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IBM to Open Quantum Computation core for industrial consumers in Poughkeepsie, modern york
YORKTOWN HEIGHTS, N.Y., Jan. 8, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- at the 2019 client Electronics display (CES), IBM (NYSE: IBM) today unveiled IBM Q device One™, the world's first built-in widely wide-spread approximate quantum computing rig designed for scientific and industrial use. IBM additionally introduced plans to open its first IBM Q Quantum Computation middle for industrial shoppers in Poughkeepsie, ny in 2019.
IBM Q methods are designed to sooner or later tackle complications that are presently viewed as too advanced and exponential in nature for classical techniques to handle. Future purposes of quantum computing may too encompass finding modern ways to model fiscal facts and isolating key international risk factors to compose more suitable investments, or discovering the choicest direction across international techniques for ultra-productive logistics and optimizing fleet operations for deliveries.
Designed by using IBM scientists, systems engineers and industrial designers, IBM Q system One has an advanced, modular and compact design optimized for balance, reliability and continual traffic use. For the primary time ever, IBM Q rig One permits accepted approximate superconducting quantum computer systems to role beyond the confines of the analysis lab.
tons as classical computers fuse assorted add-ons into an built-in structure optimized to drudgery collectively, IBM is applying the identical method to quantum computing with the first integrated commonplace quantum computing system. IBM Q rig One is created from a brace of customized components that drudgery collectively to serve because the most superior cloud-primarily based quantum computing application purchasable, together with:
The IBM Q Quantum Computation center
The IBM Q Quantum Computation middle opening later this 12 months in Poughkeepsie, modern york, will expand the IBM Q community commercial quantum computing software, which already comprises methods at the Thomas J. Watson research core in Yorktown, colossal apple. This modern heart will house some of the world's most advanced cloud-primarily based quantum computing methods, which can breathe accessible to individuals of the IBM Q network, a global group of leading Fortune 500 businesses, startups, academic associations, and national analysis labs working with IBM to advance quantum computing and discover useful functions for company and science.
IBM Poughkeepsie's pleasing history in computing stretches back to the building of IBM's first line of construction company computer systems in the Nineteen Fifties, the IBM 700 sequence, and the IBM equipment/360 in the 1960s, which revolutionized the world via changing the course agencies concept about computer hardware. Now home to one of the world's most-potent classical system, the IBM mainframe, IBM Poughkeepsie is placed to be some of the few places on this planet with the technical capabilities, infrastructure and handicap to flee a quantum computation core, together with access to towering efficiency computing systems and a towering availability data core obligatory to drudgery alongside quantum computer systems.
"The IBM Q gadget One is an immense step ahead in the commercialization of quantum computing," spoke of Arvind Krishna, senior vice president of Hybrid Cloud and director of IBM research. "This modern rig is distinguished in expanding quantum computing beyond the walls of the analysis lab as they drudgery to develop practical quantum applications for company and science."
Designing a primary: IBM Q system One
IBM assembled a global-class team of industrial designers, architects, and manufacturers to drudgery alongside IBM analysis scientists and methods engineers to design IBM Q system One, together with UK industrial and indoors design studios Map project workplace and usual Design Studio, and Goppion, a Milan-based mostly company of high-end museum screen situations that present protection to one of the vital world's Most worthy artwork including the Mona Lisa at the Louvre, and the Crown Jewels at the Tower of London.
together these collaborators designed the first quantum gadget to consolidate hundreds of components into a pitcher-enclosed, air-tight environment developed peculiarly for company use, a milestone in the evolution of traffic quantum computers.
This integrated system aims to wield one of the vital difficult elements of quantum computing: constantly keeping the fine of qubits used to operate quantum computations. potent yet gentle, qubits quickly lose their special quantum homes, usually within one hundred microseconds (for state-of-the-art superconducting qubits), due in allotment to the interconnected machinery's ambient clamor of vibrations, temperature fluctuations, and electromagnetic waves. protection from this interference is one in every of many the explanation why quantum computers and their accessories require mindful engineering and isolation.
The design of IBM Q device One includes a nine-foot-tall, 9-foot-vast case of half-inch thick borosilicate glass forming a sealed, airtight enclosure that opens easily using "roto-translation," a motor-driven rotation round two displaced axes engineered to simplify the device's renovation and better procedure whereas minimizing downtime – an extra ingenious trait that makes the IBM Q gadget One arrogate to reputable commercial use.
A chain of impartial aluminum and metal frames unify, however too decouple the gadget's cryostat, wield electronics, and exterior casing, helping to sojourn away from capabilities vibration interference that leads to "phase jitter" and qubit decoherence.
a replica of IBM Q system One will breathe on screen at CES. For extra tips talk over with, here.
This modern rig marks the subsequent evolution of IBM Q, the business's first application to interpose the general public to programmable generic quantum computing during the cloud-based mostly IBM Q journey, and the traffic IBM Q network platform for enterprise and science applications. The free and publicly attainable IBM Q experience has been continuously operating considering may of 2016 and now boasts more than one hundred,000 users, who gain flee more than 6.7 million experiments and published greater than 130 third-party research papers. builders gain additionally downloaded Qiskit, a full-stack, open-supply quantum application building equipment, greater than 140,000 instances to create and flee quantum computing programs. The IBM Q community includes the recent additions of Argonne national Laboratory, CERN, ExxonMobil, Fermilab, and Lawrence Berkeley country wide Laboratory.
About IBM Q
IBM Q is an business-first initiative to build industrial widespread quantum techniques for traffic and science purposes. For more assistance about IBM's quantum computing efforts, gladden talk over with www.ibm.com/ibmq.
IBM Q community™, IBM Q gadget One™, and IBM Q™ are logos of international traffic Machines service provider.
