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(IDG) -- IBM on Friday delivered the primary in what is expected to breathe a sequence of products that design it less difficult for builders and corporate clients to tie its AIX and Linux operating environments together.
The AIX Toolbox for Linux functions is designed to build Linux applications that may select skills of AIX's complete range of capabilities. It additionally gives users extra flexibility in deploying a fuse of AIX and Linux purposes for e-company options running natively under both AIX or Linux.
"What this does is proffer a close Linux structure environment to builders purchasable below AIX, to attain the complete range of utility progress and recompilation,'' mentioned Tilak Agerwala, vp of AIX advertising and marketing and product administration in Somers, N.Y.
as soon as developed and deployed, the Linux-primarily based functions are treated as aboriginal AIX applications, signification they can entry the equal scalability and performance that the sixty four-bit working gadget doles out to AIX applications, in accordance with Agerwala.
the brand unusual toolbox is the forerunner of the quickly-to-be-launched AIX 5L, version 5.1 working system, which accommodates the entire Linux APIs. With start of that edition, AIX will then support each IBM's vigour and Intel's Itanium processor architectures.
"The potential [with AIX 5L] is that now shoppers can breathe able to rush purposes they necessity on the hardware they want, some thing no longer viable on many proprietary architectures," Agerwala observed.
the unusual toolbox moreover consists of a group of open-source and GNU software that works with each AIX 4.3.3 and AIX 5L. a few of these functions involve recompiled types of the Gnome and KDE desktop environments and rig utilities, including Emacs, Samba, Shells, GNU basis utilities, and application construction tools similar to GCC, G++, and RPM.
Some analysts talked about they believe the toolkit is a much and essential step to select if IBM goes to set up AIX as an open 64-bit Unix operating rig that can span divorce hardware systems.
"IBM's integrated Unix/Linux method, which could assist each basic and complicated workloads, is designed to succor customers design consumer's choices the confiscate one,'' renowned bill Claybrook, a senior analyst with The Aberdeen group, in Boston.
The toolkit is now available for down load despite the fact the traffic will design the product generally obtainable on CDs by course of the conclusion of this month. it'll even breathe distributed at this month's LinuxWorld Expo in tall apple.related experiences:
Feds unveil 'safety-better' Linux prototypeJanuary 12, 2001Linux gaining with mission-important systemsJanuary 3, 2001Top 10 Linux video games for the holidaysDecember 20, 2000Users: Interface issues dangle lower back LinuxNovember sixteen, 2000First Linux structure platform requisites releasedOctober 13, 2000connected IDG.web experiences:
VA Linux pronounces 2.4 kernel availability(IDG.net)What's behind IBM's Linux plans?(ITWorld.com)With IBM's support, Linux can ring in the unusual yr on a lofty note(InfoWorld.com)IBM bets tall on Linux(community World Fusion)trade leaders react to kernel 2.4(LinuxWorld)solar StorEdge out for NT, Unix types(IDG.web)IBM making Linux, server play(InfoWorld.com)MOSIX pumps up the penguin(LinuxWorld)linked websites:
be aware: Pages will open in a unusual browser windowexterior websites are not recommended with the aid of CNN Interactive.
Now with Oracle
It’s a sixty four-bit world, however some developers had been trapped within the 32-bit darkish a long time. Legacy structure experts Micro focus overseas Ltd. hopes to shine some light on COBOL developers.
On Tuesday, Micro headquarters of attention released a 64-bit edition of its Server categorical COBOL progress platform for IBM’s AIX 5 operating system. The company has already issued sixty four-bit models for the HP-UX, Compaq Tru64, and Solaris Unix flavors.
Irving Abraham, Unix product manager at Micro focal point, says Micro headquarters of attention waited for the unencumber of AIX 5 to reconcile Server specific to sixty four-bit environments. enjoy many Unix versions, AIX can rush in both 32- and sixty four-bit modes.
