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posted on 04 April 2019
from The conversation
-- this post authored by course of James Cortada, university of Minnesota
It’s remarkable when agencies closing for many years - or even more than a century - and especially so when they’re in a fast-changing trade relish desktop expertise. IBM, which traces its roots to the Eighties, grew from three minuscule organizations to a multi-billion-dollar information expertise capabilities company today. Its u.s.and downs alongside the manner present some insights into the global technology industry, and may comprise some instructive lessons for up-and-coming digital giants relish Google, Amazon and fb - complete of which can be far younger than IBM.
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IBM has adventure that can be principal for the future of expertise. Alexander Tolstykh/Shutterstock.com
In my unique book, “IBM: the surge and topple and Reinvention of a worldwide Icon," I discover the enterprise’s background of growing and selling information processing machine and utility. As a former IBM employee and a historian, probably the most well-known lesson I organize is that many individuals addle incremental adjustments in know-how with more fundamental ones that in reality profile the path of a company’s destiny.
there's a change between individual items - successive fashions of PCs or typewriters - and the underlying applied sciences that execute them work. Over one hundred thirty years, IBM released neatly over 3,600 hardware products and nearly a similar volume of application. but complete these objects and features gain been based on only a handful of real technological advances, comparable to transferring from mechanical machines to folks that relied on computing device chips and utility, and later to networks relish the information superhighway. The transitions between those advances took vicinity far more slowly than the constant movement of unique items could imply.
These transitions from the mechanical, to the digital, and now to the networked reflected an ever-turning out to be capability to bring together and exhaust greater amounts of assistance conveniently and rapidly. IBM moved from manipulating statistical statistics to using technologies that train themselves what people requisite and gain an interest in seeing.a focus that can adapt
Between 1914 and 1918, IBM management determined that the trade the company can be in changed into statistics processing. in additional simultaneous terms, that company has whirl into “huge records" and analytics. however it’s still gathering and organizing data, and performing calculations and computations on it.
due to the fact that the early Nineteen Twenties, IBM has taken a disciplined approach to product evolution and analysis, specializing in establishing the underpinning applied sciences for its statistics processing products. Nothing appeared to be completed by chance.
A blue IBM punch card. Gwern/Wikimedia Commons
In its first half-century, IBM’s primary technology platform from which many products emerged become the punch-card, yielding tabulators, card sorters, card readers and the notorious IBM Card. In its second half-century, the fundamental expertise platform changed into the computer, including mainframes, minicomputers, PCs and laptops. In its most fresh 30 years, desktop revenue gain brought in a declining share of the business’s complete revenue, as IBM transitions to offering extra web-primarily based services, including utility and technical and managerial consulting.
the upward thrust of every succeeding know-how happened during the maturity and decline of its predecessor. IBM first begun selling computers in the 1950s, however kept selling tabulating device that nonetheless used punch playing cards unless the early 1960s. As currently because the early 1990s, over ninety % of IBM’s revenues came from promoting computer systems, even though it become introducing unique features relish administration and system consulting, assistance know-how management and utility income.
It wasn’t except the conclusion of 2018 that IBM introduced that fifty percent of its company now came from capabilities and application, most of which gain been unique choices developed in the outdated decade.
The news media - and even IBM personnel - may additionally gain perceived that IBM changed into remodeling itself without detain and often. in reality the trade had planted seeds for growth early and thoroughly tended unique technologies until they bore fruit - fortunately, around the same time as previous methods were ending their beneficial lives.
This strategic strategy is not exclusive - Apple has been selling personal computer systems for more than forty years. Its administration, of path, talks an impoverished lot greater about its role within the smartphone business, which is already starting to stage off. Apple might also quickly requisite - or already be working on - a brand unique technological focus to continue to be important.The future of the giants
Microsoft, relish Apple, advanced away from selling simply computing device utility and working systems. It started information superhighway-based mostly initiatives relish its Bing search engine and OneDrive cloud storage - as well as proposing cloud-based computing features for groups.
IBM is already exploring quantum computing, as a unique frontier of records processing. IBM research, CC with the aid of-ND
agencies that started on the cyber web may also visage an identical transitions. Amazon, Google and facebook every now and then title to gain converted themselves, however haven’t yet totally left their common organizations.
Amazon nonetheless makes most of its funds selling actual items online, though its information superhighway-based mostly cloud features division is becoming abruptly. Amazon has additionally invested in a astronomical sweep of other enterprise that could grow sooner or later, equivalent to health faith and enjoyment content.
