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000-516 exam Dumps Source : DB/2 Administration for OS/390

Test Code : 000-516
Test title : DB/2 Administration for OS/390
Vendor title : IBM
: 118 existent Questions

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IBM IBM DB/2 Administration for

IBM facts Studio | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the publication 

IBM statistics Studio is blanketed in each DB2 version. IBM facts Studio provides a solitary integrated environment for database administration and application development. that you could operate projects which are regarding database modeling and design, setting up database applications, administering and managing databases, tuning SQL performance, and monitoring databases total in one solitary device. it's an excellent device that can enormously capitalize a crew ambiance with sunder roles and duties.

IBM records Studio comes in three favors: full client, administration customer, and net console.

the full customer contains both the database administrative and the software progress capabilities. The progress ambiance is Eclipse-based. This presents a collaborative progress environment via integrating with other advanced Eclipse-primarily based apparatus similar to InfoSphere information Architect and InfoSphere Optim pureQuery Runtime. be aware that some of the advanced InfoSphere apparatus are most efficient covered within the DB2 superior editions and the DB2 Developer edition. that you may too separately buy the superior tools.

The administration customer is a subset of the full client. It nevertheless offers a wide array of database administrative performance similar to DB2 illustration administration, kick management, facts management, and question tuning. fundamental utility construction initiatives such as SQL Builder, question formatting, visible clarify, debugging, modifying, and running DB2 routines are supported. employ the entire client for advanced application progress features.

The web console, because the title implies, it is a web-based browser interface that offers health monitoring, job administration, and connection management.

IBM records Studio Workspace and the assignment Launcher

when you've got correctly do in the IBM statistics Studio, you are requested to give a workspace identify. A workspace is a folder that saves your labor and tasks. It refers back to the laptop progress ambiance, which is an Eclipse-primarily based concept.

project Launcher is displayed, which highlights right here class of initiatives:

  • Design
  • boost
  • Administer
  • Tune
  • video display
  • each category is described in additional aspect in its own tab. click any tab, and you perceive the key and first projects listed in the bailiwick on the left. perceive determine 4.26 to collect an conception on how to navigate the assignment Launcher.

    as an instance, the determine shows you the strengthen initiatives. that you may locate the key construction projects on the left. On the suitable correct, it lists more projects regarding construction. On the backside correct, IBM facts Studio provides a few documentation hyperlinks the position that you could be taught more about building. the position acceptable, it too suggests the advanced apparatus attainable within the InfoSphere Optim portfolio that ensue to the assignment you absorb got chosen.

    Connection Profiles

    every assignment you were to operate towards a database requires to first establish a database connection. To connect to a database from IBM information Studio, open the Database Administration perspective. On the proper rectify nook, click on the Open viewpoint icon and select Database Administration.

    On the Administration Explorer, right-click on the white locality or under the brand modern menu, select modern Connection to a database. From the modern Connection window, you perceive so you might employ the IBM records Studio to hook up with diverse IBM data sources, as well as non-IBM information sources. select the database manager and enter the integral connection parameters. determine four.28 indicates an illustration.

    Figure 4.27

    figure 4.27 Open the Database Administration viewpoint

    Pull down the JDBC driver drop-down menu, and you'll select the type of JDBC driver to use. JDBC class four driver is used through default.

    Use the test Connection button to be sure the connection suggestions you enter is legitimate. click on conclude.

    At this factor, you absorb got created a connection profile. Connection profiles include assistance about how to connect to a database reminiscent of indicating the category of authentication to be used when connecting the database, specifying default schema, and configuring tracing alternatives. different group members can import the connection profiles to their own IBM records Studio and be in a position to deploy a collection of consistent connection settings.

    To supersede the connection profile, correct-click on the database and select homes. residences for the database are displayed as proven in determine four.29.

    ordinary Database Administration equipment

    There are few other advantageous administration initiatives purchasable within the menu illustrated in pattern 4.29.

    The control Connection characteristic allows for you to rename the connection profile, delete the connection profile, trade the consumer identity and password, and reproduction the profile. The lower back Up and restore function makes it workable for you to setup a database or table locality backups. within the acceptable editor, which you could specify the type of backup, locality of the backup photos, and performance options for the backup. Database backup and recovery is mentioned in Chapter 10, “conserving, Backing Up, and improving facts.”

    The install and Configure characteristic permits you to configure the database. Database configuration and this IBM information Studio feature are covered in aspect in Chapter 5. notice from the menu, you could launch the Configure automatic protection editor. DB2 offers computerized protection capabilities for performing database backups, reorganizing tables and indexes, and updating the database records as fundamental. The editor allows you customise the automated maintenance coverage (see determine 4.30).

    Figure 4.30

    determine four.30 select the computerized maintenance policy alternate options

    The control Database function enables you to delivery and forestall the database. In DB2, that aptitude activating and deactivating the database. Activating a database allocates the entire vital database reminiscence and functions or strategies required. Deactivating a database releases the reminiscence and stops DB2 capabilities and processes.

    The monitor characteristic launches the IBM data Studio net Console. dispute with the section, “IBM information Studio internet Console,” for introduction of the device.

    The Generate DDL feature makes employ of the DB2 command-primarily based tool db2look to extract the data Definition Language (DDL) statements for the recognized database objects or the complete database. This function and power approach effortless if you befall to wish to mimic a database, a collection of database objects, or the database statistics to yet another database. as a result of the Generate DDL characteristic in IBM statistics Studio or the DB2 command db2look, you collect hold of a DDL script. The script includes statements to re-create the database objects you absorb selected. perceive determine 4.31 for a reference of the forms of statements that you would be able to generate using the IBM records Studio.

    Figure 4.31

    figure 4.31 Generate DDL characteristic within the IBM statistics Studio

    For finished alternate options for the DB2 command db2look, advert to the DB2 counsel middle.

    The start Tuning function configures the database to permit query tuning. You may receive a warning indicating that you deserve to prompt the InfoSphere Optim question Workload Tuner (OQWT) license for superior tuning skill. word that IBM DB2 advanced trade Server version comes with OQWT. ensue the guidance to apply the product license or click on sure to configure the database server for tuning with the features complementary in the IBM information Studio.

    When the database is configured to employ the tuning advisors and tools, you're presented with the query Tuner Workflow Assistant, as shown in determine 4.32.

    From the question Tuner Workflow Assistant, you could acquire an announcement from quite a lot of sources and tune the remark. in the capture view, it gives you a listing of sources the position you can trap the statements. pattern four.33 suggests an illustration on capturing the SQL statements from the apparatus Cache. This illustration captures over one hundred statements. correct-click the statement in which you absorb an interest and select demonstrate SQL commentary or avoid Single-question Advisors and tools on the selected remark.

    Run the question advisors and apparatus on the chosen observation. that you would be able to now enter the Invoke view. The device collects information and information and generates a data access route (see determine 4.34).

    When the question tuning actions are finished, you are brought to the overview view. It presents you the analysis results and an sheperd recommendation, such because the one shown in determine 4.35. The tool documentation recommends gathering and re-accumulating total of material information of the query.

    you can too evaluate the entry route graph generated with the aid of the DB2 justify function (see determine four.36 for an illustration). be aware to shop the analysis for future references and examine them if essential.