“The mass appeal in a 64-bit COBOL is in statistics managing,” Abraham says. The higher address belt permits bigger chunks of facts to current throughout the software, maybe enhancing performance.
additionally, sixty four-bit COBOL functions own interaction more effectively with 64-bit purposes, simplifying integration projects. Abraham says getting 32-bit purposes to drudgery with 64-bit databases is elaborate. “There has to breathe some switching and massaging of statistics,” he says.
in response to Micro focal point, Oracle Corp. has tested Server specific with its Oracle 9i database on AIX. the unusual product takes skills of the Oracle denomination interface.
Abraham says some customers are the usage of Server express to circulation COBOL purposes off legacy systems to Unix programs. while he downplayed mainframe migrations, he stated users are porting functions that ran on Wang minicomputers and HP3000 to Unix environments.
Chris McConnell is Product and technology Editor for traffic techniques.
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Now with Oracle
It’s a 64-bit world, but some developers own been trapped in the 32-bit shaded ages. Legacy progress specialists Micro Focus International Ltd. hopes to shine some light on COBOL developers.
On Tuesday, Micro Focus released a 64-bit version of its Server Express COBOL progress platform for IBM’s AIX 5 operating system. The company has already issued 64-bit versions for the HP-UX, Compaq Tru64, and Solaris Unix flavors.
Irving Abraham, Unix product manager at Micro Focus, says Micro Focus waited for the release of AIX 5 to reconcile Server Express to 64-bit environments. enjoy many Unix variants, AIX can rush in both 32- and 64-bit modes.
“The mass appeal in a 64-bit COBOL is in data handling,” Abraham says. The larger address space allows larger chunks of data to slip through the application, possibly improving performance.
In addition, 64-bit COBOL applications interact more efficiently with 64-bit applications, simplifying integration tasks. Abraham says getting 32-bit applications to drudgery with 64-bit databases is difficult. “There has to breathe some switching and massaging of data,” he says.
According to Micro Focus, Oracle Corp. has tested Server Express with its Oracle 9i database on AIX. The unusual product takes edge of the Oracle summon interface.
Abraham says some customers are using Server Express to slip COBOL applications off legacy platforms to Unix systems. While he downplayed mainframe migrations, he said users are porting applications that ran on Wang minicomputers and HP3000 to Unix environments.
Chris McConnell is Product and Technology Editor for Enterprise Systems.
We recently attended a seminar on the unusual 4.5L LMK Duramax that will breathe making an appearance in light-duty trucks for 2010. This potent mill will not only own at least 310 hp and 520 lb-ft of torque (final figures own yet to breathe released), but it makes these ratings while meeting stricter emissions regulations. How? With a lot of technology. To accept the lowdown on this unusual tech-heavy engine, we're going to own a mp;A session with their unusual friend Charlie Freese. Who is Charlie? Well, he's one of the guys who spearheaded the 4.5L buildup, as well as the Executive Director of Diesel Engineering over at GM.
Diesel Power:OK, first comes first. We're certain most people are wondering about the switched intake and exhaust arrangement on this engine. Why did you pick to mount the turbo in the middle and own the intakes on either side, rather than just structure an engine the "traditional" way?
Charlie Freese:The inboard exhaust configuration is a unique design characteristic. When they started this clean-sheet engine, it was necessary to assume through the design imperatives. As you mentioned, the engine had to deliver lofty power and torque density while meeting the world's most stringent emissions standards.Photo 3/18 | This is the nature of vehicle that will receive the unusual 4.5L engine. We're expecting 14-second quarter-mile times and 20+ mpg prerogative off dealer lots.
Efficiency and capability are key reasons to select diesel powertrains, and exceptional durability is the cost of entry for any engine that will carry the Duramax badge. Cost, packaging, and mass are every unique necessary constraints that determine if the engine can drudgery in a vehicle and breathe successful in the marketplace. Inboard exhaust supports every unique these requirements. It helps to select a deeper see at how the exhaust arrangement interacts with the design imperatives.