Google and facebook nonetheless execute most of their cash promoting tips about how clients behave to advertisers and companies that want to entice individuals to a selected point of view. both are exploring other avenues, whether it’s Google’s self-riding vehicles or fb’s experiments with digital fact.
however at their core, complete three internet giants are still discovering unique tips on how to capitalize on the huge quantities of recommendation they accumulate about customers’ actions and pursuits - just as many years earlier IBM discovered unique tips on how to exhaust tabulating device and computer systems. if they’re to terminal decades or centuries into the longer term, the businesses will should probe, scan and innovate to locate unique the course to income as applied sciences exchange.
James Cortada, Senior analysis Fellow, Charles Babbage Institute, school of Minnesota
this text is republished from The dialog below a inventive Commons license. examine the daily article.
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Surge in on-line video content spurs greater cloud adoption
MONROE, Louisiana, April 5, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- CenturyLink, Inc. (CTL) announced the growth of its cloud connectivity and functions portfolio to encompass IBM Cloud protest Storage platform. With the addition of this storage option, CenturyLink can present media and leisure corporations a extra scalable, totally-obtainable, and relaxed option to enrich the management and birth of their content globally.
As media viewership grows and people increasingly prefer to devour entertainment on cellular gadgets, media and leisure organizations are rethinking how they can aid and bring better volumes of brilliant content to consumers international. With stories indicating content birth networks (CDNs) will carry seventy two p.c of internet traffic via 2022, the requisite for a hybrid cloud strategy that contains cloud-based mostly storage and workflows to aid that boom has spiked.
IBM Cloud protest Storage offers CenturyLink purchasers a centralized, resilient, scalable respond so they may also be confident of their skill to control and Move content securely and at excessive-pace. IBM Cloud protest Storage can tackle content material libraries of virtually any dimension for seamless administration and delivery, which is specially well-known to media and leisure groups that deserve to swiftly circulate and maneuver massive, advanced and dainty statistics.
"proposing excessive-performance, geographically-distinctive dawn storage is essential to achieving incredible consumer experiences when making an attempt to attain global audiences – mainly when it comes to serving speedy-turning out to be regions relish Latin the usa and Asia-Pacific," pointed out bill Wohnoutka, vp of world information superhighway and content material birth solutions for CenturyLink. "IBM Cloud protest Storage mixed with CenturyLink's unexpectedly increasing global CDN footprint presents their valued clientele a scalable, tremendously-obtainable and resilient election to enhance consumer adventure for content material delivery globally."
trendy information builds on CenturyLink's election final yr to bring comfy, committed, and personal community connectivity to the IBM Cloud through CenturyLink Cloud connect options.
"The media and entertainment industry faces unique challenges these days within the approach content material is consumed and the sheer volume of facts that ought to be transferred at any moment," stated Phil Buckellew, GM, IBM Cloud protest Storage and Databases. "With the mixing of IBM Cloud protest Storage, CenturyLink can now present its clients much more alternate options in how they movement and manage their records throughout environments. This variety of hybrid cloud approach is vital as they materialize to retain pace with booming viewership and shifting preferences."
About CenturyLinkCenturyLink (CTL) is the 2nd greatest U.S. communications provider to world enterprise consumers. With customers in additional than 60 countries and an inordinate focus on the customer event, CenturyLink strives to be the area's surest networking company with the aid of fixing shoppers' increased require for legit and cozy connections. The company additionally serves as its shoppers' depended on partner, assisting them control accelerated community and IT complexity and presenting managed network and cyber security solutions that assist tender protection to their business.
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IBM Tuesday expanded its reach into the burgeoning ersatz intelligence market with the introduction of a unique converged infrastructure appliance marrying its all-flash storage technology with high-performance GPU-based servers from Nvidia.
Big Blue's IBM SpectrumAI is a unique reference architecture optimized for AI workloads, said Eric Herzog, chief marketing officer and vice president of worldwide storage channels for IBM's storage division.
The IBM SpectrumAI is targeted at unique markets just starting to open up for channel partners, Herzog told CRN.
[Related: IBM Doubles Down On Flash, NVMe As It Commits To Taking Storwize 100 Percent Through Channel]
These comprise autonomous driving, location-based advertising, manufacturing property and warranty analysis, clinical drug trials, genomics, drilling exploration sensor analysis, consumer sentiment analysis and more, he said.
The unique converged infrastructure for ersatz intelligence workloads brings channel partners a comprehensive approach to the AI data pipeline, Herzog said.
"It is extensible and composable, and can span the data pipeline from ingest to archive," he said.
Best of all, Herzog said, the IBM SpectrumAI will fade to market 100 percent via circuitous sales channels.