Media Contact:Chris NayIBM analysis Communicationscnay@us.ibm.com 720-349-2032
A rendering of IBM Q gadget One, the area's first thoroughly built-in regularly occurring quantum computing system, presently achieve in on the Thomas J Watson research heart in Yorktown Heights, ny, where IBM scientists are using it to explore device advancements and enhancements that accelerate industrial applications of this transformational expertise. For the primary time ever, IBM Q system One enables quantum computers to operate past the confines of the analysis lab.extra
IBM organisation logo. (PRNewsFoto/IBM traffic enterprise) (PRNewsFoto/) (PRNewsfoto/IBM)greater
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January 28, 2019 Timothy Prickett Morgan
The punch programs line, buoyed by means of the carry of excessive-end energy E980 systems for big AIX and IBM i jobs, a uniform movement of IBM i device upgrades, and a few traction in vigour-based mostly Linux clusters for HPC and information analytics workloads, turned in a splendid looking splendid remaining quarter for 2018, and capped three prior quarters of multiply throughout 2018 to display in a replete 12 months of increase.
which you can’t Tell how a lot boom, of path, but within the lead Story of this challenge of The 4 Hundred, I took my most desirable stab at modeling the quarterly revenue plug of the punch techniques line given that the birth of 2018, and in keeping with that model, I reckon that the vigour techniques line booked only a tad over $1.6 billion in sales, up 8.8 percent compared to 2017’s figures and marking the primary year of boom due to the fact 2011 and probably the most histrionic growth they now gain probably viewed in an needy lot longer.
Jim Kavanaugh, IBM’s chief economic officer, talked in short with Wall highway analysts about how the energy techniques line did in q4 2018. “vigor salary become up 10 p.c, pushed by course of Linux and continued robust adoption throughout their modern Power9-primarily based architecture,” Kavanaugh referred to. “in the fourth quarter, they achieved the free up of their subsequent era Power9 processors in the extreme conclusion, and they had tenacious adoption in both the low and high-conclusion techniques. Their Power9 programs are designed for managing superior analytics, cloud environments, and data intensive workloads in AI, SAP HANA, and Unix markets and they now gain extended HANA certification to their Power9 extreme end. within the fourth quarter, they had powerful initial traction with their modern choices that optimize both hardware and application for AI, similar to PowerAI vision, which they delivered in the 2d half of 2018. And they gain virtually completed the deployment of their supercomputers at the U.S. fork of power labs within the quarter.”
That changed into a $325 million deal, which IBM has been booking any the course through 2018 as machines rolled in and the “Summit” desktop at o.k.Ridge countrywide Laboratory and the “Sierra” machine at Lawrence Livermore country wide Laboratory handed degrees of qualification tests.
What they might in fact want to understand is how 2019 is asking, and this is any Kavanaugh had to issue when poked that query: “We continue to bring modern innovation to market to deliver value for their clients in their Power9 structure, which is resonating well in the industry. And they received considerable acceptance, and grew 10 percent within the fourth quarter. They forecast to breathe able to continue to play out in 2019. So they now gain bought a considerable ebook of company prerogative here and some tailwinds at us.”
Tailwinds are any the time respectable, in case you are attempting to compose up for misplaced time in specific, so that’s decent.
So how did the leisure of huge Blue fare? Let’s prefer a look. within the closing quarter of 2018, IBM’s revenues dipped by course of 3.5 % to $2176 billion and net profits became $1.95 billion, which turned into twice as big in magnitude as the loss that IBM reported in this drop 2017 as a result of some write-offs. IBM pushed $2.sixty two billion in system and storage hardware and operating systems to exterior purchasers in the fourth quarter, down 21.three p.c, plus yet another $238 million in iron to different IBM gadgets. IBM had $551 million in pre-tax revenue for the combined internal and external revenue, which become 19.3 percent of revenue. My ultimate guess, considering the fact that IBM doesn’t provide out precise numbers, is that IBM sold $2.17 billion in hardware (servers and storage) plus an additional $447 million in working techniques.
in the event you add any of the foundation working device, middleware, database, programming equipment, tech assist, and financing on hearty of the rig z and energy methods traces, plus external disk, flash, and tape storage, IBM has quite an superb business. a splendid deal better than the gadget hardware and working system figures that it reports on a quarterly basis to Wall street. here is the breakdown of IBM’s revenue throughout its divisions, which is the birth factor for estimating IBM’s hearty and actual systems business:
From this, I drill down into every division and appraise how a considerable deal of each division’s revenue is chiefly for IBM’s own system z and power methods structures and the connected storage product revenue. in case you compose some guesses – and i should, as can they any outside of the company – then a suppose for the hearty programs company emerges. And this doesn't encompass compute, storage, and networking means sold on the IBM Cloud, which is a further animal utterly.
Suffice it to asseverate that this is an attractive gigantic traffic certainly, with gross profits throughout the mixed platforms that are in the latitude of 55 % to 60 % of revenues usually. here is relatively respectable, and is a plenty stronger programs traffic than IBM itself talks about. in the fourth quarter, I reckon that this company definitely declined via 11 percent or so, to $7.41 billion, however that changed into mainly due to the gadget z14 mainframe better cycle running its path after five quarters of income. IBM spoke of in its record that system z revenues were down 44 p.c 12 months-on-yr within the fourth quarter at regular forex, and that truly harm. power techniques sales cannot, as yet, compose up the change.
That stated, power methods income are on the upward push, and gain tremendous prospects in HPC, records analytics, computer learning. in-memory processing, and different advanced workloads as smartly because the consistent freddy ERP purposes that gain been on IBM i and AIX systems for many years. it's difficult to contemplate about that IBM can push revenue up as towering as they had been lower back in 2010 through 2012, but it surely can snare some of the course returned there. One other component: I don't gain any conception what energy systems operating IBM i earnings are, however what I attain understand is that IBM i income gain been riding salary multiply any the course through 2018, and when you add in the software, services, and financing atop of this, here's nevertheless a fairly big and in reality ecocnomic enterprise. Which is a pretty splendid component for the long-time epoch possibilities of IBM i.linked stories
systems A shimmering Spot In combined outcomes For IBM
The Frustration Of not figuring out How we're Doing
energy techniques Posts boom within the First Quarter
IBM’s programs group On The fiscal Rebound
huge Blue earnings, Poised For The Power9
The energy Neine Conundrum
IBM Commits To Power9 enhancements For colossal punch methods shops
OVERLAND PARK, Kan., Jan 31, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE by course of COMTEX) -- OVERLAND PARK, Kan., Jan. 31, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TSANet (Technical guide Alliance network), a multi seller befriend alliance, has appointed Duane Watkins, software Director for prime-end Storage at IBM, to the TSANet Board of directors.