    The manage Privileges characteristic allows you to furnish database privileges to the clients. dispute with Chapter 8, “enforcing security,” for details about privileges and database access controls.

    normal Database progress equipment

    IBM records Studio consolidates the database administration and database edifice capabilities. From the assignment Launcher – strengthen, you locate a list of key progress projects reminiscent of developing and running SQL statements, debugging saved processes, and user-defined capabilities (UDFs). each project brings you to a device that helps you accomplish it.

    SQL and XQuery Editor

    The SQL and XQuery editor helps you create and avoid SQL scripts that contain more than one SQL and XQuery statements. To launch the editor, open the facts project Explorer; under SQL Scripts select modern > SQL or XQuery Script. As shown in determine four.37, a pattern SQL script is entered. that you could configure the avoid options for the script.

    The editor codecs the SQL statements nicely and offers syntax highlights for more convenient analyzing as you enter the SQL statements. The performance content material aid is additionally very positive. It lists the entire current schemas within the database so so that you can simply select one from the drop-down menu. The editor too parses the commentary and validates the statement syntax. that you can validate the syntax in scripts with sunder database parsers and avoid scripts against varied database connections.

    SQL question Builder

    The SQL query Builder allows for you to create a solitary SQL commentary, but it surely does not wait on XQuery. because the title implies, the device helps you build an SQL commentary. It helps you Look at the underlying database schema or build an expression, as shown in determine four.38.

    Database Routines Editor and Debugger

    kept tactics and consumer-defined services (UDFs) are database utility objects that encapsulate software logic at the database server in preference to in software-level code. employ of application objects support crop back overhead of SQL statements and the consequences which are handed during the community. saved processes and UDFs are too called routines. IBM facts Studio helps routines edifice and debugging.

    From the records venture Explorer, create a modern statistics edifice challenge. in the assignment, that you can create various styles of database utility objects similar to kept techniques and UDFs (see pattern 4.39). To debug a pursuits, appropriate-click on the activities and select Debug.


    IBM CEO hopes "new collar" scholarship will bridge digital divide | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    this article, IBM CEO hopes "new collar" odds will bridge digital divide, initially appeared on CBSNews.com

    IBM can be at another turning component in its storied heritage. In October, the trade announced it was for $34 billion in its largest tech deal ever. IBM is too investing $1 billion in initiatives relish apprenticeships to educate worker's for what it calls "new collar" jobs – a phrase coined via IBM president and CEO Ginni Rometty for staff who absorb expertise competencies but now not a 4-year school degree.

    "I account it really gets at probably the most largest issues of their time as a result of these modern technologies are terrific, they're going to resolve many complications… however they additionally create a huge digital divide – just about a absorb and haven't," Rometty mentioned Tuesday on "CBS This Morning." 

    "americans often talk about jobs being removed via [artificial intelligence]. I in fact feel of it as jobs are going to be one hundred percent changed by route of AI. So each and every of us is going to labor with AI Somehow of doing their job."

    The "new collar" jobs might latitude from working at a title hub to establishing apps or fitting a cyber-analyst at IBM after going through a P-TECH (Pathways in technology Early school exorbitant school) program, which takes six years birth with exorbitant college and an affiliate's degree.  

    "there's bit of a method. it is, company gives the faculty and helps with the curriculum, mentors, internships, and they now absorb obtained 550 corporations assisting along with IBM total over this country right now," Rometty noted.

    requested about the Trump administration's tax guidelines, Rometty mentioned it turned out to be a "tax headwind" for IBM.

    "but they were a tough supporter of it as a result of for the long run, it is in reality the right issue to do. however even in this type of envelope and the position the world is at the moment, they nevertheless perceive superb break accessible. And as I stated, what they absorb finished, they now absorb made a dedication around helping retrain 100,000 americans in this economic climate for jobs both at IBM and in different places that can basically labor during this modern period."

    IBM CEO Ginni Rometty: Tax code is "uncompetitive" and "obsolete"

    flow CBSN, a 24/7 reside news channel from CBS information for free.


    internal IBM's records Server supervisor and other database efficiency apparatus | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    IBM presents a few database efficiency equipment, including IBM information Server supervisor, which is an integrated database management platform for DB2 databases. DBAs can employ it to monitor performance, music configuration alterations, administer databases, and proactively or reactively optimize their database environment the usage of one built-in, conclusion-to-end tool.

    facts Server supervisor's capabilities vary for DB2 for LUW and DB2 for z/OS. When managing DB2 for z/OS, database directors can employ IBM statistics Server manager groundwork edition V1.1.2.1 to relate and operate groundwork operations. The product additionally integrates with DB2 question Workload Tuner for z/OS for superior question tuning and with the DB2 Utilities reply Pack for z/OS for configuration management.

    information Server supervisor allows DBAs and different IT gurus to auto-discover DB2 for LUW databases by means of instance, in addition to predefined, customizable performance thresholds and alerts. Its enterprise dashboard can scale to prove metrics for lots of of databases. This includes true-time and historic performance data in addition to specified metrics for SQL statements, locking, workload, reminiscence, I/O and storage. Its constructed-in sensible alert detection offers brief identification of poorly performing queries, missing indexes and buffer pool hit ratios.

    The product additionally offers advisors and access route graphs that provide thoughts and evaluation for tuning poorly performing statements or workloads, together with indexes, data and optimizations. It too allows DBAs to dissect storage access patterns for potential storage discount rates.

    The platform become designed to be business-competent, with the skill to control hundreds of databases. It runs through a browser and may be install on a computing device, on the facts server being monitored or on a sunder laptop. Nothing else has to be installed on the information server being managed.

    IBM statistics Server supervisor licensing, pricing and support

    statistics Server supervisor comes in two variations: the bottom version is included with DB2 for LUW specific, Workgroup and commercial enterprise versions. The enterprise edition is protected with DB2 for LUW superior commercial enterprise and DB2 for LUW superior Workgroup variants. The commercial enterprise version can even be delivered to the non-advanced editions with the performance management providing for DB2 for LUW.

    For DB2 for z/OS, the statistics Server supervisor groundwork edition is free for down load from IBM DeveloperWorks. DB2 question Workload Tuner for z/OS and DB2 Configuration supervisor for z/OS (part of DB2 Utilities solutions Pack for z/OS) are one after the other priced add-ons.

    assist is equipped as a section of the DB2 for LUW sheperd with the aid of DB2 edition.

    further IBM database performance tools

    IBM statistics Studio is an Eclipse-primarily based platform for database administration and performance management that can too be used for DB2 for LUW and DB2 for z/OS. relish the IBM information Server manager, a number of of the SQL question tuning and performance apparatus can too be accessed and used within the facts Studio product.

