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The world crew of the IBM x86 server trade might exist prepared beneath Lenovo’s enterprise company group. Adalio Sanchez led the x86 server company at IBM and should proceed in this potential at Lenovo, as senior vice president of commercial enterprise methods, reporting to Gerry Smith. The buy fee is about US$ 2.1 billion. approximately US$ 1.8 billion will exist paid in cash at closing after estimated changes and about US$ 280 million might exist paid in Lenovo inventory, according to the closing cost of Lenovo’s inventory on September 26, 2014. The transaction convinced regulatory necessities and prerequisites, including clearance by means of the Committee on alien investment within the united states (CFIUS), the eu fee and the chinese language Ministry of Commerce. The transition will open Wednesday in countries which are Part of the preparatory closing, which includes most primary markets. The transaction is anticipated to shut in most other nations later this yr, with the few ultimate international locations following in early 2015. ABOUT LENOVOLenovo (HKSE: 992) (ADR: LNVGY) is a US$39 billion very own know-how company, the greatest computing device enterprise on earth, serving customers in more than 160 nations. dedicated to edifice mainly engineered PCs and cellular web devices, Lenovo’s company is constructed on product innovation, a highly-productive global deliver chain and robust strategic execution. fashioned by means of Lenovo group’s acquisition of the previous IBM personal Computing Division, the enterprise develops, manufactures and markets respectable, terrific, comfy and simple-to-use know-how items and services. Its product strains consist of legendary believe-branded industrial PCs and idea-branded purchaser PCs, in addition to servers, workstations, and a family of cellular information superhighway contraptions, together with drugs and smartphones. As a global Fortune 500 company, Lenovo has major research centers in Yamato, Japan; Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen, China; Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Raleigh, North Carolina. For more information discern www.lenovo.com. About IBMFor greater assistance about IBM, visit http://www.ibm.com
# # #[i] in keeping with IDC, the whole x86 server market could exist $42.1 billion in 2014
See the complete checklist of redress rack server companiesfinal analysis:
The IBM vigour systems S922 server is designed from the ground up for facts intensive workloads relish databases or analytics. it can aid a few key trade information-intensive scenarios, including mainstream functions, leading-edge HPC workloads and evolving simulated intelligence (AI) projects.
shoppers searching for predominant compute energy should soundless recognize this key reality: POWER9 options are the basis of the area’s first and third fastest supercomputers, the U.S. department of power’s apex and Sierra installations.
IBM vitality servers are inclined to beget a higher imbue of entry than x86 machines. youngsters, in accordance with a dissect with the aid of Quark + Lepton, IBM vigour methods running IBM I software beget 60% lessen complete can imbue of possession than windows/SQL Server or X86 based mostly Oracle programs. IBM’s pitch is that there are limits to what commodity architectures can do.
although, in case you forecast surges well known and don’t beget margin for downtime, licensing charges, or occasional crashes a stronger enterprise structure could exist required.Product description:
The S922 is a 1 or 2 socket server that offers a wide selection of core configurations and up to 4 TB of reminiscence. Chip core speeds on the 4-core are 2.eight to 3.8GHz, on the eight core are three.4 to 3.9 GHz and on the 10 core are 2.9 to 3.eight GHz. the only socket version gives up to 6 PCIe ( 2 x Gen4 and four x Gen3) slots and the two socket version provides as much as 9 slots (3 more Gen4 slots). One slot is used by a mandatory Ethernet adapter. depending on what is attached, up to 3 of these slots could exist reserved for other functions. IBM i is barely supported on the 6 cores and 8 core processors and is limited to four cores of IBM i with a utility tier of P10.
power methods are primary for their RAS (resiliency, availability, serviceability) aspects. IBM POWER9-based mostly programs are stated to bring up to 10X sooner bandwidth acceleration and 50% more advantageous reminiscence bandwidth than comparable x86 solutions. They additionally advocate the latest in statistics transfer applied sciences, including PCIe four.0 and novel NVLink and OpenCAPI interfaces. This current server era comes together with twice the reminiscence footprint than POWER8. alterations in the reminiscence subsystem and using the latest DIMMs boost price/efficiency.points:
number of processors:
up to 2
IBM POWER9 Scale-Out SMT8 processor (12-core, 10-core, 8-core, 4-core offerings)
Cores per processor:
four, 8,10 cores per socket
highest processor frequency/cache:
3.9 GHz/512k L2 and 10 MB L3
I/O growth slots:
the one socket version offers up to 6 PCIe ( 2 x Gen4 and four x Gen3) slots and the two socket version offers as much as 9 slots (three greater Gen4 slots). One slot is used by means of a compulsory Ethernet adapter. counting on what's connected, up to a few of those slots could exist reserved for other applications.
One entrance USB 3.0 ports – Two rear USB 3.0 ports – Two HMC 1 GbE RJ45 ports – One device port with RJ45 connector – 1x USB 3.0 entrance, 2x USB three.0 rear, 2x HMC 1 GB Eth RJ45 ports, one system port with RJ45 connector, 2x immoderate quicken 25 Gb/s ports
maximum reminiscence/# slots/velocity:
up to 4 TB/32 IS RDIMM slots/up to 2666 Mhz
optimum Persistent memory:
S922/S924 has two interior direct attached storage connectors, an NVMe card and a SAS cardaid:
The electronic services web portal is a unique cyber web entry point that replaces the assorted entry elements historically used to entry IBM cyber web features and aid. This internet portal allows you to profit more convenient entry to IBM components for assistance in resolving technical issues. The newly stronger My techniques and premium Search features create it even more straightforward for electronic provider Agent-enabled shoppers to song device inventory and discover pertinent fixes.