Let's start with emissions-2010 Tier-2 and LEV2 emission standards are challenging. Exhaust aftertreatment gains additional importance. They will consume particulate and NOx aftertreatment, and these devices drudgery best when quickly heated to operating temperatures. Exhaust energy warms aftertreatment components, but exhaust heat represents fuel energy that didn't design power. They want to minimize thermal losses and warm the aftertreatment system efficiently. In Europe, they closely brace aftertreatment hardware to exhaust manifolds. European 4-cylinder engines simplify this situation because exhaust exits from one side of the engine. Things accept trickier for V-engines, so using traditional outboard exhaust requires a compromise. Either a divorce aftertreatment system would breathe needed for each bank, or the hardware must breathe located remotely. That could weigh 6 feet away from the engine, so inboard exhaust provides a better solution. By collecting exhaust inboard, they can position the turbocharger and oxidation catalyst in the valley and avoid extra plumbing.
Some traditional designs valley-mount turbochargers, requiring crossover pipes to collect exhaust from outboard manifolds, so they wanted to avoid this if possible. Inboard exhaust removes the crossover pipes adjoining the two banks, but the 4.5L moreover eliminates exhaust manifolds. The turbocharger connects to the heads. The 4.5L design eliminated more than six dozen engine parts. That means less mass, better reliability, and less cost. Now let's contend performance. Air restrictions and heat losses rob an engine of performance. Keeping short exhaust passages between the turbine and the cylinder heads reduced both inefficiencies. If they used outboard exhaust, long pipes would breathe required to carry exhaust gas into the valley where the turbo sits. These pipes expand backpressure. pandemonium is another necessary consideration. More pipes and manifolds weigh more surface area, and these surfaces are where thermal energy and pandemonium would breathe radiated into the engine compartment. The 4.5L's inboard exhaust arrangement avoids these pitfalls.
We can't leave out durability, which is synonymous with the Duramax brand. Losses weigh inefficiency and must breathe overcome by higher fuel consumption for the selfsame power density. Reduced fuel consumption helps lower thermal stress in the combustion chamber components and minimizes cranktrain and structural loads. These are expedient things for engine durability.Photo 7/18 | 2010 Duramax 4500 Diesel engine Left Rear
Diesel Power:We've heard GM has some patents on the short-block of this engine, divulge us a puny bit about the bottom finish of the unusual 4.5L.
Charlie Freese:This is another set where the engine architecture supports bewitching design innovation. They selected compacted graphite iron (CGI) as the block material. This material delivers lofty force with wall thicknesses that approach the limits of casting technology. This reduces mass with a high-performance structure. Another bewitching CGI characteristic is the competence to fracture-split main presence caps. After main presence bores are machined, they laser-etch the caps and snap them from the block. This creates a high-friction surface with nearly faultless alignment to the block. taut alignment establishes uniform oil film thicknesses and maximizes presence life.
Using a proprietary design, their upper oil pan structure is used to connect the main presence caps to the block skirt. This structural arrangement is 30% stiffer than designs using bedplates or cross-bolted mains. Because they avoided cross-bolts, wider passages were created between presence caps and the skirt. This improves bay-to-bay crankcase breathing. The result is a highly efficient structure.Photo 8/18 | 2010 Duramax 4500 Diesel engine Top
Diesel Power:A lot of customers, who tow or who are farmers and let their trucks idle for extended periods, own noticed needy mileage with the regeneration cycles on the LMM (6.6L Duramax). How will the unusual urea injection impress mileage? How often will it necessity to breathe changed?
Charlie Freese:Fuel economy is highly relative upon vehicle usage, and idling and towing are necessary factors. When a vehicle idles, it burns fuel with no mileage to prove for it. That always deteriorates fuel economy numbers.
When diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are added, another sequel must breathe considered. DPFs are traps that store particulates until they can breathe oxidized. Oxidation occurs in two modes. The first is called passive regeneration. This happens whenever exhaust temperatures exceed approximately 1,076 degrees F without a fuel consumption penalty.Photo 9/18 | 2010 Duramax 4500 Diesel engine Left Front
The second mode is active regeneration, which occurs when traps become filled. This situation requires the engine to constrain higher exhaust temperatures (1,076 to 1,200 degrees F), which induce regeneration. This active regeneration demands richer combustion, signification more fuel is burned. More fuel burned means fuel economy deterioration.
If someone idles their vehicle for a long time, it will not generate enough exhaust heat to passively regenerate the trap. The engine silent loads the DPF with particulate matter. Without passive regenerations, the engine must more frequently constrain active regenerations. Fuel economy will deteriorate as a result. Another consideration is performance. The 6.6L Duramax now delivers 50 hp and 140 lb-ft more torque than when it launched. Sometimes a Duramax owner needs everything the powertrain can deliver to complete the job, but other times a driver requires a fraction of the engine's capability. The problem is that drivers own a current to accept ponderous into the pedal every unique the time. If the Duramax can tow a load faster or accelerate quicker, then drivers consume the capability. They every unique relish the undergo when the light turns green and the truck throws you back into the seat. It is even more impressive when you recollect the truck is towing 10,000 lbs, you are heading up a 7% grade, and it silent feels enjoy you are running empty. However, these maneuvers attain not reach without a price, and that cost is higher fuel consumption. If you compare today's 6.6L Duramax engine with its predecessors, it is usually more efficient when rush at the selfsame loads and speeds. The problem is resisting the temptation to accelerate your 17,000-lb rig from 0 to 55 mph in record time. The best fuel economy comes from being light on the pedal.
This brings us to your question on urea injection and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment-4.5L and 6.6L Duramax engines will consume SCR. This reduces NOx emissions through catalytic chemical reactions. Urea is consumed when injected into the exhaust system. They selected SCR-urea technology for many reasons, the first of which is lofty NOx reduction efficiency while maintaining fuel economy. SCR-urea systems remove more than 80% of tailpipe NOx over a broad operating range. It accomplishes this without regenerations and fuel-rich combustion modes. Competing technologies, enjoy rawboned NOx traps (LNTs), require frequent wealthy regeneration events, which deteriorate fuel efficiency.
SCR moreover helps divorce combustion events from aftertreatment requirements, as they relish with gasoline four-way catalysts. This means they can better optimize engine operation, draw back some injection timing, and improve fuel efficiency. SCR systems are moreover robust to contaminants enjoy sulfur. Sulfur is present in diesel fuel, even with unusual ultra-low sulfur diesels that are available today. LNTs quickly become poisoned by this sulfur and lose their competence to reduce tailpipe NOx.
SCR systems require the operator to periodically refill a urea tank. For many users, this occurs at oil change intervals. ponderous users that operate at much higher loads will consume more urea and may require additional refills between their oil change events.Photo 10/18 | The cylinder heads on the 4.5L are enjoy nothing we've seen before. Check out the curved intake runners on the nearside of the cylinder head.
Diesel Power:For a diesel engine, the 4.5L LMK seems small, as in both narrow and short. It's said to felicitous pretty much anywhere a small-block Chevy will fit, is this true?
Charlie Freese:Yes. As you mentioned, the engine is quite compact. This was achieved through a few key design decisions. They selected a 72-degree bank angle, rather than a more traditional 90-degree V-8 configuration. The block material is compacted graphite iron (CGI), which allows us to attain some bewitching things with the bottom finish that stiffen the structure and reduce engine height. They eliminated the outboard manifolds, making the engine narrower. The inboard exhaust arrangement allows turbochargers to package proximate to the exhaust ports and provides space for a closely coupled oxidation catalyst. This is an essential allotment of the unusual emissions aftertreatment system. By keeping aftertreatment hardware close, they can warm it up and light it off quickly. This enables a cleanly diesel with better fuel efficiency. These design characteristics allow the 4.5L V-8 Duramax to felicitous into about the selfsame packaging envelope as a small-block gasoline engine.Photo 11/18 | From the top, you can see where the runners curve up and finish in the intake ports. In case you were wondering, the valve cover moreover doubles as an intake manifold!
