This benign of relate operation shown in the above case is moreover known as an inner join. An inner relate displays only the rows that are present in both of the joined tables.Using Correlation Names
If each of the columns needed to be fully qualified with the table name, such as tableschema.tablename.columnname, the queries would become very big and cumbersome to labor with. Fortunately, there is an easier artery to qualify the ambiguous columns resulting from a multitable SELECT statement.
The columns can be qualified using a correlation name. A correlation denomination is a temporary alias for the tables referenced in an SQL statement. They rewrite the previous query using correlated names as follows:SELECT distinct fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken tt, db2cert.candidate c WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND tt.cid = c.cid
The correlation denomination immediately follows the denomination of the table as stated in the FROM clause. In this example, the correlated denomination for the TEST_TAKEN table is tt, and the correlated denomination for the CANDIDATE table is c.
Correlation names can be optionally prefixed with the AS keyword, such as DB2CERT.CANDITATE AS C. This is purely for readability.
The correlated names are accessible within the SQL statement only. Following the execution of the SQL statement, the correlation denomination is no longer defined. Once a correlation denomination has been defined, it can be referenced in the leisure of the query instead of the table name. However, the table denomination can soundless be referenced.
Use simple, easy-to-remember correlation names. Table initials are ample candidates for correlation names.Sorting Your Output
We endure been retrieving data from one or more tables. The order of the result table has not been specified in any of the SQL statements. Therefore, the data is retrieved in an undetermined order if there is no ORDER BY clause in the SQL statement.
The only guaranteed artery to return data in the required sequence is with the ORDER BY clause. Any data retrieval that is currently returned in sequence without this clause is purely based upon the data retrieval fashion at the time. A future access path change may not return the data in the identical sequence.
The following case produces a list of the test candidates in alphabetical order by ultimate denomination for the candidates who endure taken a DB2 Certification test at the TR01 test center.SELECT lname,initial,fname FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY lname
This case contains a novel clause, ORDER BY. After the ORDER BY clause, you can list the columns that will specify the sort order and the character of sort.
Appropriate indexing may allow DB2 to avoid sorting the data to match the ORDER BY clause. If the data is already sequenced via the index, DB2 may select to utilize the index and avoid sorting the data. DB2 cannot avoid a sort for an ORDER BY involving columns from more than one table. Where possible, include columns from only one table in the ORDER BY to give DB2 greater chance for sort avoidance.
The SQL can be modified so that the output is changed to descending order by ultimate denomination and a secondary order column on the first denomination in ascending order.SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid= 'TR01' ORDER BY lname DESC, fname
In this example, the DESC keyword that follows the lname column indicates that the result table should be in descending order based on the ultimate name. More than one record can endure the identical ultimate name. This situation is quite common. There is a second column specified in the ORDER BY clause, fname. There is no keyword specifying the sort sequence based on the fname column. Therefore, the default ordering sequence (ascending) is used.
The next case contains three columns lname, fname, and hphone. You can reference the column that should be used to sort the data using the column denomination or by specifying its position in the select list. Using the column position is useful when the column in the select list is made up of derived columns (calculated columns) that endure no specific name.SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2
In this example, the sort order is specified using the column position. Therefore, the query result is exactly the identical as the in previous example.
You can moreover assign an alternative column denomination using column renaming. The assigned denomination can then be referenced in the ORDER BY clause, and it appears as the column heading where appropriate.
Although useful, coding a column position rather than a column (or renamed column) in the ORDER BY clause may lead to a different sequence if another column is inadvertently added to the query that alters the column positioning.
The ORDER BY clause must succeed utter subselects in the FULLSELECT statement. The only clauses that can succeed the ORDER BY clause are the for FOR FETCH ONLY, FOR READ ONLY, OPTIMIZE, WITH QUERYNO, FETCH FIRST n ROWS clauses.Derived Columns
There are some cases when you will need to accomplish calculations on the data. The SQL language has some basic mathematical and string functions built in. Mathematical operations include touchstone addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
The calculation can be defined in the WHERE clause of the SQL statement or the select list. Suppose that you need to compute a passing rate for a DB2 test. The passing rate is defined as the percentage of candidates that pass the test (totalpassed*100/totaltaken). The following SQL statement will accomplish this for us for test number 500:SELECT number, totalpassed*100/totaltaken FROM test WHERE number='500'
In this example, the second column of the output list is a calculated column. recollect that you must spend the column position if you want to spend this calculated column for the ORDER BY clause unless you denomination it (as they now discuss).
Occasionally, the results of a derived column may not parade as expected. The case using totalpassed*100/totaltaken will result in a value of 66 being retrieved. Since both the totalpassed and totaltaken columns are integers, the final result is moreover an integer, and the fractional share is discarded. If this is not your desired result, you should spend other functions (like decimal) to change the artery the calculation is performed or displayed.Naming Derived/Calculated Columns
You can specify a column denomination for any expression. When you provide the derived (calculated) column with a name, the ORDER BY clause can reference the derived denomination to allow for a more readable SQL statement.