My methods offers valuable reports of installed hardware and application the usage of suggestions gathered from the programs with the aid of IBM digital provider Agent. stories can exist institute for any gadget associated with the client's IBMid. top class Search combines the function of search and the value of electronic service Agent advice, presenting superior search of the technical aid knowledgebase.
“it is a clear election if you beget already got a longtime IBM AIX atmosphere and wish to sustain compatibility and retain efficiency. There are related alternatives now which may exist able to Get you to 3 nines for 1/2 the prices,” observed a Senior supervisor of IT within the manufacturing business.Key markets and spend cases:
IBM power techniques S922 server without problems integrates into an organization’s cloud & cognitive approach and supplies superior rate efficiency for mission vital workloads.
POWER9 is designed from the floor up for data intensive workloads relish databases or analyticsfee:
20 core, 512 GB, $37,222. The utility is tall priced.
“it's a product with immoderate efficiency, efficiency and economic indices within the IT market,” stated an purposes Engineering in the education trade. "Deployment is awfully easy, however took more than three months. It proved low-priced ultimately.”
IBM energy S922
Max Processor Frequency
three.9 GHz/512k L2 and 10 MB L3
Max Persistent reminiscence
2 POWER9 Scale-Out SMT8
desirable processing vigor
Canonical's John Dolen reports that IBM introduced on the day of October 8, 2015, that they extended their latitude of Ubuntu-supported techniques with the newly introduced IBM vitality systems LC fashions, which swear to avoid massive statistics workloads at half the can imbue of x86-primarily based servers.
the current unique and twin socket server IBM energy methods LC models are now purchasable thanks to the joint collaboration of Canonical, IBM, and the members of the OpenPOWER foundation, including Nvidia, Mellanox, Wistron, and Tyan. IBM's current programs will aid the latest Server edition of the Ubuntu Linux working device and were engineered to aid cognitive workloads and massive facts. Canonical will exist positive that Ubuntu could exist accessible for the brand current IBM energy methods LC fashions when they are launched later this yr.
"This announcement builds upon the open innovation and merits which their mutual customers are already reaping from OpenPOWER foundation. Collaboration involving POWER8 Coherent Accelerator Processor Interface (CAPI) is a fine illustration," says John Dolen. "Researchers on the school of Toronto are using Ubuntu with POWER8 CAPI, connected to a box programmable gate array (FPGA), to velocity up scientific simulations, involving huge amounts of statistics, with the purpose of enhancing treatments for melanoma sufferers."Juju Charms and POWER8
in the press liberate (connected on the terminate of the article for reference), Canonical notes that IBM’s current vigour techniques LC fashions tackle the necessities of high-performance computing and managed service suppliers, and that their continued collaboration with IBM has made positive that Juju Charms at the instant are attainable for the POWER8 family unit of superscalar symmetric multiprocessors, which purchasers can spend for their continual changing wants.
Canonical and IBM will furthermore exist present on the upcoming IBM Insight2015 suffer which will recall vicinity later this month, the situation they will parade the precise vitality of Ubuntu Linux, IBM vitality systems, Juju Charms, and POWER8, and how it's to build and install a construction cluster in line with the Apache Spark applied sciences, so exist positive that you simply attend the event if you are snoopy to study extra about cloud computing and the latest Linux traits.
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Server hardware vendors proffer servers of outright shapes and sizes, providing a wide sweep of options for organizations. Most of the major players embrace rack servers in their inventories, but many furthermore provide blade servers, and some even proffer mainframe computers.
Server hardware vendors usually proffer other types of systems, as well, such as towers, converged infrastructures, hyper-converged infrastructures (HCIs), high-density systems or supercomputers.Acer
Acer Inc. offers a handful of rack servers that target midsize and enterprise-level organizations. These rack servers embrace the Altos and AR series, available in 1U and 2U figure factors. The Altos sequence includes four models, outright dual-socket. The AR sequence includes two models, one unique socket and one quad socket.
One of the most powerful Altos systems is the AR580, which supports up to four Intel Xeon E5-4600 Processors and up to 48 dual in-line remembrance modules (DIMMs). The server furthermore provides redundant equatorial swappable power supplies and a dual-port, 10-gigabit Ethernet controller.
In addition to the rack servers, Acer offers the AW2000h F2 series, which includes two models of high-density servers. Although Acer does not bill these as blade servers, the systems are similar in many ways. For example, the Acer AW2000h w/AW370h F2 system comes in a 2U rack-mountable chassis that can avoid up to four server nodes, each with up to two Xeon Processors and 16 DIMMs. In addition, Acer offers several tower models and one mini-tower.
For information about pricing and how to purchase servers, buyers should directly contact Acer.Asus
AsusTek Computer Inc. is one of the server hardware vendors that proffer a variety of rack servers, as well as two tower and two high-density graphics processing unit (GPU) servers. The rack servers are Part of the RS sequence and the ESC4000 series.
The RS sequence includes nine models available in 1U or 2U figure factors. The servers target a sweep of operations depending on trade size and workloads. For example, the RS720-E9-RS12-E rack server in the RS sequence supports up to two Intel Xeon Scalable Processors for a total of 56 cores and 112 threads. The server can furthermore advocate up to 3 TB of memory. Other servers in the RS sequence are not nearly as robust.