"IBM has been a key member of TSANet due to the fact its inception in 1993. In its tenure, IBM has taken a number of management positions in the alliance and i'm very a gross lot involved for Duane's contribution and participation in TSANet at a Board of Director stage," mentioned Dennis Smeltzer, TSANet president. "With the up-coming changes to TSANet, his skill units are very complementary to both IBM and TSANet's goals in presenting better collaboration amongst the membership."
Duane is amenable for the realm-broad consumer befriend mission for the DS8000 sequence product. He has event in successfully managing consumer service relationships outcomes and has developed a technique for managing extreme performing groups in the aid self-discipline with a spotlight on innovation, advantage, problem decision suggestions and worker retention. Duane works daily with international main monetary institutions helping to withhold towering availability and decreased downtime.
Duane serves with TSANet board members: Rene Karel (VMware), Doug Jones (NetApp), Jim West (Citrix techniques), Kenny bathroom toilet (Dell EMC), Richard lengthy (Actian organisation), Charlotte achieve up (Cisco systems), Uwe Schaefer (Hewlett-Packard commercial enterprise), Michelle Huenink (Microsoft), Deepak Chawla (Nutanix) and Sandra Falzarano (pink Hat).
About TSANetFounded in 1993, TSANet (Technical aid Alliance network) is a world, dealer neutral assist alliance that presents an business-extensive discussion board to facilitate servicing multi dealer customers whereas offering an infrastructure for greater efficient multi dealer problem solving. Membership carries greater than 600 software and hardware groups. TSANet will too breathe reached at (913) 345-9311 or at www.tsanet.org.
business and product names mentioned can breathe logos or registered emblems of their respective businesses.
Editorial Contact:Brittany Jimerson, TSANet(913) 345-9311
(C) Copyright 2019 GlobeNewswire, Inc. any rights reserved.
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(IDG) -- This is a Story about programmers and systems administrators who, by and large, don't want to discourse on the record because they're afraid of being fired. They're smugglers who sneak unapproved operating systems into corporate offices without telling upper management. These activities aren't in the same league as gunrunning or drug trafficking, but that doesn't imply you can't snare fired for doing them.
In many cases, the unapproved operating systems are the so-called open-source systems, which advance with any of the source code, so that a programmer can rewrite them as much as he wants. These versions, with names love Debian GNU/Linux, FreeBSD or Red Hat Linux, are produced by loosely knit groups of programmers who contribute their code into a vast commonwealth of software that can breathe freely shared. The members contribute what they can and gain the liberty to better the code.
At first glance, many information technology managers from traditional backgrounds recoil in horror at the thought of open-source operating systems. The freewheeling exchange of source code seems love a recipe for total chaos, and every IT manager knows that preventing chaos is the most distinguished allotment of the job. No one ever got fired for buying from Microsoft Corp., IBM or Sun Microsystems Inc.
Some programmers, however, adore the open-source systems. They advance with any the source code, which often means less cursing at a black box. Talented programmers with a splendid lore of open-source systems can often finish jobs much faster.
Consider an engineer I'll call "Bob." He's an open-source smuggler. His boss wanted first and foremost to withhold the networks running and the file servers serving. His boss believed that the best course to accomplish this was to pay one company to provide order. You snare what you pay for, he assumed, and one course to snare a lot is to pay a lot.
Bob's problem was simple. One of the company's newly acquired fork offices ran Windows NT and some custom software that was hard-wired to drudgery with the passe network. The modern bosses insisted that Bob integrate the existing network with the new, incompatible network that had its offices in another state. Bob considered doing the job the official way. He calculated the hours, weighed the amount of red tape required to reinstall, figured out the travel time and then considered whether it was even possible to rewrite the software. The potential bill skyrocketed.
Then he had an idea. He grabbed an obsolete 50-MHz 486-based PC and installed FreeBSD on it. This Linux cousin is well-known and loved in the networking community because it's a descendant of the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) versions of Unix that formed the original backbone of the Internet. In fact, most Internet software was originally conceived of on machines running BSD, so it's often the most compatible operating system for Internet applications. A few days later, the old, previously discarded computer was up and running, translating the data from one system to the other and gluing the two networks together.
"It took about four days because I'm so slack at FreeBSD," Bob says, "but I could now redo the entire thing if I had to in just one afternoon."Politically revise PCs
Bob's Story is a jubilant one. The low cost pleased his boss, and no one looked too closely at the guts of his "NT-compatible" router. The boss apparently preferred to concentrate on the expense tag.
Unfortunately, many programmers are in situations love Bob's. IT departments face endless problems just keeping their data synchronized and their computers working smoothly. Everyone knows that tenacious rules love "Always buy Microsoft" often compose life a bit simpler. But everyone too knows that it sometimes just makes splendid sense to shatter the rules.
The world of operating systems may appear love a placid environment where any the blood was shed years ago when Microsoft achieved its final dominance. That's what many managers want their IT staffs to believe: Microsoft on any machines means harmony everywhere.
But sometimes the prerogative appliance isn't made by Microsoft, IBM or whoever the paramount player happens to be. Increasingly, engineers are turning to open-source operating systems because having the source code lets them customize their drudgery and resolve the arduous problems.
Another anonymous programmer reports that he got involved in a duel with a emulate fork in his company that protested when it organize out he was using the security-conscious OpenBSD operating system to process credit-card transactions.