The IBM SpectrumAI isn’t IBM's first foray into providing a converged infrastructure platform on which to rush AI workloads.
IBM in June introduced its first AI-based reference architecture, but it combined IBM's FlashSystem all-flash storage with the company's Power-based servers, making it an all-IBM offering, Herzog said.
The first storage vendor to ally with Nvidia was Mountain View, Calif.-based simple Storage, which in April introduced AI-Ready Infrastructure, or AIRI, which combines its all-flash FlashBlade storage with Nvidia's DGX-1 GPU-based platform and Arista networking. The company in May followed up with AIRI Mini, a lower-cost version featuring a lower-cost entry configuration and the option of Cisco Nexus 9000-based networking.
NetApp in August introduced its rival, the NetApp Ontap AI, which combines NetApp's AFF A800 all-flash storage array with end-to-end NVMe performance, Nvidia's DGX GPU nodes, and 100-Gbit Ethernet switches from Cisco into a converged platform for AI workloads.
Herzog said that IBM has differentiated its AI-focused converged infrastructure offerings in a number of ways, including having the most robust offering in the market thanks to its Power server line, as well as multiple charge points for its Nvidia-based version.
IBM is also unique in its software stack for its IBM SpectrumAI, Herzog said.
The IBM SpectrumAI comes with Spectrum Scale, the company's scale-out file system designed for astronomical data analytics, he said.
Options comprise the addition of OBM Cloud protest Storage for high-performance data archiving; IBM Spectrum Discover, which uses metadata to manage data; and IBM Spectrum Archive for archiving data to tape, he said.
The IBM SpectrumAI is based on IBM's FlashSystem all-flash storage array with all-NVMe performance, giving it a throughput of 120 GBps in a rack and over 30 GBps sustained random read in a 2U footprint.
Customers can scale the offering to up to nine Nvidia DGX-1 servers with up to two GPUs in a rack while scaling storage from a separate 300-TB node to up to 8 Exabytes of data, Herzog said.
Customers will embrace the IBM Spectrum AI, and many will aver that It's about time that IBM offered such a solution, said Kevin Carrington, vice president of sales at Lighthouse Computer Services, a Lincoln, R.I.-based solution provider and longtime IBM and Nvidia channel partner.
"Customers descry the marriage of Nvidia GPU-based server technology with gleam storage as fueling a army of trade opportunities," Carrington told CRN.
Lighthouse Computer Services is already working with the IBM Power-based ersatz intelligence platform in the health-care market, Carrington said. "This has definitely build a spring back into the step of Power," he said. "It made Power sexy again."
Whether Power-based or Nvidia-based, IBM's ersatz intelligence platforms address real-world customer requirements, Carrington said.
"AI is everywhere," he said. "It's how they are consuming IT, and how the marketplace sees us as consumers. It's complete around us, and it's happening today."
A short list of the most transformative products of the past century and a half would comprise the lightbulb, Ford’s Model T—and the IBM System/360. This mainframe train forever changed the computer industry and revolutionized how businesses and governments worked, enhancing productivity and making countless unique tasks possible.
In the years leading up to its 7 April 1964 launch, however, the 360 was one of the scariest dramas in American business. It took a nearly fanatical commitment at complete levels of IBM to bring forth this remarkable collection of machines and software. While the technological innovations that went into the S/360 were important, how they were created and deployed bordered on disaster. The company experienced what science policy expert Keith Pavitt called “tribal warfare”: people clashing and collaborating in a rapidly growing company with unstable, and in some instances unknown, technologies, as dubiety and ambiguity dogged complete the protagonists.
Ultimately, IBM was astronomical and diverse enough in talent, staffing, financing, and materiel to succeed. In an almost entrepreneurial fashion, it took advantage of emerging technologies, no matter where they were located within the enterprise. In hindsight, it seemed a unkempt and ill-advised endeavor, chaotic in execution and yet brilliantly successful. They live in an age that celebrates innovation, so examining cases of how innovation is done can only illuminate their understanding of the process.
By the conclude of the 1950s, computer users faced a seemingly intractable problem. Had it not been solved, it would gain prevented computers from becoming widespread, and any thoughts of vital in an Information Age would gain been fiction.Photo: IBM The S/360 was designed to replace IBM’s 1401 mainframe, which was common but couldn’t be expanded or upgraded.
Organizations were acquiring computers in Great numbers, automating many of the obsolete punch card operations and doing more with data processing. The popularity of the IBM 1401 illustrates the rapid adoption of computing. Over 12,000 of these systems were sold from their introduction in 1959 to 1971, when IBM retired the line.