    The IBM DB2 performance reply Pack for z/OS is an built-in set of database efficiency tools that allow DBAs to determine, diagnose, pellucid up and obviate performance problems in a DB2 for z/OS atmosphere. The solution pack contains here software:

  • IBM Tivoli OMEGAMON XE for DB2 performance professional on z/OS, which is a database gadget efficiency video array for DB2 for z/OS databases and functions. IBM too presents OMEGAMON displays for z/OS, IMS, CICS and other device utility.
  • IBM DB2 question monitor for z/OS, which is a SQL monitoring and tuning device for tracking and picking poorly performing SQL.
  • IBM DB2 SQL performance Analyzer for z/OS, which gives the capability to research the efficiency of SQL queries while not having to execute them.
  • IBM InfoSphere Optim query Workload Tuner for DB2 for z/OS, which -- as outlined above -- displays and tunes SQL workloads in response to skilled suggestions.
  • For DB2 for z/OS, the REORG and RUNSTATS utilities, which might be used to accumulate facts about DB2 statistics and reorganize desk areas and indexes, are available from IBM as section of the DB2 Utilities reply Pack for z/OS.
  • For DB2 for LUW, IBM presents the IBM DB2 efficiency administration providing, a group of apparatus to computer screen, manage and expand database and application performance. available for DB2 trade Server version, DB2 Workgroup Server version and DB2 express Server version, the DB2 efficiency administration offering helps DBAs establish problems and collect hold of notifications of degrading performance or rising resource bottlenecks. This lets them diagnose the foundation reason for concerns and segregate issues across functions, networks and databases, and to pellucid up efficiency complications the employ of tuning options for a complete workload.

    IBM InfoSphere Optim pureQuery Runtime, which is accessible for each z/OS and LUW, provides an information access platform that can better performance, security and manageability of database client functions. It uses a runtime atmosphere and an API that enhances the performance of present in-condo functions while not having to regulate them.

    Contact IBM for suggestions on the a considerable number of product bundles and pricing for its database performance tools.




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    000-516 exam Dumps Source : DB/2 Administration for OS/390

    Test Code : 000-516
    Test title : DB/2 Administration for OS/390
    Vendor title : IBM
    : 118 existent Questions

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    DB/2 Administration for OS/390

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    DB2 Security with total the Trimmings | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    DB2 Security with total the Trimmings

    At a major modern England-area insurance provider, a database engineer who asked not to be identified in this article, describes the management of security for her mainframe databases as "a nearly-impossible, labor-intensive task - if total they had to employ were IBM's own security administration utilities."

    She reports that her company has over 600 IBM DB2 databases running in 13 LPARs across eight mainframes distributed across two, geographically sunder data centers.

    "About 8,000 discontinuance users at the company absorb controlled access to the literally hundreds of volumes of DB2 data on systems which they are migrating to DB2 version 5.1. They are too in the process of migrating from [IBM] MVS to the OS/390 operating system to achieve Year 2000 compliance," says the engineer.

    "While IBM did a considerable job with DB2, its security administration tools are inadequate to reserve up with the changes that occur in their environment on an almost daily basis: changes in user access, the maintenance of kick security and the securing of access to modern transactions. Their database administrators (DBAs) would be spending total of their time just doing security labor if total they had were DB2's own security utilities. It is just not an option not to absorb a second [security] administration package for DB2."

    To enhance the security administration capabilities delivered with IBM DB2, the engineer reports that her company uses RC/Secure from Platinum Technology Inc. (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). With RC/Secure, she says, "We can let their security administration personnel finish the busywork of [granting and revoking access to DB2 database objects], while letting the DBAs focus on the intelligence labor of database design. Platinum's product provides for cleaner security operations and productivity improvements over autochthonous DB2 security applications."

    In DB2's defense, the engineer concedes that her company has not looked closely at any changes in DB2 security delivered with the modern version of the IBM database. Platinum's RC/Secure has become a fixture at the company over a term of years and she has diminutive incentive to change something that works.

    DB2 Security: An break to Enhance

    IBM, which has delivered DB2 since its branding in 1994 to more than 11,000 organizations and more than 40 million discontinuance users worldwide, has been actively evolving the product from an MVS-only mainframe database to a universal data base, according to Hershel Harris, Director of Database Technology with IBM's Software Solutions Division.

    Harris briefly recounts some watershed accomplishments in the progress of DB2. "In 1994, they released an AIX and OS/2 version of the product. In 1995, they provided a parallel edition for data warehousing and a UNIX edition for Sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard. In 1997, they released the Universal Database (UDB) edition, adding kick extensions, support for OLAP and OLTP applications and additional support for parallel databases that enabled data to be split across multiple nodes in a clustered environment. This year, they announced OS/390 DB2 UDB. Version 6, which should be available in 1999, extends the capability of UDB to understand objects. The family of products now runs across multiple operating environments, including NT, UNIX, OS/390, AIX and other flavors of UNIX. They are no longer a only mainframe product, but they are disdainful of their mainframe heritage."

    Built around the relational database model, says Hershel, DB2 delivers "built-in security based on privileges." He explains that, for every user with a convincing ID or group membership, DB2 DBAs can employ the product's autochthonous security features to control what the user can finish with the database objects.

    "This goes beyond access. For every kick and every user, specific privileges can be set up, including read, write, delete, update and run. The objects can be tables, views or procedures, and the privileges can be defined at a very granular level."

    Hershel says that generic SQL data control language statements such as vouchsafe and REVOKE may be used readily to control kick access. He adds that IBM will originate available in Version 6 of the OS/390 DB2 UDB product a suite of Administrative Tools similar to those that already ship with distributed platform versions of the product, "We absorb in Version 5.2 [of their distributed systems product], an easy-to-use, NT-based Administration tool that allows both graphical and Web-based administration of total distributed DB2 servers. This tool set is being added to [our OS/390 DB2 product] with its release in 1999."

    Hershel is aware of the availability and employ of third party products in conjunction with the IBM database, which he describes as "complimentary to the product."

    "IBM encourages complimentary product progress by other companies. In the locality of DB2 security administration, there are probably a number of companies that deliver products to enhance the capabilities delivered with DB2. These tools may provide a graphical user interface to security administration using IBM's application programming interface. Some products emphasize enhanced query capabilities or enhanced reporting. Some try to integrate system smooth security with DB2. One company showed me a demonstration recently of an application that enabled speech recognition technology and its employ with DB2 database security administration. In general, they are very supportive of these efforts."

    Opportunities to enhance DB2 in a complimentary manner absorb been exploited by numerous companies, including Platinum Technology, according to Pete Peterson, Vice President for Database Administration Products at Platinum.

    Peterson says that RC/Secure answers a exigency within companies to simplify the model for managing authority, "With DB2 version 5, IBM allows RACF or external security products to be used in administering security within DB2. It is not a very straightforward procedure and it is difficult to create application and user domains using IBM utilities. Companies can gain a lot of [security administration efficiency] if they had a simple route to pass a hierarchy of privileges from one user to another without having to redo everything."

    RC/Secure, according to Peterson, is designed as a "management layer on top of DB2 - but not a run-time layer." He explains that changes made to security privileges may be applied on an ad hoc basis or in batch mode and suggests that the latter route continues to be preferred by security administrators. He adds that Platinum's RC/Query product too enhances DB2's query facilities and may be employed in connection with RC/Secure to verify updated objects within user and application domains.