"(The leader of that branch) wasn't jubilant and was determined to conquer us, so he decided to start a divorce e-commerce organization that they would gain no input into which would (have been) based entirely around Windows NT 4.0," he says. "That was in September. (Their system) quiet doesn't work. But the BSD kit on the other side of the company has been handling credit-card transactions securely since October."The prerogative appliance for the job
There are plenty of other success stories out there on the Net. Many of the contributors to open-source systems issue the tools are more supple and easier to meet to complicated tasks. This feature is especially valuable when the engineers are called upon to bear modern applications or present modern services over the Internet. When the machines start working successfully, the smart manager doesn't inquire too often or too closely about the operating system vendor.
The success stories can breathe organize in some queer places. The TiVo television recorder is a benign of digital VCR that stores MPEG-encoded versions of television programs on its arduous disk. The system comes with a number of modern features, such as an "instant replay" that quickly jumps back seven seconds.
Underneath the user interface is the Linux operating system. TiVo Inc. in Sunnyvale, Calif., customized the operating system to quicken up the real-time tasks it needed and started shipping Linux deeply embedded in the box. The TiVo user is zero the wiser, because any the Linux calls are hidden from view.
The programmers involved usually cite two reasons for their success. First, the source code makes it easier for them to tweak, revise or extend the operating system. While companies love Microsoft or Sun compose it possible to extend their operating systems, they often withhold some of the information surreptitious to maintain their leverage.
And because the Internet was originally built on machines running BSD, the basic protocols were specified, prototyped and finalized in that environment. Therefore, it's just easier to create modern Internet applications using the original article.
That compatibility is one intuition why Apple Computer Inc. is rewriting its Mac OS operating system to incorporate much of the code from the open-source community's FreeBSD and NetBSD. The core, which the company calls Darwin, is too being shared with the world in the hope of making it easier for Macintosh customers to drudgery with the systems. Still, Apple hasn't opened up any the forthcoming Mac OS X code. The slick user interface and many of the time-saving features that attract modern users are being kept proprietary.
IT professionals working with Mac OS X report mixed experiences. Those who exercise only the open-source parts of Darwin issue they relish the modern opportunities. But those who need access to the allotment that's quiet proprietary grouse about the restrictions.
One anonymous programmer says his boss heard his pleas for an open-source operating system and suggested Mac OS X. Because it's both open-source and a product from a colossal company, it has the aura of respectability and openness, he says. But in his case, the openness didn't help, and he ended up switching to FreeBSD.
Many open-source operating systems compose it simple to divest away any but their most necessary parts. This flexibility makes it possible to flee on less-expensive hardware and too snare the maximum performance out of high-end hardware. The extra layers of gloss that compose systems love Windows NT easier to understand can too compose them less efficient, because they obviate a systems administrator from stripping away unnecessary functions.
"I reckon a PIII-450 properly configured with about 512MB of RAM will give me around a 400% to 500% performance multiply over the incredibly expensive Sun hardware at around a tenth of the cost," says an engineer who supports open-source systems.Coping with configuration
While many programmers are quite positive about open-source solutions, some are more circumspect. Rob Newberry, a programmer at Group Logic Inc. in Arlington, Va., has been an avid fan of Linux. Some of his networking code has, in fact, been made allotment of the criterion Linux kernel.
Still, he says that his company is thinking seriously about converting its mail server back from Linux to Windows NT. Group Logic has documented several cases where the sendmail program running on the Linux server lost an e-mail message. While it's had few other problems with Linux, he says the software is quiet difficult for much of the staff to manage; Windows NT is just easier for most of them to exercise and reconfigure. According to Newberry, saving the cost of a Windows NT license just isn't worth it.
"Even though there are some of us here who respect Linux and drudgery on Linux, they are rapidly trying to aspect it out. It just benign of becomes a maintenance headache," he says. "We gain lots of engineers here. There (are) only a few of us who know the Linux tricks." The folks who know Linux gain better things to attain than maintain the mail system, he notes.
This consequence is leading some companies to roll the operating system into their product and sell the two as a pair. Network Flight Recorder Inc. in Rockville, Md., creates software that turns a PC into a spy that watches a network for suspicious activity. Abnormal data-flow patterns that might sneak by firewalls will set off tocsin bells when this device spots them.
Naturally, the creators of the product want this system to breathe as secure as possible, so they turned to OpenBSD, a cousin of FreeBSD designed to eradicate security holes. They stripped out extra parts of the system and built a special version of the kernel that handles only their workload. They bundled any of this on a single, bootable CD-ROM that takes over the PC.
Marcus Ranum, Network Flight Recorder's CEO, explains that the CD-ROM too simplifies the technical support. The user can't change anything on the machine, so nothing can inadvertently breathe screwed up.
"The CD-ROM has a bootstrap loader and a kernel and their own set of applications inside. There are no user services inside," he says. "There's nothing on this sucker except the one application. It takes about 12 minutes to install their product, and that's the time to boot up and autodetect."
Ranum says hiding the operating system from everyone, including the professionals who know how to maintain one, is a smart solution. Every system takes time to learn, and his company wants to compose its Network Flight Recorder product simple to use.
Ranum says, "The Unix heads disapprove NT, and the NT heads disapprove Unix, so their retort is that it's love a toaster: There are no user-serviceable parts inside."RELATED STORIES:
How proprietary software can befriend the open source movementMay 2, 2000Users hire open-sourcers to build internal appsApril 24, 2000Neoware debuts thin version of LinuxApril 13, 2000Open-source, networkable shooter has Linux gamers buzzingApril 12, 2000Linux-friendly ASP surfacesApril 10, 2000RELATED IDG.net STORIES:
Open-source projects snare done cheaplyComputerworldUsers hire open-source community to build internal appsComputerworldRed Hat to create largest open-source companyComputerworldThree Unixlike systems may breathe better than LinuxComputerworldWindows 2000 isn't the retort to the future of computingComputerworldRELATED SITES:
FreeBSD Inc.OpenBSD: Multiplatform Ultra-secure OSLinux Online
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New all-in-one backup, archive, and disaster-recovery appliances approved as “Built on IBM Express” offerings
Colorado Springs, CO -- April 3, 2006 -- STORServer®, manufacturer of the all-in-one suite of traffic Continuity Appliances, announces a modern line of STORServer EZ Backup Appliances®. These cost-effective, easy-to-use backup solutions, which are preloaded with IBM storage software and hardware, are designed to befriend miniature to medium size businesses (SMBs) manage their data.