The following SQL calculates the percentage of people that endure passed the DB2 Certification exams and orders the output in descending order of the passing rate.SELECT number,totalpassed*100/totaltaken AS PassedRate FROM test ORDER BY PassedRate DESC
The AS clause is used to rename the default denomination of an constituent in the select list. In this example, they are giving the denomination of PassedRate to the result of the division of columns totalpassed by totaltaken. The named column is used in the query to specify the column that should be used for sorting the output.
The AS keyword is optional, although it should be added for readability. Without the AS clause, it may be unclear whether the aim was to rename a column or a comma was missed between two retrieved columns.Functions
In DB2, there are different types of functions provided. For example, two types of functions provided by DB2 are scalar and column functions (a third character of duty called a table duty is discussed in Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming."
Scalar functions (also known as row functions) provide a result for each row of the result table. A scalar duty can be used any area an expression is allowed.
Column functions (also known as vector functions) labor with a group of rows to provide a result. The group is specified using a FULLSELECT and optionally grouped using the GROUP BY clause.
In this section, they interpolate you to some of the SQL functions provided with DB2. SQL functions are categorized by their implementation type. Either the functions are built in or they are extensions of DB2 and are known as user-defined functions (UDFs).
Built-in functions are defined within the SQL standards, and they are provided by DB2. These can be either scalar or column functions.
UDFs are not defined within the SQL standards because they are extensions of the current SQL language. These functions can be developed by a DB2 administrator or application developer. UDFs can be either scalar or table functions, but not column functions. Once the UDFs endure been created, they can be invoked by any End user with the proper privileges. For more information about UDFs, refer to Chapter 15.
Scalar functions are applied to each row of data, and there is a per-row result provided. If they want to retrieve only the first three digits of telephone numbers for each candidate, they could spend a scalar function. The duty that is used is called SUBSTR. The arguments for this duty include a string data character column, a beginning offset, and length. The output data character and impute of the duty depend on the input data character and attribute. The following case retrieves the telephone area code for the column wphone.SELECT lname, SUBSTR(CHAR(wphone),1,3) FROM db2cert.candidate
The SUBSTR duty is a scalar function. In this example, SUBSTR returns a character string of three characters. The result string corresponds to the first three characters of the wphone column. This duty is known as a string duty because it works with any string data type. If they wanted to provide the output column with a meaningful name, they could provide an alias, as was done for calculated columns.
In the case above, the substring starts from the beginning of the string, because they testify one (1) as the second parameter of the function. The length of the resulting string is indicated in the third argument. In their example, the length is three. Note that the data character of the wphone column is phone, so a casting duty is used to convert the phone data character to the char data type.
The following query will provide the month when the exam was taken. The input for this duty is a DATE string, and the output is an integer.SELECT fname, MONTH (date_taken) FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid Column Functions
Column functions provide a lone result for a group of qualifying rows for a specified table or view. Many common queries can be satisfied using column functions where they include common tasks, such as finding the smallest value, the largest value, or the tolerable value for a group of data records. In the following case you can obtain the maximum length of time of any of the DB2 Certification exams:SELECT MAX("length") FROM test
Because the length column shares its denomination with the length scalar function, the column denomination is encased within double-quotes to distinguish this as a column and not a function.
If they added a WHERE clause to this example, the maximum would portray the maximum length for the qualifying rows, since the predicate is used to filter the data prior to the application of the MAX function.
This next case calculates the tolerable of the number of seats for utter of the test centers. Notice the column duty AVG is used in this example:SELECT AVG(noseats) FROM test_center
DB2 provides many more built-in functions. If you are interested in calculating statistical information, you can spend statistical functions, such as VARIANCE, STDDEV, or a sampling of these functions.
MAX and MIN functions can be either column or scalar functions depending on the input arguments.Grouping Values
Many queries require some smooth of aggregated data. This is accomplished in SQL through the spend of the GROUP BY clause. The following SQL obtains the tolerable number of seats for each country:SELECT country, AVG(noseats) FROM test_center GROUP BY country
This SQL statement obtains the tolerable number of seats per country, and the GROUP BY clause tells DB2 to group together the rows that endure the identical values in the columns indicated in the GROUP BY list. In their example, they are grouping countries into subsets. As the subsets are created, DB2 calculates the tolerable of each of those groups or subsets, in this case, by each country.
When you combine column functions and other elements, such as column names, scalar functions, or calculated columns, you must spend the GROUP BY clause. In this case, you must include every constituent that is not a column duty in the GROUP BY list. The only elements that can be omitted in the GROUP BY list are constant values.