The ESC4000 sequence includes three models, outright 2U figure factors and two-socket systems, with advocate for up to eight DIMMs per CPU. The primary differences between the models are in the processor types and number of drive bays. For example, the ESC4000 G3 supports Intel Xeon E5-2600 Processors and up to eight equatorial swappable 3.5-inch drives, but the ESC8000 G4 supports Xeon Scalable Processors and up to eight equatorial swappable 2.5-inch drives.
Buyers can purchase Asus servers online from retailers such as Newegg, Amazon or CDW, but they should withhold in judgement that prices can vary significantly. For example, list prices for the ESC4000 G3 at these three retailers sweep from about $1,900 to $3,300, not including processors or memory.Cisco
Cisco offers seven models of rack servers and six models of blade servers to accommodate organizations of outright sizes, with prices starting anywhere between $3,000 and $26,000. The rack servers are included in the Unified Computing System (UCS) C-Series and are available in 1U, 2U and 4U figure factors. Most models advocate up to two Xeon Processors, but the C460 M4 and C480 M5 advocate up to four, with remembrance varying between 1.5 TB and 6 TB. The maximum amount of supported internal storage can sweep between 30 TB and 246 TB.
The blade servers are Part of the UCS B-Series, with each supporting two or four processors depending on the model. As with the rack servers, total available remembrance ranges between 1.5 TB and 6 TB, with maximum storage between 6.4 TB and 39 TB.
Cisco furthermore offers its UCS S-Series of storage servers, its UCS E-Series of branch office blade servers and the UCS C-Series of multimode servers.
Buyers interested in purchasing servers can fade to the Cisco website to find a nearby retailer.Dell EMC
Dell EMC is another one of the server hardware vendors that proffer a wide sweep of rack and blade servers to accommodate different types of organizations. Most of the rack servers are Part of the PowerEdge R-Series, with starting prices ranging from $899 to $10,759.
The R-Series includes four one-socket models, ten two-socket models and five four-socket models available in figure factors between 1U and 4U. One of the most powerful of these servers is the PowerEdge R940xa, a 4U system that supports up to four processors, 6 TB of remembrance and 32 internal 2.5-inch disks.
Dell EMC blade servers are available through the PowerEdge M-Series, which includes two models starting at $1,849. The models differ in terms of the number of sockets, types of processors, amount of memory, and in several other ways.
For example, the PowerEdge M640 blade server supports up to two Xeon Scalable Processors and 16 DIMMs, whereas the PowerEdge M830 supports up to four Xeon E5-4600 Processors and 48 DIMMs.
Dell furthermore offers seven models of tower servers, outright Part of the PowerEdge family, as well as the PowerEdge MX sequence and PowerEdge FX series, both billed as modular infrastructures for high-density computing, similar to the PowerEdge M-Series.
Buyers can purchase servers directly on the Dell EMC website.Fujitsu
Fujitsu Ltd. sells an assortment of racks, blades, towers, mainframes and other types of computers to organizations of any size, but buyers must exist aware that the available models can vary between countries.
In the U.S., Fujitsu offers eight rack servers that are Part of the Primergy RX series. The servers are available with one, two or four sockets and in 1U, 2U and 4U figure factors. Fujitsu furthermore offers four rack models in the Primequest series, which tend to exist more robust than those in the Primergy RX series. For example, the Primequest 3800E server is an eight-socket system with a 7U figure factor, and it supports up to 12 TB of memory.
What sets Fujitsu apart from most other server hardware vendors is its BS2000 sequence of mainframe computers. The sequence includes three models. The most performant is the SE700B, which can avoid several operating systems based on an ESA/390 architecture and Intel x86 technologies. However, buyers should note that this product is only available for purchase in Japan.
In addition to the mainframe computers, Fujitsu offers the Primergy BX400 blade series, which supports two compute blade models, the BX2560 M2 and the BX2580 M2, along with other chassis components. Plus, Fujitsu offers its Primequest mission-critical series, Primergy tower servers, Sparc M-Series and PrimeHPC supercomputers.
For prices and purchasing options, buyers should contact Fujitsu directly or contact a regional Fujitsu sales office.Hewlett Packard Enterprise
Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) offers a wide sweep of rack and blade servers for outright types of organizations. HPE's rack servers are available in four series: ProLiant DL, ProLiant XL, Apollo and Integrity.
The ProLiant DL sequence is the most extensive and includes six Gen10 models and four Gen9 models. The models are available in 1U, 2U and 3U figure factors and compass with one, two or four sockets.
Starting prices can sweep anywhere from $600 to $25,000. For example, the ProLiant DL560 Gen10 entry server lists for $11,855 and supports up to two Xeon Scalable Processors and 6 TB of memory.
HPE furthermore offers a sweep of blade servers, with three models in the ProLiant sequence and two models in the Integrity series. Prices here can furthermore vary, although not to the extreme of rack servers. For instance, ProLiant configurations can sweep between $3,300 and $14,470.
HPE's products furthermore embrace towers; converged and hyper-converged infrastructures; and systems such as the HPE Superdome, ProLiant easy Connect, ProLiant MicroServer, ProLiant Moonshot and ProLiant XL Server.
Buyers can buy servers directly from the HPE website.Huawei
Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.'s FusionServer line includes 13 rack server models and 15 blade server models to accommodate both large and petite IT operations. The rack servers compass in two-socket, four-socket and eight-socket configurations and are available in figure factors from 1U to 8U.
For example, the FusionServer RH8100 V3 server has an 8U figure factor and supports up to eight Xeon E7-8800 Processors, 12 TB of remembrance and 24 internal 2.5-inch drives. Its blade servers are equally varied, providing both half-width and full-width compute nodes, as well as liquid-cooled nodes, with advocate for one or two processors.