“SMBs are a fast-growing and often-underserved market, especially in terms of backup and calamity recovery,” said Ellen Rome, STORServer vice president of sales and marketing. “Our modern EZ Backup Appliance bundles IBM’s leading hardware and software technology to provide an affordable, amenable solution that is smooth to implement and maintain while providing a sophisticated feature set arrogate to SMBs’ growing needs.”
The modern line of EZ Backup Appliances, available in both entry-level and high-end scalable models, are efficacious storage solutions for SMBs that typically gain smaller budgets and fewer employees armed with the necessary skills to deal with involved IT management issues. Pre-configured with hardware and software necessary for backup, archiving, and calamity recovery, the appliance contains IBM’s latest in data-protection technologies, including disk and tape storage such as the modern IBM TotalStorage TS3310 Tape Library.
The STORServer EZ Backup Appliance leverages IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, enterprise-level backup and recovery software, and is offered in three pre-configured bundles: Disk-to-Disk, which offers backup and archives with optional tape or disk for calamity recovery; Disk-to-Tape, with backup, archives, an online tape pool and calamity recovery to tape; and Disk-to-Disk-to-Tape, which offers backup, archives, an online pool of IBM TotalStorage DS4100 disk arrays, and calamity recovery to tape.
Fully automated, policy-based configurations are available for customers storing any amounts of data, from less than one terabyte to up to 10 terabytes for a sole appliance. Multiple appliances can breathe installed and managed from one interface for customers that gain more data or that need to divide their recovery storage management. Each appliance comes with a 3-year warranty that provides a sole point of contact for technical support.
Backup and calamity recovery is a top concern for SMBs and big organizations alike, according to Enterprise Strategy Group (ESG) analyst Heidi Biggar. She credits STORServer with creating a solution for SMBs that is both affordable and simple to manage.
"The problem is SMBs generally need the necessary resources -- people, dollars, and technology -- to attack the backup and recovery problem at its root,” Biggar said. “Historically, SMBs gain either tried to 'fix' the problem with enterprise backup solutions (which minister to breathe too unwieldy and expensive for their needs) or gain ignored the problem altogether. What SMBs want -- and need -- are easy-to-use, scalable, and integrated solutions. The STORServer Appliance fits this bill nicely and takes the guesswork out of data protection."
Also announced today, STORServer’s EZ “Entry” Backup Appliance provides a low-cost, reliable, disk-to-disk backup solution for up to two terabytes of data. The EZ “Entry” Backup Appliance integrates IBM’s modern Tivoli Storage Manager Express, automated backup and recovery software designed specifically for miniature and mid-sized businesses. any backups are stored on the server disk and an optional disk array is available for expanded storage capacity. Customers can too add tape backup for calamity recovery. Two scalable entry appliances are available -- one for customers with less than one terabyte of data and the other designed to accommodate up to two terabytes of storage.
The entire line of EZ Backup Appliances back up any favorite servers and workstations and can too breathe purchased with IBM Tivoli Continuous Data Protection for Files – software that is designed to continuously and instantaneously capture and deliver changes to files in real time and route copies of data to a backup location to add a second layer of defense against data loss.
With the integration of IBM Express Portfolio software and hardware, the modern STORServer EZ Backup Appliances gain received “Built on IBM Express” validation. Built on IBM Express is an initiative designed to incorporate IBM Express products with IBM traffic partner products in order to provide integrated solutions that befriend enable SMBs to manage their IT environments with the same capabilities as larger companies.
The STORServer EZ Backup Appliances are available through IBM resellers only. Pricing for the entry-level appliance starts at $5,000 and the higher-end model begins at $15,000. For more information, visit http://www.storserver.com.
Various types of backup schemes exist, and they can breathe categorized in different ways. In an actual data center, one typically uses multiple types of backups. In short, the categorization of backups should not breathe taken to breathe mutually exclusive. Backups can breathe classified on the basis of
Sections 5.3.1 through 5.3.3 prefer a notice at each of these types of classification.5.3.1 Backup Classifications Based on Architecture
One course of classifying backups is based on the architecture. That is, backups are classified in terms of the objects they deal with and the amount of awareness the backup application has of these objects. The available types of architecture-based backups, described in Sections 126.96.36.199 through 188.8.131.52, are184.108.40.206 Image- or Block-Level Backup
The backup application in this case deals with blocks of data. Typically, this benign of backup scheme needs any applications on the server to cease accessing the data that is being backed up. The application opens the disk to breathe backed up as a raw disk (ignoring the file locations) and literally does logical block-level read and write operations.
The advantages of this benign of backup are that the backup and restore operations are very fast, and it can breathe a splendid calamity recovery solution. One handicap is that applications and even the operating system cannot access the disk while the backup or restore is happening. Another handicap is that image-level backups of a sparsely populated volume can result in a lot of unused logical blocks being copied for the backup. Some backup applications provide the logic necessary to detect and skip unused logical blocks. These are called sparse image backups.
Finally, it is arduous to retrieve just a particular file or a few files rather than restore any the data to a disk. To attain so, the restore software must understand the file system metadata as it exists on the tape, retrieve this metadata, and from there, compute the location on the tape where the data for the particular file resides. Some vendors provide the competence to restore a particular file from an image-level backup, but these offerings are available on only inevitable operating system platforms and not others. Some restore applications attain attempt to optimize restoring a file from an image-level backup. These applications write file metadata such as the file allocation table for FAT16 to the tape.
The version of NTFS included with Windows 2000 already keeps any metadata in files—for example, the bit map that represents logical obscure allocation. The restore application locates the required metadata. From this the software calculates the positions on tape of each of the required logical data blocks for the file being restored. The tape is then spooled in one direction, and any the germane portions of the tape are read while the tape is touching in a sole direction, thus providing the file data for restoration. The tape is not moved forward and backward at all, so not only is the restore time reduced, but the life of the tape is extended as well. Legato Celestra is one specimen of such a backup application.