Diesel Power:With diesel and gasoline up over $5.00 a gallon, fuel mileage is a tall concern. How will this engine compare to a similarly equipped gasoline engine as far as fuel economy goes? Any thought on how much of a premium people will own to pay for the 4.5L diesel?
Charlie Freese:We hope the 4.5L V-8 Duramax to deliver about 25% better fuel efficiency than a comparably powered gasoline engine under light load operation. However, when the truck is used for drudgery (towing and hauling), its fuel efficiency edge extends into the 40-70% range. assume of this as a situation where you are towing a ponderous load over a mountain. That is where the diesel best demonstrates its advantages. Naturally aspirated gasoline engines must rush richer and travel into catalyst protection mode. A diesel does not. They own not announced option pricing for the unusual 4.5L Duramax. It is silent a puny early for that.Photo 12/18 | On the exhaust side there are no ports, just a brace of outlets where the exhaust will connect to the turbocharger and EGR system.
Diesel Power:There are a lot of different details within the 4.5L LMK that people might not notice; such as the cam arrangement, valvetrain, head current characteristics, equilibrium shaft, EGR cooler, compression ratio, and injection system. divulge us a puny bit about those.
Charlie Freese:Sure. To start with, the 4.5L employs a four-valve-per-cylinder DOHC architecture. This provides a very rigid valvetrain for efficient operation over a wide precipitate range. Hydraulic lash adjusters deliver maintenance-free operation with very low noise. Camshafts are chain driven from the front of the engine. Engine breathing is another set where inboard exhaust offered bewitching design options. They eliminated intake manifolds by porting the intake down through rocker covers. Air enters the cylinder heads from above.Photo 13/18 | 2010 Duramax 4500 Diesel head Underside Exhaust
This eliminated parts, narrowed the engine, avoided leak paths, and reduced engine mass. Because exhaust ports exit toward the engine's valley, they shortened the passages into the turbine and the exhaust gas recirculation system. This approach better manages thermal energy and lowers fluid current losses. By retaining more exhaust, gas heat, turbocharger, and oxidation catalyst performance are improved. Because they selected the 72 bank angle, this engine uses a single-balance shaft low in the block. They selected a rear-mounted nodal chain drive to minimize torsional vibrations. Considering manufacturing tolerances, a 72 V-8 engine can actually deliver better equilibrium than a 90 engine.
The EGR cooler package is another bewitching area. With every unique the exhaust components centered in the valley, they can more easily plumb the EGR system. Cooler, valves, and pipes are efficiently located with minimal cost, mass, and space penalties. The 4.5L operates with a 16:1 compression ratio, which supports their fuel efficiency, emissions, and durability objectives. chilly start requirements are satisfied using glow plugs, an air intake heater, control software, and proven practices from the 6.6L Duramax.
The fuel system is a high-pressure common rail. Peak injection pressures are set at 29,000 psi. Injectors are piezo-controlled, allowing multiple injections, precise fuel metering, and minimal dwell times. They can inject multiple pilots, split the main injection event, and achieve multiple post injections for optimal combustion and aftertreatment performance.Photo 14/18 | While photos are impressive, the GM crew was moreover nice enough to bring a complete engine to prove off. They got a firsthand see at the unusual cylinder heads, which by the course will breathe featuring overhead camshafts.