    Peterson anticipates a continuing exact for DB2 enhancement products despite IBM's claim that Version 6 will liquidate the exigency for unavoidable types of enhancement products. Says Peterson, while IBM is trying to gallop toward a goal of a Universal Database to enable administration across platforms, "there are differences in the mainframe DB2 product that were do there to cater to the MVS folks and to capitalize on the characteristics of that platform that will continue to impede this goal."

    Computer Associates: Enhancement Equals Replacement

    Mark Combs agrees that IBM opened doors to third parties with version 5 of its DB2 implementation on MVS. Combs, who is Senior Vice President for Research and progress with Computer Associates (CA) in Islandia, NY, sees the break created less in terms of enhancing DB2 than as an break to supersede RACF with either ACF2 or Top secret - both CA mainframe security management products.

    "Companies exigency to gallop to real, rules-based security - that is, a situation in which trade rules determine access. Today, in many mainframe environments, about 75 percent of the rules are controlled by system management products such as CA-ACF2, CA-Top secret or RACF from IBM. Another 25 percent are actually established or enforced using much less robust SQL database security capabilities in products relish DB2. What is needed is an integrated management infrastructure that enable centralized, rules-based security across the entire environment and that provide administrative tools on the mainframe, as well as graphical user interface-based tools on the desktop," says Combs.


    How to collect DB2 admin certified | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    I'm interested in doing certification in DB2 administration for OS/390. I would relish to master the subject, not just collect the certification.

    Well, the best route to master any subject is by doing it. So, with that in mind, you should secure a position where you absorb access to DB2 and exigency to labor with it to effect your job. But, I'm guessing that your objective is to collect a job and that you are looking to collect certified to obtain one. If that is the case, then there are some steps you can take. First of all, account obtaining the following books for study and reference: DB2 Developer's Guide, 5th edition by Craig S. Mullins Db2 For The Z/os Version 8 Certification by Susan Lawson DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 v7.1 Application Certification sheperd by Susan Lawson You should too download, and review, total of the DB2 for z/OS manuals from the IBM Web site. Additionally, regularly review the in-depth technical articles published by IBM at its developerWorks site. Other superb Web sites to bookmark and review include Search390.com, SearchDatabase.com, dbazine.com, DB2 for OS390, and DB2 Times. Regarding your final question, I would train that the best route to obtain my DBA book is via amazon.com.

    Editor's note: finish you conform with this expert's response? If you absorb more to share, post it in one of their .VO7aaqqaAFk.0@/search390>discussion forums.


    Basic SQL Coding for DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Take a Look at the four primary statements of DML: Select, Update, Insert, and Delete. You will learn the function each of these can play in your efforts to master DB2. You will too Look at various aspects of SQL, a necessary language to understand though the comprehension smooth will vary depending on the user's activity.

    This chapter is from the book 

    In the previous chapter, they discussed the definitions of various database objects using the Data Definition Language (DDL). In this chapter, they start manipulating the database objects using the portion of SQL known as Data Manipulation Language (DML). They will be populating (inserting) data into the database and retrieving the data using many powerful methods. Depending on the sophistication of the database users, they can employ SQL to query the database. The majority of the SQL statements within a DB2 application involve DML statements. Therefore, application developers must understand the various methods of inserting, updating, and retrieving data from the database. They will start with simple retrieval statements and gradually introduce more knotty methods of data manipulation. The DB2 Certification database will be used for most of the examples. There are four main DML SQL statements they consider: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

    SQL is based on mathematical principles, specifically on set theory and relational algebra. The data is stored in the database as unordered sets of data records. SQL is a set-oriented language, and many of its language elements are directly related to relational algebraic terms, such as permutation, projection, restriction, and join.

    A set of data is represented in a DB2 database as a table or a view and is stored in a DB2 table without esteem to order. To retrieve data in a particular order, an ORDER BY phrase must be added to a SELECT statement. Similarly, if the data is to be grouped, then a GROUP BY phrase must be added to the statement.

    Now, let's review the DB2CERT database design defined in the previous chapter and maneuver data using various SQL statements. There are three main tables: CANDIDATE, TEST, and TEST_CENTER. Each table represents a set of records that correspond to a test candidate (person), a test, and a test hub (location).

    There is an associative table, known as the TEST_TAKEN table, that is used to reflect the relationships among the three main tables. The TEST_TAKEN table is used to schedule the test candidates and too to maintain their test scores.

    NOTE

    The longest SQL statement is 32,765 bytes.

    Remember that to execute any operation, the user must absorb the necessary privileges.

    Retrieving the Entire Table

    The most basic of total retrieval command involves the SELECT statement with no operators other than the title of the table. This SQL statement retrieves total of the candidates who absorb taken a DB2 Certification exam. The information requested is contained in the table TEST_TAKEN.

    SELECT * FROM db2cert.test_taken

    SQL is a data access language that consists of language statements and clauses. There are many optional clauses that can be used to modify the output. The output of a SELECT statement is known as a result set or result table. The results from the SELECT statement are shown next. In this example, using an asterisk or star character (*) for column selection, the columns will be returned to the user in the order in which they are defined in the table.

    CID TCID NUMBER DATE_TAKEN START_TIME FINISH_TIME SCORE PASS_FAIL SEAT_NO --- ---- ------ ---------- ---------- ----------- ----- --------- ------- 111 TX01 500 01/01/2000 11:30:00 12:30:00 65 Y 1 111 TX01 501 02/02/2000 10:30:00 11:45:00 73 Y 1 111 TX01 502 03/03/2000 12:30:00 13:30:00 67 Y 1 222 TR01 500 01/01/2000 14:00:00 15:30:00 55 N 2 222 TR01 502 01/02/2000 09:00:00 10:15:00 53 N 2 222 TR01 502 02/18/2000 10:00:00 11:30:00 75 Y 2 333 TX01 500 03/01/2000 11:30:00 13:00:00 82 Y 2 333 TX01 501 12/29/2000 14:00:00 - - - 1 333 TX01 502 03/02/2000 14:00:00 14:30:00 92 Y 1 9 record(s) selected.

    In SQL, the * is used to argue that total columns of a table are being referenced. In this example, the SQL statement refers to total of the columns defined for the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table. If the table is altered and a modern column is added to the table definition, the result set would contain the modern column.

    NOTE

    Adding a modern column to an existing table will result in default values being populated for the existing rows.

    Since the output of the SQL statement using * character varies according to the table definition, it is recommended that you specify total of the column names you want to perceive in the SELECT statement. They could absorb obtained the identical result as the statement using SELECT * with the following SQL statement.

    SELECT cid, tcid, number,date_taken,start_time, finish_time,score,seat_no FROM db2cert.test_taken;

    NOTE

    The * character is used to advert to total of the columns defined for a table. The order of the columns in the result table is the identical order as specified in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement.

    What is returned to the user is known as the result set. If the result set is big it is advisable to be sure to filter the data using a WHERE predicate.

    The FROM clause is required for the DML SQL statement, since it describes the location (table or view) of the data. Their sample references a solitary table called DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN. The SELECT and FROM clauses are required in total data retrieval statements. The list of columns following the SELECT keyword is referred to as the select list.

