000-074 exam Dumps Source : xSeries - Windows 2000/2003 Installation and Performance Optimization
Test Code : 000-074
Test cognomen : xSeries - Windows 2000/2003 Installation and Performance Optimization
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 150 existent Questions
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Ed Scannell and Beth Pariseau
IBM subsequent week will debut its subsequent generation X-architecture to enhance the fortunes of its Intel-based mostly servers within the cloud computing and broad statistics markets, according to sources frequent with the company’s plans.
The X6 structure, which further evolves the X5 architecture’s concept of disaggregating processors from reminiscence in giant racks of servers, is a complete redecorate of a traditional server rack with drastically multiplied density and server performance. X6 is built round a “mid-aircraft architecture” that likewise borrows from Intel Corp.’s QuickPath Internconnect (QPI) technology to enable posthaste memory-to-memory transfer rates, sources pointed out.
The renewed emphasis on Intel servers follows hypothesis final year that IBM was shopping its Intel-based xSeries of servers round, largely as a result of profits on the line hold been falling and the know-how turned into fitting too commoditized for IBM’s liking.
The upcoming X6 employs the idea of “books,” or modules, which embrace an Intel processor and/or twin in-line reminiscence modules (DIMMs). There might be a Compute publication with a CPU and up to 24 DIMMs and a Storage book that may likewise be stuffed with up to six.4 terabytes of xFlash storage with up to 12.8 terabytes of Serial connected SCSI (SAS), in accordance with sources.
“This isn’t trifling stuff to tow off. This (structure) permits storage-to-memory and reminiscence-to-reminiscence to work at concerning the very speed. be certain you effectively be in a position to finish essentially any compute or recollection intensive assignment fully in reminiscence,” in keeping with an East-coast-based advisor ordinary with IBM's X6 approach, who requested anonymity.
one of the most talents advantages of the brand fresh structure is enabling corporate clients, especially those in the monetary capabilities and pharmaceutical industries, to create greater advantageous consume of analytics and broad databases at the departmental flush in terms of productiveness and price discounts.
“one of the most complaints individuals hold about complete these I/O hungry functions is a pass to push analytics and big databases down so departments can work with them. but with (IBM’s) consume of scintillate memory, it looks fancy they can try this, and retailer (clients) a bunch of funds,” the advisor referred to.
“which you could now rob your existing storage and set that within the tradition fancy a 2d tier of storage since you aren’t working with spindles or rotating drives anymore,” referred to one IBM insider who requested anonymity.
IBM next week will title that the brand fresh architectural improvements should outcome, on typical, in discount rates of 43% with three times reduce latency for a lot of IT shops, sources stated.
“you can directly access three times the amount of reminiscence through this reminiscence channel storage, which is basically scintillate reminiscence,” based on the East coast IT advisor. “so that you will salvage very low latency on account of the manner they've built-in caching know-how with the reminiscence bus.”
Some observers conform with the fresh X6 architecture might supply the collection a hipper technology photograph, thereby attracting extra activity amongst expertise patrons.
“The xSeries is soundless a conceivable enterprise however it does requisite a shot in the arm for sure. I feel they espy this announcement as doing just that,” spoke of one industry observer who requested anonymity.X6 features encompass greater resiliency
the brand fresh architecture likewise introduces a far better diploma of resiliency, including an stronger capacity to intelligently determine and work round screw ups and admins to rob preventative steps to germane them. IT specialists can achieve a ambit of sunder gadget management initiatives the usage of digital equipment, which may soundless aid hold IT assist prices down, in response to sources.
QPI is an architecture first set into chips by means of Intel in 2008. It has additionally been utilized in IBM xSeries servers earlier than. It allows for for memory-to-reminiscence connections between chips inside a server to raise performance. within the case of X6, this know-how is likewise being used to connect disks, each scintillate and Serial attached SCSI (SAS), to the CPU at the pace of memory.
QuickPath Interconnect likewise allows CPUs to entry reminiscence in a system other than that which is at once attached to the chip, the usage of what’s referred to as a degree-to-element connection. point-to-aspect connections are unbiased from one another and finish not require a shared communications bus, that may become a bottleneck.
Now with X6, big quantities of direct-attached scintillate and spinning disk storage can be packed into an xSeries box, with reminiscence-speedy efficiency. Direct-connected storage (DAS), as soon as considered an old-school potential of storing facts, has viewed a revival in fresh years for everything from high-performance databases used in records analytics to scale-out architectures used via cloud computing service providers.
larger, excessive-memory servers can likewise be time-honored in virtualization retail outlets as a result of virtual machines that participate a larger pool of components encounter less competition, in accordance with Bob Plankers, virtualization and cloud architect at a massive Midwestern college.