Diesel Power:OK now they own a brace general questions. At the seminar, you mentioned that these 1/2-ton trucks may hearten a unusual group of customers to purchase a diesel vehicle. divulge us about that.Charlie Freese:The 6.6L V-8 Duramax has been extremely successful. Duramax was introduced in 2001 with a 310-hp and 520-lb-ft rating. At its introduction, general Motors only had a 1.1% participate in the heavy-duty pickup market. Duramax and the Allison transmission established unusual performance and refinement benchmarks that changed many customer perceptions about diesels. Duramax soon captured one third of this necessary market. Since its introduction, Duramax routinely resets the bar for torque and power leadership. It now delivers 365 hp and 660 lb-ft of torque. Duramax has become a reason for purchase with many 3/4- and 1-ton truck customers. Photo 15/18 | The short-block moreover features some trick main caps, and is made out of compacted graphite iron, which should deliver 50+ pounds over a traditional iron block. We hope the unusual 4.5L V-8 Duramax can attain the selfsame thing for light-duty pickup trucks. Some customers don't necessity a 3/4-ton truck, but silent necessity tow trailers and hope efficiency. The 4.5L Duramax that they showed today can match the original 310-hp and 520-lb-ft rating of the first 6.6L Duramax. It does this with 2.1L less displacement. Rated precipitate will breathe in the 4,000-rpm range with a broad torque curve. This gives the vehicle low-end, stump-pulling torque and high-speed operation that feels more gasoline-like. This is necessary because some buyers may not breathe accustomed to diesel engines. The diesel veterans will find they enjoy it too. They continue to improve the 6.6L Duramax for those customers that require the biggest, most capable truck available. The 6.6L will serve the 2500 and 3500 pickups (Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra), fullsize vans (Chevrolet Express and GMC Savanna), and commercial trucks (Kodiak and Topkick). Photo 16/18 | The unusual 4.5L LMK moreover has to meet some of the strictest emissions requirements in the world. Don't believe us? Check out this chart that shows the unusual 2010 emissions (arrow) compared to the aged European standards.
Diesel Power:OK one terminal question. We're willing to ante that within a year of release, somebody will own one of your puny 4.5L LMKs producing more than 600 hp. What attain you assume about modifications that select these engines to such an extreme level?
Charlie Freese:We every unique relish the power and aggressive low-end torque modern diesel engines deliver. It can breathe appealing to test your skills at tuning these engines, and I personally understand the temptation. I grew up twisting wrenches in my dad's motorcycle and snowmobile shop.
Our customers are passionate about these diesel products. However, anyone who plans to modify their truck must understand the endeavor is risky. Subtle design features may breathe critically necessary to a part's function. People are silent approaching me about the LMM exhaust cooler, thinking it is only a styling feature. These powertrains were developed after years of analysis and hundreds of thousands of test hours.Photo 17/18 | To succor meet emissions, an electronic throttle is used to precisely monitor the amount of air that the engine will receive.
Component limitations were carefully mapped and balanced against every unique the design imperatives. The situation is even more intricate with active aftertreatment devices on the vehicle. The onboard computer constantly compensates for the ambient environment, operating conditions, exhaust backpressure changes, and system temperatures. Seemingly simple modifications can severely compromise functionality. They didn't leave horsepower needlessly on the table.
Engine design is every unique about balancing competing design imperatives. Tampering with design or calibration parameters can antecedent catastrophic engine damage and void your warranty. If someone is willing to risk a $10K repair bill for a day at the track, then why halt at 600 hp?
Diesel Power:Thanks so much for your time Charlie. We're genuinely excited about this engine and it looks enjoy you did an excellent job designing it. They can't wait till they are in a production vehicle. Give us a summon if you ever necessity us to drive one!Photo 18/18 | In reference to fuel, incredibly swiftly piezo injectors can shoot up to five times per injection cycle, which is a tall reason why the LMK can design tall power while silent meeting emissions.
Charlie Freese:You are welcome. It is always fun to talk about the product. They own a much engineering team working on this unusual engine. I am certain they will not let you down, and they may own some future surprises for you. stay tuned!
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