    Projecting Columns from a Table

    Projection is a relational operation that allows you to retrieve a subset of the defined columns from a table. The next sample restricts the output from the SELECT command so that only the candidate ID, test center, and test number attributes from the TEST_TAKEN table are shown.

    SELECT cid,tcid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken

    The output of this SELECT statement is shown below.

    CID TCID NUMBER --- ---- ------ 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 222 TR01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 333 TX01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 9 record(s) selected.

    The order of the columns in the result table will always match the order in the select list. The order of the columns as they were defined in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement is ignored when a select list is provided in the SQL statement. In this example, the order of the columns is similar to the order in the CREATE TABLE statement, since the CID column was defined prior to TCID and NUMBER columns.

    Changing the Order of the Columns

    Permutation is the relational operation that allows you to change the order of the columns in your result table. Permutation is used every time you select columns in an order different than the order defined in the CREATE TABLE statement. For example, to array the test hub ID prior to the candidate IDs and the test number, you could execute the following:

    SELECT tcid,cid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken

    The result of this SELECT statement specifies a select list in a different order than was defined in the table definition.

    TCID CID NUMBER ---- --- ------ TX01 111 500 TX01 111 501 TX01 111 502 TR01 222 500 TR01 222 502 TR01 222 502 TX01 333 500 TX01 333 501 TX01 333 502 9 record(s) selected.

    NOTE

    We advert to the output of a SELECT statement as the result table because the output of total SELECT statements can be considered a relational table.

    Restricting Rows from a Table

    Restriction is a relational operation that will filter the resulting rows of a table. Restriction can be accomplished through the employ of predicates defined in a SQL WHERE clause. To restrict the result set, they exigency to add a WHERE clause to the SQL statement.

    NOTE

    A predicate is a condition placed on the data. The result of the condition is TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN.

    The WHERE clause specifies conditions or predicates that must be evaluated by DB2 before the result table is returned to the discontinuance user. There are many convincing types of predicates that can be used. In the following example, the equality (=) predicate is used to restrict the records to only those candidates who absorb taken a DB2 Certification test at the test hub TR01.

    SELECT tcid,cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid ='TR01'

    The WHERE clause too accepts other comparison operators, such as greater than (>), less than (<), greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (<=), and not equal to (<>).This statement is an sample of a basic predicate. A basic predicate compares two values. In addition, more knotty predicates, such as LIKE, BETWEEN, and IN, are too convincing and will be discussed later.

    NOTE

    Trying to execute this sample SQL statement will result in a data type compatibility error, because the column TCID is defined with a user-defined data type (UDT).

    Predicate Evaluation for UDTs

    The column TCID was defined as a user-defined data type. To originate the comparison in the WHERE clause valid, a casting function needs to be used. This is not mandatory if the comparison is to a literal or host variable. This technique is however demonstrated below:

    SELECT tcid, cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid=CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id)

    Predicate evaluation requires that the data types be compatible (same data type or a compatible data type). They can accomplish the data type conversion (cast) using one of two methods:

  • Use the CAST expression.
  • Use a casting function.
  • Refer to Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming," for more information on casting for UDTs.

    NOTE

    Although not always mandatory, casting is recommended to ensure compatible data types are compared, including length and scale. This allows DB2 to resolve these as indexable rather than stage 2 predicates.

    Restricting Rows Using Multiple Conditions

    It is workable to combine multiple conditions (predicates) in a solitary SQL statement. The predicates can be combined using Boolean operators, such as the AND or OR operators. These operators allow you to combine multiple conditions in a solitary SQL statement. The order of the predicate evaluation will not strike the result set (known as set closure).

    The next sample retrieves the records for the test candidates who took a test at test hub TR01 and achieved a score greater than 65. The rows that meet the predicates are known as the qualifying rows. The following sample is an SQL statement using multiple predicates:

    SELECT tcid,cid,score FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid= CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id) AND score > 65 Selecting Columns from Multiple Tables

    There are basically two operations that combine columns from multiple tables in a solitary SQL statement. These operations are

    Cartesian Product

    A Cartesian product is a relational operation that will merge total the values from one table with total the values from another table. This operation is not used frequently because the result table can be very large. The number of rows in the result table is always equal to the product of the number of rows in the qualifying rows for each of the tables being accessed.

    NOTE

    The DB2 optimizer may select to utilize a Cartesian product of unrelated tables if this is deemed to be an efficient route of accessing multiple tables. An sample would be two single-row tables that are joined with a big table. The cross-product of 1 ∴ 1 = 1; thus the big table access is deferred as late as possible, with a potential expand in the restrictive predicates that can be applied without incurring the overhead of a big Cartesian result. This route of table access is typical in processing queries against a star schema data model.

    The following sample is a Cartesian product of total test numbers and test names from the TEST table, with total candidates from the TEST_TAKEN table. First, select from the TEST table.

    SELECT number, title FROM db2cert.test NUMBER NAME ------ -------------------------------------------------- 500 DB2 Fundamentals 501 DB2 Administration 502 DB2 Application Development 3 record(s) selected. Next select of total candidates from the test_taken table. SELECT cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken CID TCID --- ---- 222 TR01 222 TR01 222 TR01 111 TX01 111 TX01 111 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 9 record(s) selected.

    Then combine the two tables to configuration a Cartesian product result table.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 27 record(s) selected.

    There are two tables referenced in the FROM clause of this query. The tables are separated by commas. There is no relationship expression in the WHERE clause. This type of query results in a Cartesian product.

    The result table is a representation of total workable combinations of the input tables. The TEST table has three rows, and the TEST_TAKEN table has nine rows. Therefore, the SELECT statement shown above returns 27 rows. Note the first column title in this query. It is necessary to fully qualify the column title by providing the schema title and table title with the column title because this column exists in both the TEST table and TEST_TAKEN table. In this case, they needed to specify that the NUMBER column is to be retrieved from the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table and not from the DB2CERT.TEST table.

    By adding a predicate to a Cartesian product SQL query, the result table can depict a more useful representation of the data. In the sample below, the query represents total of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid='111' NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 9 record(s) selected.

    Adding a WHERE clause to your query does not always provide the desired result. In the sample shown above, you want to know total of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111, and the query returns nine rows. But they know from previous queries that the candidate took only three tests. The query in the sample above has a WHERE clause to filter out the candidate whose ID is 111 from the TEST_TAKEN table, but there was no filter on the TEST_CENTER table. Therefore, the result of the query would always be a multiple of the number of testing centers. Usually, when multiple tables are referenced, you should include a cross-table relationship using a table merge or relate method, as shown in the following example. They will examine table relate methods further in the next section.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid= '111' AND db2cert.test_taken.number=db2cert.test.number NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 3 record(s) selected.

    To avoid data redundancy, it is recommended that the database tables be normalized. Following a normalization process, a number of related tables will exist. To meet some of the required queries, the tables must be reconstructed. The tables are reconstructed temporarily, using a table relate strategy to produce a single-result table.