With the 1401 so dominating the computer business, any problems with it were serious. One of them was that the 1401 was too small.
Users organize these machines so useful that they kept piling more labor on them, reaching the system’s capacity. They then had three options: Move to a bigger IBM system, such as an IBM 7000, install a competitor’s system, or acquire more 1401s. nothing of these options was attractive. To change to a bigger system required rewriting software, since the obsolete software would not labor on a different character of machine. The cost of rewriting could easily exceed the financial benefits of moving to a bigger machine. Such a change also called for retraining staff or hiring unique staff chummy with the unique system. Adding more units of the same system was equally unattractive because each unit required duplicate staff, equipment, and maintenance of hardware and software. Customers wanted systems that were “upgradable” or “compatible,” such that as their needs grew, they could bring in larger machines but still rush the same software and peripheral equipment. In the 1950s and early 1960s, it was a wish, and for vendors an aspiration.
IBM had worse problems than its customers did. The 1401s were proving so common that engineers in Endicott, N.Y., which had developed the system, resisted attempts by their counterparts in Poughkeepsie to build larger computers, leading to growing rivalry between the two groups. As one engineer recalled, “So violent was it that sometimes it seemed to exceed the rivalry with external competitors.” Systems made by Poughkeepsie would not rush programs written for the 1400 series. Customers wanting to Move from the smaller 1400s to the larger Poughkeepsie machines build increasing pressure on IBM to provide compatibility. Senior management had to contend with the expenses of sustaining R&D for a half-dozen incompatible product lines and training IBMers to sell and maintain so many systems.
Consensus grew that IBM needed to derive down to one system to simplify production, reduce the cost of R&D, and be more competitive against a growing array of rivals. If customers had to upgrade in the early 1960s, they could just as easily Move to a competitor’s machine, since they would gain to rewrite their software anyway.
The power of compatibility was demonstrated in the topple of 1960, when IBM introduced the more powerful 1410 to replace the 1401. Software and peripheral materiel for the 1401 worked with the newer machine. Customers and IBM sales loved that fact. Poughkeepsie’s engineers were immediate to completing labor on a set of four computers known as the 8000s that were compatible with the 7000s.Photo: IBM To derive the S/360 off the ground, T. Vincent Learson compelled engineering factions within IBM to cooperate.
T. Vincent Learson—known as Vin or T.V.—was in impregnate of future product evolution as the vice president of manufacturing and development. A gifted problem solver, he knew he had to Move quickly to atomize down the rivalry between Endicott and Poughkeepsie. IBM’s CEO at the time, Thomas J. Watson Jr., later described what happened: “He did it by applying a management technique called ‘abrasive interaction.’ This means forcing people to swap sides: taking the top engineer from the small-computer division and making him boss of the best evolution team in the large-computer division. A lot of people thought this made about as much sense as electing Khrushchev president.”
Learson replaced the Poughkeepsie manager in impregnate of the 8000 project with Bob O. Evans, who had served as the engineering manager for the 1401 and 1410. Evans favored compatibility across complete future products. After 90 days in his unique role, Evans recommended that labor on the 8000s be stopped and that both sites commence working “to develop a total cohesive product line.” He also proposed a bold unique ground technology for complete future systems, called Solid Logic Technology (SLT), to execute IBM’s machines more competitive.
Frederick P. Brooks Jr., who led the design team for the 8000, fought back. Evans and Brooks were formidable opponents. The two engineers both had years of experience running engineering and product evolution activities at IBM, and they were articulate and highly respected by their staffs and senior management. Brooks was not as towering ranking as Evans, so Learson brought in Jerrier A. Haddad, who had spent the previous two years in impregnate of the Advanced Engineering evolution Division, to study the proposed approaches of Evans and Brooks. Haddad recommended going with Evans’s ideas, and Learson killed the 8000 project in May 1961.
Bob Evans immediately asked Brooks to develop the procedure for a compatible family of computers. Brooks was flabbergasted, but he accepted, and with that the two engineering communities stopped feuding and began collaborating. There were still opponents in the company, but no matter—the trajectory toward a common system had been set.Photos: IBM Bob O. Evans [left] recommended killing IBM’s larger 8000 mainframe in favor of a unique line of compatible computers. Frederick P. Brooks Jr. [middle], who led the 8000’s design, objected, but Jerrier A. Haddad [right] sided with Evans. Evans then asked Brooks to labor on the unique line, which became the S/360.
Learson also assigned John W. Haanstra, president of the generic Products Division, which produced the 1400s, to chair an internal task oblige called SPREAD (for Systems Programming, Research, Engineering, and Development), with Evans as vice chair. Brooks later joined the task force. In December 1961, the group presented its technical recommendations.