The next SQL statement obtains a list that includes the tolerable nick score and minimum test length for the DB2 Certification exams. They group this list by the character of exam, as follows:SELECT type, AVG(cut_score), MIN("length") FROM test GROUP BY type
Appropriate indexing can allow DB2 to avoid a sort to group the data rows to match the GROUP BY clause.
It is possible to sort the output of the previous case using an ORDER BY clause.
GROUP BY may return data in the identical order as an ORDER BY, but this is not guaranteed and is based upon the access path. The only fashion to guarantee data sequence is with an ORDER BY.Restricting the spend of Sets of Data
Up to now, they endure discussed how to restrict output based on row conditions. With SQL, it is moreover possible to restrict that output using column functions and the GROUP BY clause. Suppose you want a list of utter the test centers that endure administered more than five DB2 Certification exams. To originate it easier to understand, let's first bag the number of tests that endure been taken in each test center.SELECT tcid, count(*) FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid
We spend the weigh column duty to bag the total number of tests that endure been taken in each test center. When you spend an asterisk (*) with the weigh function, you are indicating that you want the number of rows in a table that meet the criteria established in the SQL statement. In this example, they are grouping by TCID because they endure a number of occurrences for utter the test centers in the TEST_TAKEN table. The TEST_TAKEN table has an entry for every DB2 Certification exam that has been taken. Finally, the output is restricted to only those test centers that endure administered more than four exams.SELECT tcid FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid HAVING COUNT(*) > 4
This case introduces the HAVING clause. The HAVING clause is equivalent to the WHERE clause for groups and column functions. The HAVING clause will restrict the result set to only the groups that meet the condition specified in it. In their example, only the test centers that endure administered more than four DB2 Certification exams will be displayed.Eliminating Duplicates
When you execute a query, you might bag duplicate rows in the retort set. The SQL language provides a special clause to remove the duplicate rows from your output. The following SQL generates a list of names and phone numbers for utter the candidates who endure taken a test. In the following example, they eradicate the duplicate rows from their output list using the distinct clause.SELECT distinct fname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c,test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid
The distinct clause can moreover be used with the weigh function. When you spend distinct inside a weigh function, it will not weigh the duplicate entries for a particular column. The following case allows you to weigh how many different test centers endure candidates registered.SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT tcid) FROM test_taken
This case provides the number of test centers that are registered in the TEST_TAKEN table. recollect that utter the candidates who endure registered for DB2 Certification exams are stored in this table. originate confident that you understand the dissimilarity between COUNT(*), COUNT(colname), and COUNT(DISTINCT colname). They are very similar in syntax but vary in function.
COUNT(*) returns a weigh of utter rows that qualify against the WHERE clause. COUNT(colname) returns a weigh of utter rows that qualify against the WHERE clause, with null occurrences of colname removed. COUNT(DISTINCT colname) counts distinct occurrences of colname, with nulls removed.Searching for String Patterns
SQL has a powerful predicate that allows you to search for patterns in character string columns. This is the dote predicate. Suppose you want to generate a list of the candidates whose first denomination starts with the missive G.SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname dote 'G%' ORDER BY lname,fname
In this query, they spend a wildcard character with the dote predicate. In SQL, the percent character (%) is a substitute for zero or more characters. The search string G% can be substituted with names dote George, Gary, Ginger, and so on (since the percent character can substitute zero or more characters, the search string can moreover be a lone missive G).
The percent character can be used any area in the search string. It moreover can be used as many times as you need it. The percent badge is not case-sensitive, so it can consume the area of uppercase or lowercase letters. However, the constant characters included in your search string are case-sensitive.
Another wildcard character used with the dote predicate is the underline character (_). This character substitutes one and only one character. The underline character can consume the area of any character. However, the underline character cannot be substituted for an empty character.
If the pattern needs to search for occurrences of the wildcard characters % and _ as their actual values, then the avoid clause is used to specify a character that precedes the percent or underscore in the pattern.
The previous SQL can be modified to include utter candidates' names and the telephone numbers for those candidates whose denomination has a lowercase missive "a" as its second letter.SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname dote '_a%' ORDER BY lname,fname
This case uses two wildcard characters that labor with the dote predicate. The search string in this case can include names, such as Paul, Gabriel, or Natalie. (The first character may be any character, the lowercase missive "a" is the second character in the string, and the string ends with any number of characters.)
When the pattern in a dote predicate is a fixed-length host variable, the reform length must be specified for the string to be returned. 'G%' assigned to an 8-byte variable (LIKE :variable) will search for utter occurrences of 'G% ' (G, followed by any character, followed by 6 blank characters). To find rows that start with a G, then 'G%%%%%%%' should be assigned to the fixed-length variable.Searching for Data in Ranges
SQL moreover offers us a compass operator. This operator is used to restrict rows that are in a particular compass of values. account the requirement to list those candidates whose scores in the DB2 Certification exam are between 60 and 75.SELECT distinct fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75
The BETWEEN predicate includes the values that you specify for searching your data. An captious fact about the BETWEEN predicate is that it can labor with character ranges as well.