    The result tables in the previous examples usually provided candidate ID numbers and not the complete title of the test candidates. The candidate IDs are stored in the TEST_TAKEN table, and the full names are stored in the CANDIDATE table. To obtain the title of a candidate, the data must be retrieved from the CANDIDATE table, using a relationship or relate strategy.

    Consider an sample that will list the names and phone numbers of candidates who were registered to select a DB2 Certification test in 2000. To accomplish this, they exigency to select data from two different tables:

  • db2cert.candidate
  • db2cert.test_taken
  • Let's retrieve a list of candidate names, phone numbers, and IDs from the CANDIDATE table. The candidate names were stored in multiple columns to allow for effortless retrieval by last name.

    SELECT fname,initial,lname,hphone,cid FROM db2cert.candidate

    The output of this sample follows. Pay special attention to the values in the CID column. It will be used as the relate column in the next example.

    FNAME INITIAL LNAME HPHONE CID -------- ------- ---------- ---------- --- Bill B Wong 1115551234 111 George Baklarz 2226543455 222 Susan M Visser 4442314244 333 Glen R Sheffield 5552143244 444 Jim G Stittle 6662341234 555 Kevin W Street 7773142134 666 Bert F Nicol 8886534534 777 Paul C Zikopoulos 9992112212 888 8 record(s) selected.

    Now, let's retrieve the ID numbers of those candidates who were registered to select the test in 2000.

    SELECT sunder cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 CID --- 222 111 333 3 record(s) selected.

    The candidate IDs in the TEST_TAKEN table must correspond to a candidate ID in the CANDIDATE table because of the declarative referential integrity constraints. The parent table in the relationship is the CANDIDATE table and the child table (dependent table) is the TEST_TAKEN table.

    The result table from the above query does not include the test candidate 444, since that candidate did not absorb a test scheduled for 2000. They exigency to relate the two result tables based on the candidate ID values. This column is known as the relate column.

    NOTE

    Query performance can significantly better if the relate columns are appropriately indexed.

    The following solitary query will meet the end-user requirement.

    SELECT sunder fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.candidate WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND db2cert.test_taken.cid=db2cert.candidate.cid

    A table relate requires a predicate that includes an expression based on columns from the tables referenced in the FROM clause. This is known as a relate predicate. The FROM clause has not changed from the Cartesian product examples. The only dissimilarity is in the relate predicate (test_taken.cid = candidate.cid).

    NOTE

    An alternative configuration of the FROM clause for joins involves explicitly coding the relate keyword between the tables (rather than using a comma) and coding the relate predicates in the ON clause rather than in the WHERE clause. This route of coding will be covered in more detail in Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding."

    The table names needed to be explicitly stated because there is a column named CID in both of the referenced tables. When multiple tables are being accessed in a solitary query, any selected columns that occur in more than one table must be qualified with the table name.

    NOTE

    An oversight will occur if the columns being referenced are vague (not properly qualified).

    The maximum number of groundwork tables that can be in a solitary SQL statement is 225; however, you are limited to 15 tables in a relate (the FROM clause).

    NOTE

    The 15-table limit can be increased by updating the macro SPRMMXT to a value greater than 15.

    This kindly of relate operation shown in the above sample is too known as an inner join. An inner relate displays only the rows that are present in both of the joined tables.

    Using Correlation Names

    If each of the columns needed to be fully qualified with the table name, such as tableschema.tablename.columnname, the queries would become very big and cumbersome to labor with. Fortunately, there is an easier route to qualify the vague columns resulting from a multitable SELECT statement.

    The columns can be qualified using a correlation name. A correlation title is a temporary alias for the tables referenced in an SQL statement. They rewrite the previous query using correlated names as follows:

    SELECT sunder fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken tt, db2cert.candidate c WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND tt.cid = c.cid

    The correlation title immediately follows the title of the table as stated in the FROM clause. In this example, the correlated title for the TEST_TAKEN table is tt, and the correlated title for the CANDIDATE table is c.

    NOTE

    Correlation names can be optionally prefixed with the AS keyword, such as DB2CERT.CANDITATE AS C. This is purely for readability.

    The correlated names are accessible within the SQL statement only. Following the execution of the SQL statement, the correlation title is no longer defined. Once a correlation title has been defined, it can be referenced in the leisure of the query instead of the table name. However, the table title can soundless be referenced.

    NOTE

    Use simple, easy-to-remember correlation names. Table initials are superb candidates for correlation names.

    Sorting Your Output

    We absorb been retrieving data from one or more tables. The order of the result table has not been specified in any of the SQL statements. Therefore, the data is retrieved in an undetermined order if there is no ORDER BY clause in the SQL statement.

    NOTE

    The only guaranteed route to recur data in the required sequence is with the ORDER BY clause. Any data retrieval that is currently returned in sequence without this clause is purely based upon the data retrieval route at the time. A future access path change may not recur the data in the identical sequence.

    The following sample produces a list of the test candidates in alphabetical order by last title for the candidates who absorb taken a DB2 Certification test at the TR01 test center.

    SELECT lname,initial,fname FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY lname

    This sample contains a modern clause, ORDER BY. After the ORDER BY clause, you can list the columns that will specify the sort order and the type of sort.

    NOTE

    Appropriate indexing may allow DB2 to avoid sorting the data to match the ORDER BY clause. If the data is already sequenced via the index, DB2 may select to utilize the index and avoid sorting the data. DB2 cannot avoid a sort for an ORDER BY involving columns from more than one table. Where possible, include columns from only one table in the ORDER BY to give DB2 greater break for sort avoidance.

    The SQL can be modified so that the output is changed to descending order by last title and a secondary order column on the first title in ascending order.

    SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid= 'TR01' ORDER BY lname DESC, fname

    In this example, the DESC keyword that follows the lname column indicates that the result table should be in descending order based on the last name. More than one record can absorb the identical last name. This situation is quite common. There is a second column specified in the ORDER BY clause, fname. There is no keyword specifying the sort sequence based on the fname column. Therefore, the default ordering sequence (ascending) is used.

    The next sample contains three columns lname, fname, and hphone. You can reference the column that should be used to sort the data using the column title or by specifying its position in the select list. Using the column position is useful when the column in the select list is made up of derived columns (calculated columns) that absorb no specific name.

    SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2

    In this example, the sort order is specified using the column position. Therefore, the query result is exactly the identical as the in previous example.

    You can too assign an alternative column title using column renaming. The assigned title can then be referenced in the ORDER BY clause, and it appears as the column heading where appropriate.

    NOTE

    Although useful, coding a column position rather than a column (or renamed column) in the ORDER BY clause may lead to a different sequence if another column is inadvertently added to the query that alters the column positioning.

    The ORDER BY clause must succeed total subselects in the FULLSELECT statement. The only clauses that can succeed the ORDER BY clause are the for FOR FETCH ONLY, FOR READ ONLY, OPTIMIZE, WITH QUERYNO, FETCH FIRST n ROWS clauses.