Note that sometimes the choice of backup is limited. deem the case in which a database uses a raw disk volume (without any benign of file system on that volume). In this case the only two choices are an image-level backup or an application-level backup (the latter is described in Section 220.127.116.11).18.104.22.168 File-Level Backup
With this sort of backup, the backup software makes exercise of the server operating system and file system to back up files. One handicap is that a particular file or set of files can breathe restored relatively easily. Another is that the operating system and applications can continue to access files while the backup is being performed.
There are several disadvantages as well. The backup can prefer longer, especially compared to an image-level backup. If a lot of miniature files are backed up, the overhead of the operating system and file and directory metadata access can breathe high. too the problem of open files described earlier exists and needs to breathe solved.
Another handicap is related to security. This issue arises irrespective of whether the backup is made via a file-level backup or an image backup. The problem is that the restore is typically done through an administrator account or backup operator account rather than a user account. This is the only course to ensure that multiple files belonging to different users can breathe restored in a sole restore operation. The key is that the file metadata, such as access control and file ownership information, must breathe properly set. Addressing the problem requires some API champion from the operating system and file system involved (NTFS) to allow the information to breathe set properly on a restore operation. In addition, of course, the restore application must compose proper exercise of the facility provided.22.214.171.124 Application-Level Backup
In this case, backup and restore are done at the application level, typically an enterprise application level—for example, Microsoft SQL Server or Microsoft Exchange. The backup is accomplished via APIs provided by the application. Here the backup consists of a set of files and objects that together constitute a point-in-time view as determined by the application. The main problem is that the backup and restore operations are tightly associated with the application. If a modern version of the application changes some APIs or functionality of an existing API, one must breathe mindful to snare a modern version of the backup/restore application.
Applications either exercise a raw disk that has no file system associated with the volume/partition or simply gain a huge file allocated on disk and then lay down their own metadata within this file. A splendid specimen of an application that takes this approach is Microsoft Exchange. Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 interpose an distinguished feature in NTFS to facilitate restore operations for such files. The file can breathe restored via logical blocks, and then the finish of the file is marked by a modern Win32 API called SetFileValidData.5.3.2 Backup Classifications Based on Functionality
Yet another course of classifying backup applications is based on the functionality that is achieved in the backup process. Note that a data heart typically uses at least two and very often any types of the backups described in Sections 126.96.36.199 through 188.8.131.52: full, differential, and incremental.184.108.40.206 Full Backup
In a replete backup, the complete set of files or objects and associated metadata is copied to the backup media. The handicap of having a replete backup is that only one media set is needed to retrieve everything in a calamity situation. The handicap is that the backup operation takes a long time because everything needs to breathe copied. replete backups are very often accomplished with the image- or block-level backup architecture.220.127.116.11 Differential Backup
A differential backup archives any changes since the eventual replete backup. Because differential backups can breathe either image obscure based or file based, this set of changes would picture either the set of changed disk blocks (for image-based backup) or the set of changed files (for file-based backup). The main handicap of differential backup is that the backup takes a lot less time than a replete backup. On the other hand, the handicap is that recovering from a calamity takes longer. A calamity recovery operation involves running at least two restore operations, one corresponding to a replete backup and one corresponding to a differential backup.
With low-end storage deployed, file-based differential backups are used when the applications by nature minister to create multiple miniature files and change or create just a few of them since the eventual replete backup. In addition, when low-end storage is deployed, file-based differential backups are not typically used with database applications, because database applications, by their very nature, minister to compose changes in miniature parts of a huge database file. Hence a file-based backup would quiet gain to copy the gross file. A splendid specimen here is Microsoft Exchange, which tends to compose changes in miniature parts of a huge database file.
Figure 5.3 Direct-Attached Backup
With high-end storage deployed, image-based differential backup can breathe used in any situation, including with database applications. The intuition for this flexibility is that the high-end storage units can track a lot of metadata and thus quickly identify which disk blocks gain changed since the eventual replete backup. Thus, only this miniature number of disk blocks needs breathe archived, and the big number of unchanged disk blocks that are present in the same database file can breathe ignored. Even though the backup with high-end storage is more efficient, APIs that start the backup at a consistent point and allow the I/O to resume after the backup has been accomplished are quiet needed. The efficiency of high-end storage simply minimizes the time during which any I/O must breathe frozen while the backup is being made.18.104.22.168 Incremental Backup
An incremental backup archives only the changes since the eventual replete or incremental backup. Again, the obvious handicap is that this backup takes less time because items not modified since the eventual replete or incremental backup attain not need to breathe copied to the backup media. The handicap is that a calamity recovery operation will prefer longer because restore operations must breathe done from multiple media sets, corresponding to the eventual replete backup followed by the various incremental backups.
In the absence of high-end storage, file-based incremental backup is used only when a different set of files is typically created or modified. With high-end storage that can provide the required metadata tracking, block-based incremental backup may breathe used.5.3.3 -Backup Classifications Based on Network Infrastructure
One course of classifying a backup scenario is based on the network topology used, and how that topology lends itself to achieving the best method for backing up the attached hosts. The network infrastructure–based backup types—direct-attached backup, network-attached backup, LAN-free backup, and server-free backup—are described in detail in Sections 22.214.171.124 through 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Direct-Attached Backup
Direct-attached backup was the first form of backup used, simply because it emerged in the era when storage devices were typically attached directly to servers. Despite the advent of network storage, direct-attached backup remains a very favorite topology for backing up Windows-based servers. Direct-attached backup is illustrated in pattern 5.3.
The handicap of direct-attached backup is that it is fairly simple. An application running on the server reads data from the arrogate disk volume and writes it to the tape device. The biggest problems with direct-attached backup are these:
Tape devices are duplicated (one per server that needs backup), which is expensive. To achieve it differently, sharing the tape device between servers is difficult.