Plankers' shop runs often Dell hardware, and while the X6 seems intriguing, he mentioned, it probably won’t be adequate to prompt a change in companies.
“You likewise hold pitfalls to higher servers – it potential you've got loads of eggs in one basket, too,” Plankers spoke of.
another IT expert spoke of he appreciated what he heard of the fresh changes to the structure, which might advocate the efficiency of 1 notable application in his atmosphere it is exceptionally disk I/O intensive. despite the fact, an aggressive movement to scintillate storage might likewise prove too high priced at the moment.
“At this aspect there continues to be too a all lot of a monetary top class to head to flash, so they wouldn’t be making the circulation with whatever fancy this now," observed Nigel Fortlage CIO, gregarious enterprise chief with GHY overseas, in Winnipeg Canada."however with engineering adjustments akin to these, i might conform with pleasing a technology fancy this within the following few years.”
newsIBM Opens home windows .web, Xeon MP excessive-end Benchmarking with a Roar
The benchmark, posted final week, become the first test displaying the efficiency of Intel's fresh Xeon MP chips on a system with greater than 4 processors.
IBM used eight 1.6-GHz Xeon MPs on one among its eServer xSeries 440s. The x440 is IBM's modular fresh server that includes 4-processor bricks that can likewise be mixed to create SMP servers of as much as sixteen processors. When the 16-processor capacity ships, IBM should be the primary most notable OEM to present an Intel-based mostly server domestically of greater than eight processors apart from Unisys, which has bought 32-processor servers for several years.
most suitable Intel-primarily based 8-manner
IBM's effect on the TPC-C showed greater than a 30 p.c uncooked efficiency evolution over the previous best eight-processor consequences -- Dell PowerEdge and HP ProLiant techniques each working windows 2000 Datacenter and 900-MHz Intel Pentium III Xeons. The IBM gear hit ninety two,398 transactions per minute on the TPC-C benchmark (tpmC). Dell's mark, set closing August, was sixty nine,901 tpmC. HP's influence, published in February, become 69,169 tpmC.
effective towards 8-means Unix systems
The x440 likewise held its own in opposition t eight-processor midrange RISC techniques from IBM and Bull, each working IBM's AIX working gadget. The eServer x440 reached ninety two,398 transactions per minute on the TPC-C benchmark (tpmC), which is third in the back of the one zero five,025 tpmC effect carried out with both IBM's eServer pSeries 660 and the Bull Escala PL800R. The Unix benchmarks hold been posted remaining September.
highest property eight-manner in cost/performance
The IBM xSeries pulled far from the realm on fee/performance, although. Its $7.70/tpmC turned into less than Dell ($8.46), HP($9.forty three), the IBM pSeries ($23.45) and Bull ($25.41).
developing an IBM-Unisys Smackdown
The benchmark additionally offers IBM a robust scalability tale versus the 800-pound gorilla in home windows-based mostly scalability -- the 32-processor Unisys ES7000 -- for now. Unisys has the superior home windows-based SMP outcomes on the TPC benchmark up to now with its November posting of a result of a hundred sixty five,219 tpmC.
For awhile, IBM can play up the incontrovertible fact that its eight-method can present improved than half that efficiency at a bit over one-third the rate/transaction. additional sweetening the IBM tale is the headroom accessible when it ships 16-method systems.
although, Unisys has already unveiled its next technology of CMP servers, and subsequent month is set to delivery shipping two models tuned for the Xeon MP processor, including one mannequin with a extra competitive expense that should soundless set it in tighter competition with IBM on that entrance.
IBM's proprietary approach with the "Summit" chipset that undergirds its x440 servers gives it a head birth within the eight-way, Intel-based mostly area. No trade-average eight-processor chipset is presently shipping for the Xeon MP for vie businesses fancy HP or Dell to plug into server designs.
The option of the beta code of home windows .net Datacenter Server does set IBM's benchmark outcomes at risk.
The server systems at the back of benchmarks submitted to the TPC ought to be accessible inside six months. IBM set a Jan. 21, 2003 availability date on its outcomes. Microsoft has most effective promised to RTM home windows .net Server by means of the conclusion of the year. Any retard may trigger IBM to must withdraw the outcome.