Their report called for five compatible computers, labeled processors (defined as the computer, its memory, and channels to connect to peripheral equipment). The software and peripherals for one processor were to labor with complete other processors. The procedure called for using measure hardware and software interfaces between computers and peripherals, such as between disk drives and tape drives connecting to computers, so that the peripherals did not gain to be swapped out when a unique processor was installed. The recommendations became the basis for the System/360.
Because so much would be new, the processors would not be compatible with IBM’s existing products. That was an enormously well-known point. Customers moving to the unique IBM machines would gain to rewrite existing software just once to derive on the path of the unique system.
Then, IBM got a lucky break. As one engineer wrote, “Almost miraculously [Evans’s] vision of the unique product line was saved by a last-minute technical accomplishment. In mid-1963, engineers in the Poughkeepsie and Endicott laboratories had begun exploring the possibility of adding special microcode to the control stores of computers to improve their performance when simulating earlier IBM computers.” This role would allow 1401 software to rush in the two smaller models of the proposed unique system, only faster. Sales got on board, and its executives began pressuring R&D and manufacturing management for early introduction of the unique processors.
Watson recognized what was at stake, as he recalled in his memoirs:
From the dawn they faced two risks, either of which was enough to champion us awake at night. First there was the task of coordinating the hardware and software design labor for the unique line. They had engineering teams complete over America and Europe working simultaneously on six unique processors and dozens of unique peripherals…but in the conclude complete of this hardware would gain to plug together. The software was a bigger hurdle still. In order for System/360 to gain a common personality, hundreds of programmers had to write millions of lines of computer code. Nobody had ever tackled that involved a programming job, and the engineers were under Great pressure to derive it done.
A second set of problems involved manufacturing the electronic components for the unique systems. The electronics industry was starting to labor on integrated circuits, and the unique computers were going to be filled with these unique components. To be independent, IBM had to execute its own. It proved to be an expensive proposition.
Eventually, the corporate management committee, including Watson and the board of directors, sucked in a deep breath and approved the SPREAD recommendations. IBM was off to the races in the wildest ride of its history.
IBM could not conceal what was going on. unique employees flocked to Endicott, Poughkeepsie, and other labs and plants. Customers heard rumors, the computer press was speculating, and executives at GE, Honeywell, Sperry Univac, and elsewhere were trying to anticipate what IBM would do.
At IBM, nobody seemed satisfied with progress on the unique system. Engineering, manufacturing, sales, and corporate staff were in many cases working 100-hour weeks. Engineers moved cots into their offices. When Watson stopped in to descry how programming was going, an engineer yelled at him to derive out so he could work. The chairman of IBM beat a hasty retreat.Photos: IBM On 7 April 1964, a train from unique York City’s magnificient Central Terminal shuttled reporters to Poughkeepsie, where IBM chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr. officially unveiled the System/360.
It complete became public at noon eastern time in the United States on 7 April 1964. Over 100,000 customers, reporters, and technologists met in 165 U.S. cities, while others gathered around the world over the next few days to hear the news. As Watson declared at a press conference in Poughkeepsie, it was “the most well-known product announcement in the company’s history.”Photo: note Richards/Computer History Museum Among the System/360’s 44 peripherals was the 2311 disk storage drive. Each removable disk pack stored 7.25 megabytes.
On that day, IBM introduced a mind-boggling 150 unique products: 6 computers; 44 peripherals, including tape drives, disk drives, printers, and control units; and a engage to provide the software necessary to execute everything labor together. The press packet was an inch thick, and manuals describing complete the machines, components, software, and their installation and operation filled more than 50 linear feet.
The central feature of the System/360 was, of course, its compatibility. A growing data hub could install a minuscule 360 computer and later upgrade to a larger one without rewriting software or replacing peripheral equipment. Once chummy with the system, one did not gain to learn a Great deal more to handle an upgrade. The cognomen 360 was chosen to intimate the notion of 360 degrees, covering everything.
In the first month following the S/360 announcement, customers worldwide ordered over 100,000 systems. To build that number in perspective, in that same year in the United Kingdom, complete of Western Europe, the United States, and Japan, there were slightly more than 20,000 computers of any benign installed. The first deliveries of the smaller machines were promised for the third quarter of 1965, and deliveries of the larger ones in the first quarter of 1966. The detain between announcement and shipping date gave customers time to determine which models to acquire, derive them approved and budgeted, procedure on where to house them, train staff, complete software remediation, and so forth. With the April announcement, IBM bought itself two years to execute qualified on its promises and knock competitors back on their heels.