    Derived Columns

    There are some cases when you will exigency to effect calculations on the data. The SQL language has some basic mathematical and string functions built in. Mathematical operations include criterion addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

    The calculation can be defined in the WHERE clause of the SQL statement or the select list. Suppose that you exigency to cipher a passing rate for a DB2 test. The passing rate is defined as the percentage of candidates that pass the test (totalpassed*100/totaltaken). The following SQL statement will accomplish this for us for test number 500:

    SELECT number, totalpassed*100/totaltaken FROM test WHERE number='500'

    In this example, the second column of the output list is a calculated column. recall that you must employ the column position if you want to employ this calculated column for the ORDER BY clause unless you title it (as they now discuss).

    NOTE

    Occasionally, the results of a derived column may not array as expected. The sample using totalpassed*100/totaltaken will result in a value of 66 being retrieved. Since both the totalpassed and totaltaken columns are integers, the final result is too an integer, and the fractional section is discarded. If this is not your desired result, you should employ other functions (like decimal) to change the route the calculation is performed or displayed.

    Naming Derived/Calculated Columns

    You can specify a column title for any expression. When you provide the derived (calculated) column with a name, the ORDER BY clause can reference the derived title to allow for a more readable SQL statement.

    The following SQL calculates the percentage of people that absorb passed the DB2 Certification exams and orders the output in descending order of the passing rate.

    SELECT number,totalpassed*100/totaltaken AS PassedRate FROM test ORDER BY PassedRate DESC

    The AS clause is used to rename the default title of an component in the select list. In this example, they are giving the title of PassedRate to the result of the division of columns totalpassed by totaltaken. The named column is used in the query to specify the column that should be used for sorting the output.

    NOTE

    The AS keyword is optional, although it should be added for readability. Without the AS clause, it may be unclear whether the aim was to rename a column or a comma was missed between two retrieved columns.

    Functions

    In DB2, there are different types of functions provided. For example, two types of functions provided by DB2 are scalar and column functions (a third type of function called a table function is discussed in Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming."

  • Scalar functions (also known as row functions) provide a result for each row of the result table. A scalar function can be used any position an expression is allowed.

  • Column functions (also known as vector functions) labor with a group of rows to provide a result. The group is specified using a FULLSELECT and optionally grouped using the GROUP BY clause.

  • In this section, they introduce you to some of the SQL functions provided with DB2. SQL functions are categorized by their implementation type. Either the functions are built in or they are extensions of DB2 and are known as user-defined functions (UDFs).

  • Built-in functions are defined within the SQL standards, and they are provided by DB2. These can be either scalar or column functions.

  • UDFs are not defined within the SQL standards because they are extensions of the current SQL language. These functions can be developed by a DB2 administrator or application developer. UDFs can be either scalar or table functions, but not column functions. Once the UDFs absorb been created, they can be invoked by any discontinuance user with the proper privileges. For more information about UDFs, advert to Chapter 15.

  • Scalar Functions

    Scalar functions are applied to each row of data, and there is a per-row result provided. If they want to retrieve only the first three digits of telephone numbers for each candidate, they could employ a scalar function. The function that is used is called SUBSTR. The arguments for this function include a string data type column, a birth offset, and length. The output data type and advert of the function depend on the input data type and attribute. The following sample retrieves the telephone locality code for the column wphone.

    SELECT lname, SUBSTR(CHAR(wphone),1,3) FROM db2cert.candidate

    The SUBSTR function is a scalar function. In this example, SUBSTR returns a character string of three characters. The result string corresponds to the first three characters of the wphone column. This function is known as a string function because it works with any string data type. If they wanted to provide the output column with a meaningful name, they could provide an alias, as was done for calculated columns.

    In the sample above, the substring starts from the birth of the string, because they argue one (1) as the second parameter of the function. The length of the resulting string is indicated in the third argument. In their example, the length is three. Note that the data type of the wphone column is phone, so a casting function is used to transform the phone data type to the char data type.

    The following query will provide the month when the exam was taken. The input for this function is a DATE string, and the output is an integer.

    SELECT fname, MONTH (date_taken) FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid Column Functions

    Column functions provide a solitary result for a group of qualifying rows for a specified table or view. Many common queries can be satisfied using column functions where they include common tasks, such as finding the smallest value, the largest value, or the average value for a group of data records. In the following sample you can obtain the maximum length of time of any of the DB2 Certification exams:

    SELECT MAX("length") FROM test

    Because the length column shares its title with the length scalar function, the column title is encased within double-quotes to distinguish this as a column and not a function.

    If they added a WHERE clause to this example, the maximum would depict the maximum length for the qualifying rows, since the predicate is used to filter the data prior to the application of the MAX function.

    This next sample calculates the average of the number of seats for total of the test centers. Notice the column function AVG is used in this example:

    SELECT AVG(noseats) FROM test_center

    DB2 provides many more built-in functions. If you are interested in calculating statistical information, you can employ statistical functions, such as VARIANCE, STDDEV, or a sampling of these functions.

    NOTE

    MAX and MIN functions can be either column or scalar functions depending on the input arguments.

    Grouping Values

    Many queries require some smooth of aggregated data. This is accomplished in SQL through the employ of the GROUP BY clause. The following SQL obtains the average number of seats for each country:

    SELECT country, AVG(noseats) FROM test_center GROUP BY country

    This SQL statement obtains the average number of seats per country, and the GROUP BY clause tells DB2 to group together the rows that absorb the identical values in the columns indicated in the GROUP BY list. In their example, they are grouping countries into subsets. As the subsets are created, DB2 calculates the average of each of those groups or subsets, in this case, by each country.

    When you combine column functions and other elements, such as column names, scalar functions, or calculated columns, you must employ the GROUP BY clause. In this case, you must include every component that is not a column function in the GROUP BY list. The only elements that can be omitted in the GROUP BY list are constant values.

    The next SQL statement obtains a list that includes the average crop score and minimum test length for the DB2 Certification exams. They group this list by the type of exam, as follows:

    SELECT type, AVG(cut_score), MIN("length") FROM test GROUP BY type

    NOTE

    Appropriate indexing can allow DB2 to avoid a sort to group the data rows to match the GROUP BY clause.

    It is workable to sort the output of the previous sample using an ORDER BY clause.

    NOTE

    GROUP BY may recur data in the identical order as an ORDER BY, but this is not guaranteed and is based upon the access path. The only route to guarantee data sequence is with an ORDER BY.

    Restricting the employ of Sets of Data

    Up to now, they absorb discussed how to restrict output based on row conditions. With SQL, it is too workable to restrict that output using column functions and the GROUP BY clause. Suppose you want a list of total the test centers that absorb administered more than five DB2 Certification exams. To originate it easier to understand, let's first collect the number of tests that absorb been taken in each test center.

    SELECT tcid, count(*) FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid

    We employ the signify column function to collect the total number of tests that absorb been taken in each test center. When you employ an asterisk (*) with the signify function, you are indicating that you want the number of rows in a table that meet the criteria established in the SQL statement. In this example, they are grouping by TCID because they absorb a number of occurrences for total the test centers in the TEST_TAKEN table. The TEST_TAKEN table has an entry for every DB2 Certification exam that has been taken. Finally, the output is restricted to only those test centers that absorb administered more than four exams.