In addition to the rack and blade servers, Huawei offers its FusionServer X high-density servers, FusionServer heterogeneous servers, FusionCube HCI systems and KunLun mission-critical servers.
For information about prices and how to purchase Huawei servers, buyers should contact Huawei or a sales ally directly. Organizations that signed an eDeal agreement with Huawei can spend the online eDeal ordering system.IBM
IBM offers a variety of server products, but the company is best known for its Z mainframe computers, available in three configurable models. The most current is the z14, which includes a 10-core z14 processor chip that uses 14 nanometer silicon-on-insulator technology. In addition, the server can advocate up to 8 TB of remembrance and avoid both z/OS and Linux on IBM Z.
IBM furthermore offers a variety of rack servers. The rack servers are Part of the Power Systems sequence and embrace 13 models, available in 1U, 2U and 4U figure factors, with one or two sockets.
IBM no longer offers blade servers. The company sold its division that offered blade systems to Lenovo. The systems that IBM currently sells are generally geared toward enterprise deployments, as well as local, status and federal governments.
In addition to mainframe and rack computers, IBM offers the LinuxOne Emperor II system, Power Systems scale-out servers, Power System S822LC for ample Data, Power System S822LC for Commercial Computing, HCIs and towers.
For information about prices and how to purchase servers, buyers should directly contact an IBM sales rep.Inspur Group
Inspur offers 10 rack server models that can accommodate a variety of workloads. Most of these are Part of the NF series, which includes seven two-socket servers and two four-socket servers. The two-socket systems are available in both 1U and 2U figure factors and the four-socket systems in the 4U figure factor.
Inspur furthermore offers the TS860G3 rack server as Part of the TS series. The server comes in an 8U figure factor and supports up to eight processors, 12 TB of remembrance and 16 equatorial swappable 2.5-inch drives, making it the most robust of the rack servers.
Then there is the NX sequence of blade servers, which includes four compute node models, along with other types of components typical of a blade system, such as storage expansion nodes, PCIe expansion nodes, switch modules, network mezzanine cards and the chassis. In addition, Inspur offers the i24 high-density rack-mounted server and several rack-scale systems based on SmartRack, a supple rack structure that contains centralized power, cooling and management at the rack level.
For information about prices and how to purchase servers, buyers should directly contact Inspur.Intel
Intel currently offers two categories of rack servers, grouped in the S1200SP and S2600WF server board series.
The S1200SP sequence includes three models with unique processors and 1U figure factors, making them best suited for petite businesses. The S2600WF sequence includes 11 models and is geared more toward larger organizations. These servers are available in 1U and 2U figure factors and advocate dual processors. Buyers might furthermore compass across the S2600WT sequence of rack servers, but these models beget been discontinued.
Intel does not sell blade servers, but it does provide other systems. Notable among these is its Data focus Blocks systems, which are purpose-built, fully validated server systems. Intel furthermore offers its Storage System JBOD2000 servers, which advocate up to 48 TB of storage.
For information about pricing and how to purchase servers, buyers should contact Intel authorized distributors, which are listed on the Intel website. Customers can furthermore spend Intel's online Configure to Order system to request quotes and situation orders as Part of the configuration process.Lenovo
Most of Lenovo Group Ltd.'s rack servers are Part of the ThinkSystem line, which includes seven rack servers available in 1U or 2U figure factors. A yoke of these servers advocate only one processor, but most advocate two, with remembrance varying between 64 GB and 3 TB.
For example, the ThinkServer RS160 is an entry-level 1U server that supports only one processor and 64 GB of memory, whereas the ThinkSystem SR630 is designed for data focus workloads, supporting up to two processors and 3 TB of memory. In addition, Lenovo offers the System x series, which includes three rack models that can wield various types of workloads.
As Part of its ThinkSystem line, Lenovo furthermore offers two blade compute node models: SN550 and SN850. The first is a two-socket blade that supports up to 3 TB of remembrance and the second is a four-socket blade that supports up to 6 TB of memory. Both systems spend the Xeon Platinum Processor, which can avoid up to 28 cores. In addition to the rack and blade servers, Lenovo offers tower servers, mission-critical servers and high-density servers.
Buyers can purchase servers directly through the Lenovo website. Rack servers start at $1,499 and blade servers start at $4,099, but prices can avoid much higher depending on the model and configuration.NEC
NEC Corp. offers nine rack servers that are outright Part of the Express5800 line. The servers are categorized as basic rack servers -- five models -- fault-tolerant servers -- two models -- and scalable enterprise servers -- two models.
The basic rack servers are available in 1U and 2U figure factors. They advocate one or two processors, between 64 GB and 3 TB of memory, and between 40 TB and 194 TB of internal storage, making them suitable for a wide sweep of workloads.
The fault-tolerant rack servers are 4U systems that advocate up to two processors, 512 GB remembrance and 9.6 TB of storage.
The scalable enterprise servers are furthermore 4U systems, but they advocate up to four processors, 6 TB of remembrance and 9.6 TB of storage.
NEC furthermore offers tower servers and modular servers, which are high-density, dual-socket systems that spend Xeon Scalable Processors. The servers embrace over 35 MB of cache and advocate up to 2 TB of remembrance and 24 TB of storage. The modular servers are similar to blade servers and are available as either 1U or 2U server modules.
For information about pricing and how to purchase servers, buyers should contact NEC directly. Although NEC servers might exist suitable for organizations of any size, the vendor has a more limited selection compared to other vendors.Oracle
Although Oracle does not proffer a large number of servers, its inventory includes a surprising amount of variety, most of which target midrange and larger organizations. The systems embrace x86 servers, Sparc servers, high-end servers, midrange servers and scale-out servers. Oracle even offers servers that conform to the Network outfit edifice System standard. Despite this variety, Oracle does not proffer blade servers.