From 7 April to when the company started delivering machines to customers, IBM entered the most dangerous, intense, and challenging era of its history. The company spent US $5 billion (about $40 billion today) to develop the System/360, which at the time was more than IBM made in a year, and it would eventually hire more than 70,000 unique workers. Every IBMer believed that failure meant the death of IBM.
As Watson later recalled, “Not complete of the materiel on parade [on 7 April] was real; some units were just mockups made of wood. They explained that to their guests, so there was no deception. But it was a hazardous cutting of corners—not the course I assume trade ought to be done—and an uncomfortable reminder to me of how far they had to fade before they could convene the program a success.”
Watson assigned his brother, Arthur, to manage engineering and manufacturing going forward. Learson would rush sales for the unique system, “twisting the tails of their salesmen.” Tom Watson Jr. thought Learson had the more difficult task. The risk of customers converting to someone else’s machines rather than to the S/360 greatly concerned Watson.Photo: IBM IBM promised to commence delivering the first S/360 machines in the third quarter of 1965. Production problems emerged almost immediately.
As the number of orders for the S/360 kept increasing, manufacturing was asked in 1965 to double production. One production manager said it could not be done and was replaced. property declined. Some of the electronic circuits within an SLT, for example, were not complete, so electrons could not fade where they were putative to. By the conclude of the year, the property control department had impounded 25 percent of complete SLT modules, bringing production to a halt.Photo: IBM With the S/360, IBM introduced its solid logic technology (SLT), a precursor to integrated circuits. Doubling the production of the S/360 in 1965 led to defects in a quarter of the SLT modules.
After the problems were solved, manufacturing proceeded in 1966, resulting in 90 million SLT modules bring produced, compared to just 36 million the previous year. IBM opened a unique plant in East Fishkill, just south of Poughkeepsie, which made more semiconductor devices than complete other manufacturers worldwide combined. Production also expanded to unique facilities in Burlington, Vt., and in Corbeil-Essonnes, France.
To resolve manufacturing problems with the ferrite-core memories, IBM set up a plant in Boulder, Colo., in 1965. But it took the craftsmanship of workers in Japan to derive the production of memories up to the required amounts and quality.Photo: note Richards/Computer History Museum The S/360’s ferrite-core remembrance also proved extremely tricky to manufacture. This plane contains 1,536 remembrance cores.
As manufacturing became a worldwide effort, unique problems arose in coordinating activities and fabricating machines. Arthur Watson had some experience managing IBM’s minuscule factories outside the United States but nothing with resolving engineering problems, let lonesome massive global problems in evolution and manufacturing. He was out of his league, and his brother challenged him to resolve the problems. Meanwhile, Learson and his sales teams wanted additional improvements to the product line. Relations between Learson and Arthur completely deteriorated. In October 1964, IBM announced significant delays in shipping products.
Tom removed Arthur from his job and turned over his responsibilities to Learson, who in whirl brought in four engineering managers to punch through the problems. Nicknamed the “four horsemen,” they had complete authority worldwide for getting the S/360 manufactured and delivered to customers. Their collection of problems, one of the managers notable later, was “an absolute nightmare,” “a gray blur of 24-hour days, seven days a week—never being home.” And yet, in five months, they had worked out enough of the problems to start meeting delivery dates. In January 1966, Learson became president of IBM.Photos: IBM Facing unacceptable production delays, Learson brought in [left to right] Henry E. Cooley, Clarence E. Frizzell, John W. Gibson, and John Haanstra, who sorted out manufacturing problems worldwide and got the S/360 back on track.
Arthur was shunted into the role of vice chairman. His career was broken, and he retired in 1970. In his memoirs, Tom Watson Jr. admitted to being in a nearly continuous panic from 1964 to 1966 and deeply regretted his treatment of Arthur. “I felt nothing but shame and frustrations at the course I’d treated him…. As it was, they remade the computer industry with the System/360, and objectively it was the greatest triumph of my trade career. But whenever I search for back on it, I assume about my brother I injured.”
Software problems also slowed production of the 360. The software evolution staff was described as being in “disarray” as early as 1963. The operating system, called OS/360, struggled to rush more than one job at a time, which was essential to making the S/360 relish a gleam and productive. Other problems surfaced with telecommunications and with application programs. Programming champion became another contentious issue.