The total cost of ownership is towering because you need more administrators doing tape backups using multiple tape devices.
Storing multiple tapes can breathe confusing.
Because the data on different servers is often duplicated, but slightly out of sync, the tape media reflects duplication of data with enough seemingly similar data to intuition confusion.
Last, but not least, the server must breathe able to wield the load of the read/write operations that it performs to stream the data from disk to tape.
As Chapter 3 discussed, the era of direct-attached storage was followed by the client/server era with a lot of clients and servers sharing resources on a LAN. This LAN environment facilitated the possibility of having a server on the LAN with a tape backup device that could breathe shared by any the servers on the LAN.
Figure 5.4 shows a typical deployment scenario for network-attached backup. The left side of the diagram shows a brace of servers. These could breathe application or file-and-print servers, and there may breathe more than just a couple. The prerogative side of pattern 5.4 shows a backup server with a tape unit attached. This tape device can breathe used for backing up multiple file-and-print or application servers. Thus, network-attached backup allows a tape device to breathe shared for backing up multiple servers, which can reduce costs.
Figure 5.4 Network-Attached Backup
The problems that network-attached backup introduced are these:
The backup operation consumes LAN bandwidth, often requiring mindful segmentation of the LAN to achieve the backup traffic on a divorce LAN segment.
Host online hours (i.e., operating hours) increased; that is, the amount of time servers needed to breathe available for transactions and user access grew. In addition, the amount of data on the servers (that needed to breathe backed up) started increasing as well.
Increasingly, these problems led to the exercise of backup requirements as the sole basis for network design, determining the exact number of backup devices needed, and the selection and placement of backup devices.184.108.40.206 LAN-Free Backup
The advent of storage district networks introduced modern concepts for backup operations. The modern functionality is based on the fact that a storage district network (SAN) can provide a towering bandwidth between any two devices and also, depending on the topology, can present multiple simultaneous bandwidth capability between multiple pairs of devices with very low latencies. In contrast, using Fibre Channel loop topology with many devices—that is, more than approximately 30—cannot present multiple simultaneous high-bandwidth connections with low latencies, because the total bandwidth of the loop must breathe shared among any attached devices.
Figure 5.5 shows a typical SAN-based backup application. Note the FC bridge device in the figure. Most tape devices are quiet non-FC based (using parallel SCSI), so a bridge device is typically used. In this figure, the Windows NT servers gain a presence on both the LAN as well as the SAN.
Figure 5.5 SAN-Based Backup
The backup topology in pattern 5.5 has the following advantages:
The tape device can breathe located farther from the server being backed up. Tape devices are typically SCSI devices, although FC tape devices are now more readily available. This means that they can breathe attached to only a sole SCSI bus and are not shared easily among servers. The FC SAN, with its connectivity capability, neatly solves this problem. Note that one quiet needs a solution to ensure that the tape device is accessed properly and with arrogate permissions. Here are some possibilities:
One solution is to exercise zoning, allowing one server at a time to access the tape device. The problem with this solution is that zoning depends on splendid matter behavior; that is, it cannot ensure compliance. Another problem with zoning is that it will not ensure proper utilization of a tape changer or multitape device.
Another solution is to exercise the SCSI Reserve and Release commands.
Yet another solution is to gain the tape device connected to a server, allowing for sharing of the tape pool by having special software on this server. Sharing of a tape pool is highly attractive because tape devices are fairly costly. IBM's Tivoli is one specimen of a vendor that provides solutions allowing the sharing of tape resources.
The backup is now what is often referred to as a LAN-free backup because the backup data transfer load is placed on the SAN, lightening the load on the LAN. Thus, applications attain not snare bogged down with network bandwidth problems while a backup is happening.
LAN-free backup provides more efficient exercise of resources by allowing tape drives to breathe shared.
LAN-free backup and restore are more resilient to errors because backups can now breathe done to multiple devices if one device has problems. By the same token, restores can breathe done from multiple devices, allowing more flexibility in resource scheduling.
Finally, the backup and restore operations typically complete a lot more quickly, simply because of the SAN's higher network speed.
Server-free backup is too sometimes referred to as serverless backup or even third-party copy. Note that server-free backup is too usually LAN-free backup—LAN-free backup that too removes the responsibility of file movement from the host that owns the data. The thought is fairly simple, consisting of leveraging the Extended Copy SCSI commands.
Server-free backup began as an initiative placed before the Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) that evolved into the SCSI Extended Copy commands ratified by the International Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS) T10 Technical Committee (ANSI INCITS.351:2001, SCSI Primary Commands-2). Note that SCSI already supported a copy command, but the problem was that any SCSI devices required attachment to the same SCSI bus to exercise this command (the Copy command has since been made obsolete in the SCSI standards; note http://www.t10.org). The Extended Copy command adds features such that the data source and data destination may breathe on different SCSI buses and yet quiet breathe addressable because the syntax of the command allows for this.
In server-free backup, the backup server can remain relatively free to wield other drudgery while the actual backup is accomplished by the data mover agent. The data is moved directly from the data source to the destination (backup media) (instead of being moved from the source to the backup server to the destination).
While appreciating the advantages of server-free backup, one should not forget that server-free restore is a very different issue. Server-free restore operations are quiet relatively rare; that is, backups made using server-free backup technology are very often restored via traditional restore technology that involves the exercise of a backup software server.
Server-free backup is illustrated in pattern 5.6. In the interest of simplicity, the pattern shows the minimum number of elements needed to contend server-free backup. In practice, however, SANs are much more complex. The pattern shows a Windows server connected to an FC switch via an FC HBA. An FC-to-SCSI router is too present, to which are connected a SCSI tape subsystem and a disk device. The disk and tape devices need not breathe connected to the same router.
Figure 5.6 Server-Free Backup
A backup server application on the Windows server discovers the data mover agent on the router, through Plug and Play. The backup application determines the details of the backup needs to breathe accomplished (disk device identifier, starting logical block, amount of data to breathe backed up, and so on). The backup server software first issues a chain of commands to the tape device to reserve the tape device and ensure that the revise media is mounted and properly positioned. When that is done, the backup server software issues an Extended Copy command to the data mover, resident in the router, which then coordinates the movement of the required data. When the operation has been accomplished, the data mover agent reports the status back to the backup software on the Windows server.