Oracle's rack servers descend primarily in the x86 category and are Part of the X7 series. The sequence includes three models, which outright spend Xeon Scalable Processors.
The X7-2 model, billed as a compute-optimized system, is a 1U server that supports up to two processors, 1.5 TB of remembrance and eight 2.5-inch storage drives. The X7-2L model is a storage-optimized 2U system that furthermore supports up to two processors and 1.5 TB of memory, but it can wield up to 12 3.5 inch drives. The final model, X7-8, is a scale-up 5U server that supports up to eight processors, 6 TB of remembrance and eight 2.5 inch drives.
For information about pricing and how to purchase servers, buyers should directly contact Oracle.Supermicro
Of outright these featured server hardware vendors, Supermicro Computer Inc. offers the largest server selection, but its categorization can create it difficult to navigate the options.
In addition to towers, mid-towers and mini-towers, Supermicro offers SuperServer computers, SuperBlade systems, Ultra 1U and 2U platforms, BigTwin 2U four-node systems, FatTwin 4U multi-node systems, SuperStorage servers, GPU platforms with up to eight GPUs, and multiprocessor servers that advocate up to eight CPUs.
For the most part, however, the rack servers are included in the SuperServer series, with some of the other categories integrated into that category. The blade servers are Part of the SuperBlade series.
The SuperServer sequence includes hundreds of models, with a sweep that can accommodate just about any workload. The servers compass in 1U, 2U, 3U and 4U figure factors, and with one, two or four sockets. The SuperBlade sequence includes about 50 models.
As with rack servers, there is something for everyone. Supermicro recommends that customers purchase servers from authorized local resellers or distributors in order to receive guaranteed local advocate and services.
Because Supermicro sells so many products, prices can vary greatly depending on the server model and configuration. Buyers must accomplish their homework or drudgery with resellers to pick the best option.
Here at ExtremeTech, we’ve often discussed the contrast between different types of NAND structures — vertical NAND versus planar, or multi-level cell (MLC) versus triple-level cells (TLC) and quad-level cells (QLC). Now, let’s talk about the more basic germane question: How accomplish SSDs drudgery in the first place, and how accomplish they compare with newer technologies, relish Intel’s non-volatile storage technology, Optane?
To understand how and why SSDs are different from spinning discs, they necessity to talk a Little bit about arduous drives. A arduous drive stores data on a sequence of spinning magnetic disks called platters. There’s an actuator arm with read/write heads attached to it. This arm positions the read-write heads over the redress region of the drive to read or write information.
Because the drive heads must align over an region of the disk in order to read or write data (and the disk is constantly spinning), there’s a non-zero wait time before data can exist accessed. The drive may necessity to read from multiple locations in order to launch a program or load a file, which means it may beget to wait for the platters to spin into the proper position multiple times before it can complete the command. If a drive is asleep or in a low-power state, it can recall several seconds more for the disk to spin up to replete power and open operating.
From the very beginning, it was clear that arduous drives couldn’t possibly match the speeds at which CPUs could operate. Latency in HDDs is measured in milliseconds, compared with nanoseconds for your typical CPU. One millisecond is 1,000,000 nanoseconds, and it typically takes a arduous drive 10-15 milliseconds to find data on the drive and open reading it. The arduous drive industry introduced smaller platters, on-disk remembrance caches, and faster spindle speeds to counteract this trend, but there’s only so rapid drives can spin. Western Digital’s 10,000 RPM VelociRaptor family is the fastest set of drives ever built for the consumer market, while some enterprise drives spun up to 15,000 RPM. The problem is, even the fastest spinning drive with the largest caches and smallest platters are soundless achingly gradual as far as your CPU is concerned.How SSDs Are Different
“If I had asked people what they wanted, they would beget said faster horses.” — Henry Ford
Solid-state drives are called that specifically because they don’t reliance on lamentable parts or spinning disks. Instead, data is saved to a pool of NAND flash. NAND itself is made up of what are called floating gate transistors. Unlike the transistor designs used in DRAM, which must exist refreshed multiple times per second, NAND scintillate is designed to retain its imbue status even when not powered up. This makes NAND a character of non-volatile memory.
The diagram above shows a simple scintillate cell design. Electrons are stored in the floating gate, which then reads as charged “0” or not-charged “1.” Yes, in NAND flash, a 0 means data is stored in a cell — it’s the antithetical of how they typically deem of a zero or one. NAND scintillate is organized in a grid. The entire grid layout is referred to as a block, while the individual rows that create up the grid are called a page. Common page sizes are 2K, 4K, 8K, or 16K, with 128 to 256 pages per block. obstruct size therefore typically varies between 256KB and 4MB.
One handicap of this system should exist immediately obvious. Because SSDs beget no lamentable parts, they can operate at speeds far above those of a typical HDD. The following chart shows the access latency for typical storage mediums given in microseconds.
NAND is nowhere near as rapid as main memory, but it’s multiple orders of magnitude faster than a arduous drive. While write latencies are significantly slower for NAND scintillate than read latencies, they soundless outstrip traditional spinning media.