Fred Brooks volunteered to help, and IBM added 1,000 people to the operating system project, costing the company more for software in one year than had been planned for the entire evolution of the S/360 system. But throwing more programmers at the project did not help. Based on the S/360 experience, Brooks would later expand on that theme in The Mythical Man-Month (Addison-Wesley, 1975), still one of the most widely read books on computing. The software would snare years to complete, but in the conclude it worked well enough to champion the shipping detain to one month.Photo: IBM A System/360 arrives at Tokai Bank in Japan. require for computing grew enormously in the years following the S/360’s launch.
Despite the costs and anxiety, in 1965—the year IBM had committed to shipping the first units to customers—it managed “by some miracle” (Watson’s words) to deliver hundreds of medium-size S/360s. Their property did not always match the original design specifications. Shortages of parts, other parts that did not work, and software filled with bugs spread to many countries. Almost every initial customer encountered problems.
Branch offices were hiring systems engineers to help. SEs were college graduates, usually with technical degrees, who knew how to debug software and assisted the sales oblige in selling and supporting computers. The SEs heroically tackled S/360’s software problems, while domain engineers, who installed equipment, fixed hardware problems. Salesmen calmed their customers, while branch managers worked to champion their staffs motivated and focused.
And despite the many problems, “customers were still ordering 360s faster than they could build them,” Watson recalled, forcing delivery dates out as much as three years. By the conclude of 1966, customers had taken delivery of nine models of the S/360, for a total of 7,700.
IBM’s competitors responded. Burroughs, GE, Honeywell, NCR, and Sperry Rand, operating largely in the United States, CII in France, and ICT (later ICI) in Great Britain introduced systems compatible with one another’s machines, but not compatible with IBM’s. A second, smaller group chose to manufacture machines that were compatible with IBM’s, including RCA and others in Europe and Japan, relying on RCA’s licenses.Photo: IBM NASA purchased a number of S/360s, including this one at Goddard Space Flight Center. Several others at mission control in Houston were used to monitor Apollo 11.
Five years later, the worldwide inventory of installed IBM computers had grown to $24 billion, while that of competitors had reached $9 billion. In other words, IBM’s S/360 increased overall require for computing so massively that it raised complete boats. The industry’s annual growth in the second half of the 1960s was in double digits year over year, as many thousands of organizations expanded their exhaust of computers. require for computing grew because of the technological innovations brought forth by IBM, but also because users were accumulating enough experience to understand a computer’s value in driving down costs and performing unique functions.
IBM also grew, more than doubling from 127,000 employees worldwide in 1962 to 265,000 by the conclude of 1971. Revenue rose from $3.2 billion in 1964 to $8.2 billion in 1971.Photo: IBM The S/360 reinforced IBM’s domination of the global computer business. One executive, asked whether the company would ever snare on another such project, replied, “Hell no, never again.”
Because the S/360 was the heart of much computing by the conclude of the 1960s, its users constituted a world of their own. Thousands of programmers only knew how to exhaust software that ran on S/360s. Additional thousands of data-processing personnel had worked only with IBM equipment, including keypunch machines, printers, tape drives, disk drives, and software, which in many instances took years to master. By the early 1970s the computing space was largely an IBM world on both sides of the Atlantic, in the emerging markets in Latin America, and in Japan.
Years later, when asked whether IBM would ever engage in such a massive project again, one executive barked out, “Hell no, never again.” Watson tilted toward a similar reaction. Commenting in 1966, he said, “At their size, they can’t fade 100 percent with anything unique again,” sense anything that big. After the 360, Watson made it a policy “never to announce a unique technology which will require us to dedicate more than 25 percent of their production to that technology.”
The generation that brought out the S/360 remained unique in the company, a special clan bonded ferociously to IBM. Careers had been made and broken, personal lives and marriages upended. IBMers did not know at the time how extensively their products would change the world, but they do.
This article is based on excerpts from IBM: The surge and topple and Reinvention of a Global Icon (MIT Press, 2019).
James W. Cortada is a senior research fellow at the University of Minnesota’s Charles Babbage Institute. He worked at IBM for 38 years in sales, consulting, managerial, and research positions.
When three major vendors complete execute similar product announcements, you know things are cooking in that space. In this case, Hitachi Vantara, HP Enterprise, and IBM complete made news around SSD-based storage, much of it related to de-duplication and other ways to derive control over data creep.
With users generating gigabytes of data every week, the solution for many enterprises has been to toss storage at it. That can derive expensive, especially with SSD. SSD averages about 40 cents per gigabyte, while HDD storage averages about 5 cents per gigabyte.