In addition to the score requirement, this case modifies the SQL to include only those candidates whose ultimate denomination begins with a missive between B and G.SELECT distinct fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75 AND lname BETWEEN 'B' AND 'GZ'
In this example, the second BETWEEN predicate contains character values. They need to specify the GZ value to include utter the possible names that start with the missive G. This was done assuming that the missive Z is the ultimate possible value in the alphabet.
The arguments of the BETWEEN clause are not interchangeable; the first must specify the low value, and the second, the high value. BETWEEN 1 AND 2 will return utter values within the compass (inclusive of 1 and 2). BETWEEN 2 AND 1 will return zero rows.Searching for Null Values
Null values portray an unknown value for a particular event of an entity. They can spend a null value in the cases where they don't know a particular value of a column. Let's verbalize that they want a list of utter those candidates whose score is not yet input. This condition is represented with a null value.SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score IS NULL
The IS predicate is used to search for the null value in this example. recollect that the null value means "unknown." Because it has no particular value, it can't be compared with other values. You can't spend conditional operands, such as equal (=) or greater than (>), with null values.Searching for Negative Conditions
The BETWEEN, IS, and dote predicates always sight for the values that meet a particular condition. These predicates can moreover be used to sight for values that don't meet a particular criterion.
The NOT predicate can be used to sight for the opposite condition, combined with the LIKE, BETWEEN, and IS predicate, to accomplish negative searches, as shown in the following example. This case has a dote predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want a list of those candidates whose ultimate names enact not start with the missive S.SELECT distinct fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE lname NOT dote 'S%' ORDER BY lname,fname
The next case has a BETWEEN predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want the list of those candidates whose score, in any test, is not in the compass 60 to 75.SELECT distinct fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND integer(score) NOT BETWEEN 60 and 75
In this example, the NOT predicate will exclude utter the values that are in the compass 60 to 75.
Negation can moreover be applied to the null value. This SQL produces a report that searches for those candidates that endure a seat number assigned. This is expressed with a NOT NULL value.SELECT distinct fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND seat_no IS NOT NULL
The NOT operator can moreover be used to negate the touchstone comparison operators, =, <, <=, >, and >=.
When dealing with nulls, NOT or negation may not return the opposite of the positive logic. For example, WHERE SEAT_NO = 1 will return only the rows for seat number 1. Any value other than 1 is discarded, as these rows are FALSE, including nulls, since these are unknown. WHERE SEAT_NO <> 1 excludes rows where the seat number is 1, and moreover discards nulls because these are unknown.Searching for a Set of Values
In SQL, it is possible to establish a restriction condition based on a set of values. Suppose that you need a list of the test centers that endure candidates registered for the DB2 Fundamentals test and for the DB2 Application progress test. This can be queried with the following statement:SELECT distinct name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND (number = '500' or number ='502')
To simplify structure multiple OR conditions when multiple values for the identical column are being compared, it is possible to rewrite the statement using the IN clause.SELECT distinct name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND number IN ('500','502')
The IN clause is used to denote a set of values. In this example, they spend a constant set of values.
You can moreover spend the NOT predicate with the IN clause. In this case, the condition will be honest when a value is not present in the set of values provided to the IN clause. You can spend as many values as you wish in the IN clause, within the defined limits of the size of a SQL statement.Advanced Selection Functionality
In Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding," they will sight at more of the functionality and power of the SELECT statement. They will cover topics such as
I'm interested in doing certification in DB2 administration for OS/390. I would dote to master the subject, not just bag the certification.Well, the best artery to master any topic is by doing it. So, with that in mind, you should secure a position where you endure access to DB2 and need to labor with it to accomplish your job. But, I'm guessing that your objective is to bag a job and that you are looking to bag certified to obtain one. If that is the case, then there are some steps you can take. First of all, account obtaining the following books for study and reference: DB2 Developer's Guide, 5th edition by Craig S. Mullins Db2 For The Z/os Version 8 Certification by Susan Lawson DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 v7.1 Application Certification usher by Susan Lawson You should moreover download, and review, utter of the DB2 for z/OS manuals from the IBM Web site. Additionally, regularly review the in-depth technical articles published by IBM at its developerWorks site. Other ample Web sites to bookmark and review include Search390.com, SearchDatabase.com, dbazine.com, DB2 for OS390, and DB2 Times. Regarding your final question, I would verbalize that the best artery to obtain my DBA reserve is via amazon.com.
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