There are two things to notice in the above chart. First, note how adding more bits per cell of NAND has a significant impact on the memory’s performance. It’s worse for writes as opposed to reads — typical triple-level-cell (TLC) latency is 4x worse compared with single-level cell (SLC) NAND for reads, but 6x worse for writes. delete latencies are furthermore significantly impacted. The impact isn’t proportional, either — TLC NAND is nearly twice as gradual as MLC NAND, despite holding just 50% more data (three bits per cell, instead of two). This is furthermore just for QLC drives, which store even more bits at varying voltage levels within the same cell.
The judgement TLC NAND is slower than MLC or SLC has to accomplish with how data moves in and out of the NAND cell. With SLC NAND, the controller only needs to know if the bit is a 0 or a 1. With MLC NAND, the cell may beget four values — 00, 01, 10, or 11. With TLC NAND, the cell can beget eight values, and QLC has 16. Reading the proper value out of the cell requires the remembrance controller to spend a precise voltage to ascertain whether any particular cell is charged.Reads, Writes, and Erasure
One of the functional limitations of SSDs is while they can read and write data very quickly to an void drive, overwriting data is much slower. This is because while SSDs read data at the page even (meaning from individual rows within the NAND remembrance grid) and can write at the page level, assuming surrounding cells are empty, they can only delete data at the obstruct level. This is because the act of erasing NAND scintillate requires a tall amount of voltage. While you can theoretically delete NAND at the page level, the amount of voltage required stresses the individual cells around the cells that are being re-written. Erasing data at the obstruct even helps mitigate this problem.
The only pass for an SSD to update an existing page is to copy the contents of the entire obstruct into memory, delete the block, and then write the contents of the feeble obstruct + the updated page. If the drive is replete and there are no void pages available, the SSD must first scan for blocks that are marked for deletion but that haven’t been deleted yet, delete them, and then write the data to the now-erased page. This is why SSDs can become slower as they age — a mostly-empty drive is replete of blocks that can exist written immediately, a mostly-full drive is more likely to exist forced through the entire program/erase sequence.
If you’ve used SSDs, you’ve likely heard of something called “garbage collection.” Garbage collection is a background process that allows a drive to mitigate the performance impact of the program/erase cycle by performing positive tasks in the background. The following image steps through the garbage collection process.
Note in this example, the drive has taken handicap of the fact that it can write very quickly to void pages by writing current values for the first four blocks (A’-D’). It’s furthermore written two current blocks, E and H. Blocks A-D are now marked as stale, meaning they accommodate information the drive has marked as out-of-date. During an idle period, the SSD will toddle the fresh pages over to a current block, delete the feeble block, and tag it as free space. This means the next time the SSD needs to achieve a write, it can write directly to the now-empty obstruct X, rather than performing the program/erase cycle.
The next concept I want to argue is TRIM. When you delete a file from Windows on a typical arduous drive, the file isn’t deleted immediately. Instead, the operating system tells the arduous drive it can overwrite the physical region of the disk where that data was stored the next time it needs to achieve a write. This is why it’s possible to undelete files (and why deleting files in Windows doesn’t typically clear much physical disk space until you void the recycling bin). With a traditional HDD, the OS doesn’t necessity to pay attention to where data is being written or what the relative status of the blocks or pages is. With an SSD, this matters.
The TRIM command allows the operating system to declare the SSD it can skip rewriting positive data the next time it performs a obstruct erase. This lowers the total amount of data the drive writes and increases SSD longevity. Both reads and writes damage NAND flash, but writes accomplish far more damage than reads. Fortunately, block-level longevity has not proven to exist an issue in modern NAND flash. More data on SSD longevity, courtesy of the Tech Report, can exist institute here.
The ultimate two concepts they want to talk about are wear leveling and write amplification. Because SSDs write data to pages but delete data in blocks, the amount of data being written to the drive is always larger than the actual update. If you create a change to a 4KB file, for example, the entire obstruct that 4K file sits within must exist updated and rewritten. Depending on the number of pages per obstruct and the size of the pages, you might terminate up writing 4MB worth of data to update a 4KB file. Garbage collection reduces the impact of write amplification, as does the TRIM command. Keeping a significant chunk of the drive free and/or manufacturer over-provisioning can furthermore reduce the impact of write amplification.
Wear leveling refers to the drill of ensuring positive NAND blocks aren’t written and erased more often than others. While wear leveling increases a drive’s life expectancy and endurance by writing to the NAND equally, it can actually extend write amplification. In other to dole writes evenly across the disk, it’s sometimes necessary to program and delete blocks even though their contents haven’t actually changed. A pleasurable wear leveling algorithm seeks to poise these impacts.The SSD Controller
It should exist obvious by now SSDs require much more sophisticated control mechanisms than arduous drives do. That’s not to diss magnetic media — I actually deem HDDs deserve more respect than they are given. The mechanical challenges involved in balancing multiple read-write heads nanometers above platters that spin at 5,400 to 10,000 RPM are nothing to sneeze at. The fact that HDDs achieve this challenge while pioneering current methods of recording to magnetic media and eventually wind up selling drives at 3-5 cents per gigabyte is simply incredible.
SSD controllers, however, are in a class by themselves. They often beget a DDR3 or DDR4 remembrance pool to aid with managing the NAND itself. Many drives furthermore incorporate single-level cell caches that act as buffers, increasing drive performance by dedicating rapid NAND to read/write cycles. Because the NAND scintillate in an SSD is typically connected to the controller through a sequence of parallel remembrance channels, you can deem of the drive controller as performing some of the same load balancing drudgery as a high-end storage array — SSDs don’t deploy RAID internally but wear leveling, garbage collection, and SLC cache management outright beget parallels in the ample iron world.
Some drives furthermore spend data compression algorithms to reduce the total number of writes and ameliorate the drive’s lifespan. The SSD controller handles oversight correction, and the algorithms that control for single-bit errors beget become increasingly tangled as time has passed.