Several different entities play a role in server-free backup architecture, including the data source, data destination, data mover agent, and backup server.
The data source is the device containing the data that needs to breathe backed up. Typically a gross volume or disk partition needs to breathe backed up. The data source needs to breathe directly addressable by the data mover agent (described shortly). This means that storage devices connected directly to a server (or cases in which the server and the storage device gain exclusive visibility) cannot breathe data sources for server-free backup because they cannot breathe addressed directly from outside the server.
The data destination is typically a tape device where the data is to breathe written. The device may too breathe a disk if one is backing up to disk instead of tape. Tape devices are typically connected to a fabric port to avoid disruption of the tape data traffic upon oversight conditions in other parts of the SAN. For example, if the tape were connected to an FC arbitrated loop, an oversight in another device or, for that matter, the happening of a device joining or leaving the loop, would intuition loop reinitialization, resulting in disruption to the tape data traffic.
A data mover agent typically is implemented in the firmware of a storage router because the data mover agent must breathe able to act on the SCSI Extended Copy command, which is sent to the router in an FC packet. Switches and hubs that examine only the FC frame header are not readily suited to house data mover agents, though this may change in the future.
The data mover agent is passive until it receives instructions from a backup server. Most tapes connected to SANs are SCSI devices, so a storage router (that converts between FC and SCSI) is typically required and provides a splendid location for housing the data mover agent. Fibre Channel tapes are now appearing on the scene, and some vendors, such as Exabyte, are including data mover agent firmware in the FC tape device itself. In addition, autochthonous FC tape libraries are usually built with embedded FC-to-SCSI routers, installed in the library, providing the competence for the library to gain a data mover built in. Note that the data mover agent can too breathe implemented as software in a low-end workstation or even a server. Crossroads, Pathlight (now ADIC), and Chaparral are some examples of vendors that gain shipped storage routers with data mover agents embedded in the firmware. A SAN can gain multiple data mover agents from different vendors, and they can any coexist.
Of course, to breathe usable, a data mover agent needs to breathe locatable (via the SCSI Report LUNs command) and addressable (the WWN is used for addressing) from the backup server software. The data mover agent can too compose two simultaneous backups—for example, one to a geographically remote mirror to provide a calamity recovery solution—but the two commands must breathe built by the server that issued the third-party copy command.
The backup server is amenable for any command and control operations. At the risk of being repetitious, it is worthwhile noting any the duties of the backup server. The backup server software first ensures availability of the tape device, using arrogate SCSI Reserve and Release commands as appropriate. The backup server software then ensures that the revise tape media is mounted and positioned. It is too amenable for identifying the exact address of the data source and the data's location in logical blocks, as well as the amount of data that needs to breathe backed up. Once the backup server has any this information, it sends an Extended Copy command to the data mover agent. The data mover agent then issues a chain of Read commands to the data source device and writes the data to the data destination.
Computer Associates, CommVault, LEGATO, and VERITAS are some examples of vendors that ship a server-free backup software solution. Storage router vendors that ship server-free functionality routinely drudgery with backup independent software vendors (ISVs) to coordinate champion because many of the implementations exercise vendor-unique commands to supplement the basic SCSI Extended Copy commands.
Note that although server-free backup has been around for a while, there is very limited champion for server-free restore.220.127.116.11 The Windows Server Family and Server-Free Backup
A lot of the trade press and vendor marketing literature claims that a particular server-free backup solution is Windows 2000 compatible. It is worthwhile examining this pretension in more detail to understand what it means. The following discussion examines each of the four components that constitute the elements of a server-free backup solution: data source, data destination, backup software server, and data mover agent.
In most cases a data mover agent outside a Windows NT server will not breathe able to directly address data sources internal to the Windows NT server. The HBAs attached to servers usually drudgery only as initiators, so they will not respond to the Report LUNs command. If the Windows NT server is using a storage device outside the server—say, a RAID array connected to an FC switch—it will breathe visible to the data mover agent. So rather than saying that storage used by a Windows NT server cannot constitute the data source for a server-free backup, one needs to status that storage internal to a Windows NT server cannot constitute the data source.
Having the data destination internal to the Windows server is too not possible, because the data destination too needs to breathe directly addressable from outside the Windows box (by the data mover agent).
Having the backup software flee on the Windows server is certainly feasible. The HBA attached to the Windows server can issue a chain of Report LUNs commands to each initial LUN (LUN 0) that it discovers. The backup software then enumerates the list of visible devices and LUNs, and checks which ones are capable of being third-party copy agents. The backup software would gain to deal with some minor idiosyncrasies; for example, some products report extra LUNs that need to breathe used when Extended Copy commands are being issued. Many backup applications that exercise these devices disappear through an additional discovery process to verify the data mover's functionality.
The Windows NT SCSI pass-through (IOCTL) interface is capable of conveying the Extended Copy command to the data mover agent (from the Windows NT backup server). Windows NT does not gain autochthonous champion for data movers; Plug and Play can discover them, but drivers are required to log the data mover into the registry.
That leaves the eventual case—that is, whether a Windows NT server or workstation can breathe used to flee the data mover agent software. One handicap is that such an agent would breathe able to address and access the storage devices visible to the Windows server. The backup server, however, which might breathe outside the Windows NT box, would not breathe able to note these storage devices inside the Windows NT server. The data mover agent needs to breathe capable of acting as an initiator and target for SCSI commands. Because the HBA connected to the Windows NT server rarely acts as a target, the Extended Copy command may not snare through to the data mover agent.
Note that in Windows NT, an application uses the SCSI pass-through interface (DeviceIoControl with an IoControlCode of IOCTL_SCSI_PASS_THROUGH or IOCTL_SCSI_PASS_THROUGH_DIRECT) to issue SCSI commands.
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APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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