To derive control over data sprawl, storage vendors are offering de-duplication, or in the case of Hitachi Vantara, better de-duplication with their unique systems. We’ll rush down the news alphabetically.Hitachi updates its Virtual Storage Platform
Hitachi Vantara is the unifying of three Hitachi companies under one umbrella. It’s not exactly up there with Dell EMC in terms of sales, but nonetheless it has competitive products and continues to plug away at the U.S. market.
Hitachi has updated its Virtual Storage Platform (VSP) all-flash and hybrid storage arrays, as well as its SVOS operating system. The arrays topple into two product lines: the all-flash F-series and hybrid flash/hard disk G-series. The F-series has gotten a significant capacity upgrade, from 3.84TB in the obsolete version to 15TB now.
Both systems received significant performance upgrades, with Hitachi boasting of up to 70 percent more IOPS per core, three times more IOPS performance and 2.5 times the scalability over older VSP systems. Hitachi also says the unique systems tender up to 3.4 times faster deduplication and five-fold SVOS-based compression.
Curiously, the F-series and G-series champion Fibre Channel and SCSI connections, but not NVMe over fabric, which is the real game-changer for high-performance storage. Every other storage vendor is falling complete over themselves to declare their products champion NVMe over fabric, but no word from Hitachi yet.
The SVOS operating system has also been upgraded with unique AI-based operations and container support. It has cloud and container integration, which supports unique workloads. The company introduced Hitachi Infrastructure Analytics Advisor (HIAA), a so-called AI-powered “brain,” to provide analysis of your data hub optimizations across virtual machines, servers, networks, and storage. It uses machine learning to more efficiently optimize, troubleshoot, and prognosticate data hub needs.HPE upgrades its agile storage line
We’ve already covered the HPE news in a separate piece, so I’ll champion it brief here. HPE has given its agile storage line a significant upgrade and product line consolidation, similar to Hitachi. agile is one step below the company's top-of-the line 3PAR and XP storage arrays, but they are getting some 3PAR features.
Nimble breaks down into three product lines: the all-flash array AF train line, a hybrid disk-flash HF train of products, and the Secondary gleam (SF) line. The AF line goes from five to four products with capacity upgrades and champion for storage-class remembrance (SCM) and NVMe-over-Fabric interconnects.
SCM is a hybrid remembrance of sorts that fits somewhere between gleam and DRAM. It’s not as relish a gleam as DRAM, but it has much higher read and write performance than an SSD. It is remembrance designed from the ground up to improve storage performance. 3PAR has had it, now agile has it.
The HF arrays, with one exception, now champion inline, variable shroud size deduplication, which HPE claims makes them "the most efficient hybrid arrays in the industry by a wide margin."IBM upgrades Storwize arrays
IBM is upgrading its Storwize arrays for the first time in two years to add improved overall performance, cloud integration, and some seriously enhanced deduplication performance.
Storwize is an all-flash array that provides data shroud storage and runs Spectrum Virtualize software, a fraction of IBM’s IBM Spectrum Storage software-defined storage solution suite. It adds deduplication champion to IBM’s VersaStack converged infrastructure and its FlashSystem V9000.
The company claims up to a 5:1 data reduction and 100 percent data availability protection, so long as you exhaust IBM HyperSwap and it is deployed by IBM Lab Services.
IBM is putting some numbers behind its dedupe claims, saying that combined with existing data reduction functions, over a three-year age you can reduce storage management and OPEX costs by over $2.8 million and CAPEX costs by as much as $600,000. This is based on a particular spec: an AFA Storwize V7000F system with approximately 700TB of usable space and the exhaust of 7.68TB gleam drives.
IBM also announced Spectrum Virtualize for Public Cloud, which connects on-premises storage systems to the IBM Cloud service. This unique release doubles scalability performance by expanding champion from four nodes to eight, making it easier to exhaust lower-cost cloud data centers as a target for catastrophe recovery (DR).
There’s a lot more to complete three announcements, but you derive the point. The storage market is in significant flux as SSD opens up unique possibilities and unique advancements in SSD technology open up unique markets. NVMe over fabric is particularly astronomical because it means SSDs can be read and write by remote systems. Up to this point, the only computer that could access a SSD was the one it was plugged into.
SSD opens up complete kinds of performance potential now that they exhaust faster controllers, which are still coming to market. The SSD in your PC uses the SATA interface designed for arduous drives. SSDs can transfer data in parallel where HDDs cannot, so the hurry potential is tremendous — with the right controller.
It’s rather astounding that SSD storage is still advancing and not showing signs of slowdown. complete of these nifty storage arrays from Hitachi, HPE and IBM will be replaced with something much better in just a few years.Join the Network World communities on Facebook and LinkedIn to comment on topics that are top of mind.
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