Unfortunately, they can’t fade into too much detail on SSD controllers because companies lock down their various clandestine sauces. Much of NAND flash’s performance is determined by the underlying controller, and companies aren’t willing to raise the lid too far on how they accomplish what they do, lest they hand a competitor an advantage.Interfaces
In the beginning, SSDs used SATA ports, just relish arduous drives. In recent years, we’ve seen a shift to M.2 drives — very thin drives, several inches long, that slot directly into the motherboard (or, in a few cases, into a mounting bracket on a PCIe riser card. A Samsung 970 EVO Plus drive is shown below.
NVMe drives proffer higher performance than traditional SATA drivers because they advocate a faster interface. Conventional SSDs attached via SATA top out at ~550MB/s in terms of practical read/write speeds. M.2 drives are capable of substantially faster performance into the 3.2GB/s range.The Road Ahead
NAND scintillate offers an enormous improvement over arduous drives, but it isn’t without its own drawbacks and challenges. Drive capacities and price-per-gigabyte are expected to continue to ascend and descend respectively, but there’s Little casual SSDs will ensnare arduous drives in price-per-gigabyte. Shrinking process nodes are a significant challenge for NAND scintillate — while most hardware improves as the node shrinks, NAND becomes more fragile. Data retention times and write performance are intrinsically lower for 20nm NAND than 40nm NAND, even if data density and total capacity are vastly improved. Thus far, we’ve seen drives with up to 96 layers in-market, and 128 layers seems believable at this point. Overall, the shift to 3D NAND has helped ameliorate density without shrinking process nodes or relying on planar scaling.
Thus far, SSD manufacturers beget delivered better performance by offering faster data standards, more bandwidth, and more channels per controller — plus the spend of SLC caches they mentioned earlier. Nonetheless, in the long run, it’s assumed NAND will exist replaced by something else.
What that something else will peep relish is soundless open for debate. Both magnetic RAM and phase change remembrance beget presented themselves as candidates, though both technologies are soundless in early stages and must overcome significant challenges to actually compete as a replacement to NAND. Whether consumers would notice the contrast is an open question. If you’ve upgraded from NAND to an SSD and then upgraded to a faster SSD, you’re likely aware the gap between HDDs and SSDs is much larger than the SSD-to-SSD gap, even when upgrading from a relatively modest drive. Improving access times from milliseconds to microseconds matters a noteworthy deal, but improving them from microseconds to nanoseconds might descend below what humans can really perceive in most cases.
Intel’s 3D XPoint (marketed as Intel Optane) has emerged as one potential challenger to NAND flash, and the only current alternative technology in mainstream production. Optane SSDs don’t spend NAND — they’re built using non-volatile remembrance believed to exist implemented similarly to phase-change RAM — but they proffer similar sequential performance to current NAND scintillate drives, but with vastly better performance at low drive queues. Drive latency is furthermore roughly half of NAND scintillate (10 microseconds, versus 20) and vastly higher endurance (30 replete drive-writes per day, compared with 10 replete drive writes per day for a high-end Intel SSD).
The first Optane SSDs beget debuted as excellent add-ons for Kaby Lake and Coffee Lake. Optane is furthermore available in standalone drives, and in a variety of server roles for enterprise computing. At the moment, Optane is soundless too expensive to match NAND flash, which benefits from substantial economies of scale, but this could change in the future. NAND will sojourn king of the hill for at least the next 3-4 years. But past that point, they could discern Optane starting to replace it in volume, depending on how Intel and Micron scale the technology and how well 3D NAND scintillate continues to expand its cell layers (96-layer NAND is shipping from multiple players), with roadmaps for 128 layers on the horizon.
Check out their ExtremeTech Explains sequence for more in-depth coverage of today’s hottest tech topics.
There's never been a better time to exist a high-end system builder. Intel's Skylake Server core made its pass onto uber-desktops back in June as the Skylake-X family of chips, and AMD returned the serve with its Ryzen Threadripper CPUs and the X399 platform. Now it's Intel's gyrate to raise the stakes again.
On the bench today, they beget the 16-core, 32-thread Core i9-7960X and the newest Extreme Edition CPU: the 18-core, 36-thread Core i9-7980XE. The Core i9-7960X is a core-for-core, thread-for-thread match against the Ryzen Threadripper 1950X, while the Core i9-7980XE lays claim to what is perhaps the highest core and thread weigh available in a "consumer" CPU today.
Of course, neither of these chips compass cheap. The Core i9-7980XE lives up to its Extreme Edition lineage with an eye-popping $1999 sticker price, and the Core i9-7960X isn't far behind at $1699. These charge tags retain the highest-core-count Skylake-X CPUs in a reasonably uncomfortable spot for a yoke reasons. For one, that benign of money for a CPU is well within workstation-class territory, but neither of these CPUs accomplish anything to address Threadrippers' higher CPU PCIe lane complement or ECC RAM support. Recall that Threadripper CPUs and the X399 platform beget both ECC RAM advocate and 60 PCIe 3.0 lanes directly connected to the CPU. Those resources are available from every Threadripper, too.
In an obvious response to AMD's aggressive marketing of its platform advantages, Intel has begun aggregating the number of PCIe lanes available from both the chipset and CPU in its marketing materials. That aggregation is a bit disingenuous, though, because it doesn't account for the fact that PCIe lanes from the X299 chipset beget to traverse the DMI 3.0 link and its roughly 32 Gbps of bandwidth before reaching the host CPU. Some X399 peripheral controllers accomplish necessity to travel over a similar link on Threadripper systems, but the jockeying for bandwidth from chipset to CPU should exist a lot less rowdy there. Even if Threadripper CPUs don't outperform the Skylake-X competition, the robustness of the X399 platform for workstation-class uses remains a point in its favor.