    SELECT tcid FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid HAVING COUNT(*) > 4

    This sample introduces the HAVING clause. The HAVING clause is equivalent to the WHERE clause for groups and column functions. The HAVING clause will restrict the result set to only the groups that meet the condition specified in it. In their example, only the test centers that absorb administered more than four DB2 Certification exams will be displayed.

    Eliminating Duplicates

    When you execute a query, you might collect duplicate rows in the reply set. The SQL language provides a special clause to remove the duplicate rows from your output. The following SQL generates a list of names and phone numbers for total the candidates who absorb taken a test. In the following example, they liquidate the duplicate rows from their output list using the sunder clause.

    SELECT sunder fname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c,test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid

    The sunder clause can too be used with the signify function. When you employ sunder inside a signify function, it will not signify the duplicate entries for a particular column. The following sample allows you to signify how many different test centers absorb candidates registered.

    SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT tcid) FROM test_taken

    This sample provides the number of test centers that are registered in the TEST_TAKEN table. recall that total the candidates who absorb registered for DB2 Certification exams are stored in this table. originate sure that you understand the dissimilarity between COUNT(*), COUNT(colname), and COUNT(DISTINCT colname). They are very similar in syntax but vary in function.

    NOTE

    COUNT(*) returns a signify of total rows that qualify against the WHERE clause. COUNT(colname) returns a signify of total rows that qualify against the WHERE clause, with null occurrences of colname removed. COUNT(DISTINCT colname) counts sunder occurrences of colname, with nulls removed.

    Searching for String Patterns

    SQL has a powerful predicate that allows you to search for patterns in character string columns. This is the relish predicate. Suppose you want to generate a list of the candidates whose first title starts with the letter G.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname relish 'G%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    In this query, they employ a wildcard character with the relish predicate. In SQL, the percent character (%) is a substitute for zero or more characters. The search string G% can be substituted with names relish George, Gary, Ginger, and so on (since the percent character can substitute zero or more characters, the search string can too be a solitary letter G).

    The percent character can be used any position in the search string. It too can be used as many times as you exigency it. The percent token is not case-sensitive, so it can select the position of uppercase or lowercase letters. However, the constant characters included in your search string are case-sensitive.

    Another wildcard character used with the relish predicate is the underline character (_). This character substitutes one and only one character. The underline character can select the position of any character. However, the underline character cannot be substituted for an vacant character.

    NOTE

    If the pattern needs to search for occurrences of the wildcard characters % and _ as their actual values, then the avoid clause is used to specify a character that precedes the percent or underscore in the pattern.

    The previous SQL can be modified to include total candidates' names and the telephone numbers for those candidates whose title has a lowercase letter "a" as its second letter.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname relish '_a%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    This sample uses two wildcard characters that labor with the relish predicate. The search string in this sample can include names, such as Paul, Gabriel, or Natalie. (The first character may be any character, the lowercase letter "a" is the second character in the string, and the string ends with any number of characters.)

    NOTE

    When the pattern in a relish predicate is a fixed-length host variable, the rectify length must be specified for the string to be returned. 'G%' assigned to an 8-byte variable (LIKE :variable) will search for total occurrences of 'G% ' (G, followed by any character, followed by 6 blank characters). To find rows that open with a G, then 'G%%%%%%%' should be assigned to the fixed-length variable.

    Searching for Data in Ranges

    SQL too offers us a sweep operator. This operator is used to restrict rows that are in a particular sweep of values. account the requirement to list those candidates whose scores in the DB2 Certification exam are between 60 and 75.

    SELECT sunder fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75

    The BETWEEN predicate includes the values that you specify for searching your data. An famous fact about the BETWEEN predicate is that it can labor with character ranges as well.

    In addition to the score requirement, this sample modifies the SQL to include only those candidates whose last title begins with a letter between B and G.

    SELECT sunder fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75 AND lname BETWEEN 'B' AND 'GZ'

    In this example, the second BETWEEN predicate contains character values. They exigency to specify the GZ value to include total the workable names that start with the letter G. This was done assuming that the letter Z is the last workable value in the alphabet.

    NOTE

    The arguments of the BETWEEN clause are not interchangeable; the first must specify the low value, and the second, the elevated value. BETWEEN 1 AND 2 will recur total values within the sweep (inclusive of 1 and 2). BETWEEN 2 AND 1 will recur zero rows.

    Searching for Null Values

    Null values depict an unknown value for a particular event of an entity. They can employ a null value in the cases where they don't know a particular value of a column. Let's train that they want a list of total those candidates whose score is not yet input. This condition is represented with a null value.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score IS NULL

    The IS predicate is used to search for the null value in this example. recall that the null value means "unknown." Because it has no particular value, it can't be compared with other values. You can't employ conditional operands, such as equal (=) or greater than (>), with null values.

    Searching for Negative Conditions

    The BETWEEN, IS, and relish predicates always Look for the values that meet a particular condition. These predicates can too be used to Look for values that don't meet a particular criterion.

    The NOT predicate can be used to Look for the antithetical condition, combined with the LIKE, BETWEEN, and IS predicate, to accomplish negative searches, as shown in the following example. This sample has a relish predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want a list of those candidates whose last names finish not start with the letter S.

    SELECT sunder fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE lname NOT relish 'S%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    The next sample has a BETWEEN predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want the list of those candidates whose score, in any test, is not in the sweep 60 to 75.

    SELECT sunder fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND integer(score) NOT BETWEEN 60 and 75

    In this example, the NOT predicate will exclude total the values that are in the sweep 60 to 75.

    Negation can too be applied to the null value. This SQL produces a report that searches for those candidates that absorb a seat number assigned. This is expressed with a NOT NULL value.

    SELECT sunder fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND seat_no IS NOT NULL

    NOTE

    The NOT operator can too be used to negate the criterion comparison operators, =, <, <=, >, and >=.

    When dealing with nulls, NOT or negation may not recur the antithetical of the positive logic. For example, WHERE SEAT_NO = 1 will recur only the rows for seat number 1. Any value other than 1 is discarded, as these rows are FALSE, including nulls, since these are unknown. WHERE SEAT_NO <> 1 excludes rows where the seat number is 1, and too discards nulls because these are unknown.

    Searching for a Set of Values

    In SQL, it is workable to establish a restriction condition based on a set of values. Suppose that you exigency a list of the test centers that absorb candidates registered for the DB2 Fundamentals test and for the DB2 Application progress test. This can be queried with the following statement:

    SELECT sunder name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND (number = '500' or number ='502')

    To simplify edifice multiple OR conditions when multiple values for the identical column are being compared, it is workable to rewrite the statement using the IN clause.

    SELECT sunder name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND number IN ('500','502')

    The IN clause is used to denote a set of values. In this example, they employ a constant set of values.

    You can too employ the NOT predicate with the IN clause. In this case, the condition will be lawful when a value is not present in the set of values provided to the IN clause. You can employ as many values as you wish in the IN clause, within the defined limits of the size of a SQL statement.

    Advanced Selection Functionality

    In Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding," they will Look at more of the functionality and power of the SELECT statement. They will cover topics such as

  • Subqueries
  • Inner and outer joins
  • Nested table expressions
  • CASE expressions
  • Row expressions
  • Unions


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    References :


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