Although we've already discussed the Skylake Server architecture in detail in their review of the Core i9-7900X, the implementation of that architecture in the Core i9-7960X and i9-7980XE is worth exploring a bit more.
It's no clandestine that Intel has long repurposed server hardware for its high-end desktop processors. The company has made multiple Xeon dies with varying core counts to apt the needs of the businesses it serves, but until now, the company has never had to repurpose its higher-core-count Xeons for duty on the desktop.
We weren't briefed on the various Xeon Scalable Processor dies for the Skylake Server rollout this time around, but this Tom's Hardware report leads us to conclude that the Core i9-7960X and Core i9-7980XE are bringing Intel's high-core-count (or HCC) Skylake Server die down from the data center. Other Skylake-X Core i7s and Core i9s spend the 10-core low-core-count, or LCC, die as their foundation. This may exist the first time that Intel has ever had to bring its HCC Xeon die to its high-end desktop platform. Competition is a wonderful thing.
Like outright Core i9 CPUs, these high-core-count chips boast two AVX-512 execution units: a dedicated AVX-512 unit per core on port five of the unified scheduler, and another created through the fusion of the two AVX-256 units on ports zero and one of the unified scheduler. Recall that the Core i7-7800X and Core i7-7820X are only equipped with one AVX-512 unit per core: the one created through fusion of the dual AVX-256 units. The dedicated AVX-512 unit on port five is disabled on those chips for market-segmentation reasons. Some users beget reported that both AVX-512 execution paths are available even on Core i7 products, but we're reporting the official line until we've had time to accomplish some directed testing.Model Baseclock(GHz) Turboclock(GHz) TurboBoostMax 3.0clock(GHz) Cores/threads L3cache PCIe3.0lanes Memorysupport TDP Socket
Price(1Kunits)i9-7980XE 2.6 4.2 4.4 18/36 24.75 MB 44 Quad-channelDDR4-2666 165W LGA 2066 $1999 i9-7960X 2.8 16/32 22 MB $1699 i9-7940X 3.1 4.3 14/28 19.25 MB $1399 i9-7920X 2.9 12/24 16.5 MB $1199 i9-7900X 3.3 4.5 10/20 13.75MB 140W $999 i7-7820X 3.6 8/16 11MB 28 $599 i7-7800X 3.5 4.0 N/A 6/12 8.25MB Quad-channelDDR4-2400 $389 i7-7740X 4.3 4.5 N/A 4/8 8MB 16 Dual-channelDDR4-2666 112W $339 i5-7640X 4.0 4.2 N/A 4/4 6MB $242
With the release of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-core CPUs, the Core i9 lineup is complete. You can discern that the highest-end CPUs Get a 25W TDP bump over the Core i9-7900X and friends, to 165W. Even with the more generous TDP, some beget expressed concern about the clock speeds these higher-core-count Core i9s can hit under load. Happily, my suffer with this duo suggests Intel's 2.8 GHz foundation clock for the i9-7960X and 2.6 GHz foundation clock for the i9-7980XE are extremely pessimistic for enthusiast desktops with adequate cooling. Intel rates the Core i9-7980XE for 3.4 GHz non-AVX Turbo operation with outright cores active, and I can corroborate that the chip can hold that quicken under a 280-mm liquid cooler. The i9-7960X is rated for an all-core Turbo quicken of 3.6 GHz. Here's the replete Turbo Boost 2.0 table for each Skylake-X CPU, straight from the horse's mouth:Number ofcoresactive
12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 i9-7980XE 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 i9-7960X 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 X X i9-7940X 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.8 X X X X i9-7920X 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 X X X X X X i9-7900X 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 X X X X X X X X i7-7820X 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 X X X X X X X X X X i7-7800X 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 X X X X X X X X X X X X
Typical AVX workloads (albeit not AVX-512) caused the i9-7980XE to descend to just 3.2 GHz per core, but as their performance results will show, that drop hardly matters in the ample picture. Regardless, I wouldn't worry about seeing clock speeds under 3 GHz outside of intensive AVX-512 workloads. Given the paucity of programs using those code paths, the mediocre enthusiast shouldn't beget any clock-speed worries at stock speeds.
Like most other Skylake-X CPUs, the i9-7960X and i9-7980XE proffer an improved Turbo Boost Max 3.0 implementation compared to Broadwell-E. On these high-core-count CPUs, one should discern up to 4.4 GHz speeds on two favored cores.
Intel's rebalancing of the cache hierarchy on Skylake Server chips means the i9-7960X and i9-7980XE beget massive private L2 caches at their disposal. Each core gets 1MB of L2 to drudgery with, for a total of 16MB on the i9-7960X and 18MB on the i9-7980XE. Recall furthermore that the bandwidth between the L1 and L2 caches on these chips has been increased to 128 bytes per cycle for reads and 64 bytes per cycle for writes. At the same time, the L3 cache per core now serves as a victim cache for the L2 above it, and L3 per core has been carve to 1.375 MB. Contrast that with the 2.5 MB of shared L3 per core on Broadwell Xeons. The current L3 allocation leads to 22MB of L3 across outright cores on the i9-7960X and 24.75 MB on the i9-7980XE.
Now that we've revisited the essentials of Skylake-X, it's time to Get to testing.
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F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
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ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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