Scott Bekker is editor in chief of Redmond Channel accomplice journal.
Three years and 100-million bucks later, IBM has brought its eServer X3 architecture servicing Intel Xeon processor-primarily based servers with assist for Intel's most recent twin core 64-bit processor.
X3, with its "typhoon" chip, is the third technology of massive Blue's commercial enterprise X-architecture and raises 4-approach efficiency through 38 p.c over the previous era. The resulting xSeries servers are designed to assist 64-bit and 32-bit functions simultaneously, letting organizations regularly migrate to 64-bit on a necessity only basis.
deciding to be a bit less common in its design, IBM became to its mainframe prowess. storm -- more in particular commonly used because the XA-64e chipset -- reduces recollection latency, improves response time and common gear efficiency with an built-in processor and recollection controller.
IBM's virtual XceL4v Dynamic Server Cache has produces latency so low that L4 cache changed into now not protected in the design.
other technical facets of the chipset encompass: Embedded DRAM with an built-in snoop filter and far off listing; energetic PCI-X 2.0 as much as 266 MHz; DDR2-based reminiscence advocate and three scalability ports connected to the I/O hub, every maxing out at 6.4 GB/s.
IBM likewise dropped in its Virtualization Engine expertise to optimize server consolidation and provide more suitable industry utility efficiency. The business's claims of a 38 p.c raise in efficiency were benchmarked the usage of 64GB of reminiscence and recorded the usage of the TPC-C performance scale.
"the fresh xSeries product family unit based on X3 attracts from their mainframe expertise and gives unheard of merits for shoppers in the hunt for probably the most subtle capabilities and efficiency from their software functions," referred to Susan Whitney, confidential supervisor for eServer xSeries, IBM techniques and know-how neighborhood.
a wide scale roll out of the IBM eServer xSeries 366 server will occur within the next 90 days, synchronized with the release of latest 64-bit working systems from Microsoft, crimson Hat and Novell. Pricing for the x366 starts off at $6,999 USD and is realm to the terms of IBM's pay–as-you-go server family unit "funding insurance plan" model.
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Windows Server 2008 R2 provides several fresh benefits that assist organizations better administer their networking environment. These fresh features provide better file and data management, better performance monitoring and reliability tracking tools to identify system problems and proactively address issues, a fresh image deployment tool, and a all fresh set of Group Policy Objects that assist administrators better manage users, computers, and other lively Directory objects.Improvements in the Group Policy Management
Windows Server 2008 R2 introduces over 1,000 fresh Group Policy Objects specific to Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7, along with several fresh components that expand on the core capabilities of Group Policy management that hold been section of Windows 2000/2003 lively Directory. The basic functions of Group Policy haven't changed, so the Group Policy object Editor (gpedit) and the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) are the same, but with more options and settings available.
As mentioned earlier, the Group Policy Management Console can either be flee as a sunder MMC tool, or it can be launched off the Features branch of the Server Manager console tree, as shown in motif 1.7. Group policies in Windows Server 2008 R2 provide more granular management of local machines, specifically having policies that push down to a client that are different for administrator and non-administrator users.
Additionally, applications can now query or register with a network location awareness service within Group Policy management, which provides the identity where a user or computer object resides. As an example, a policy can be written that allows users to hold access to applications and files if they are on a local network segment, but blocks users from accessing the very content when they are on a remote segment for security and privacy reasons. This addition to group policies adds a third dimension to policies so that now administrators can not only define who and what someone has access to, but likewise restrict their access based on where they are.
Group policies are covered in detail in Chapter 27, "Group Policy Management for Network Clients," as well as in Chapter 19, "Windows Server 2008 R2 Group Policies and Policy Management."Introducing Performance and Reliability Monitoring Tools
Windows Server 2008 R2 introduces fresh and revised performance and reliability monitoring tools intended to assist network administrators better understand the health and operations of Windows Server 2008 R2 systems. Just fancy with the Group Policy Management Console, the fresh Reliability and Performance Monitor shows up as a feature in the Server Manager console. By clicking on the Performance Diagnostic Console, the tool shows up in the right pane, as shown in motif 1.8.
Figure 1.8 Windows Reliability and Performance Monitor.
The fresh tool keeps track of system activity and resource usage and displays key counters and system status on screen. The Reliability Monitor diagnoses potential causes of server instability by noting the final time a server was rebooted, what patches or updates were applied, and chronologically when services hold failed on the system so that system faults can potentially be traced back to specific system updates or changes that occurred prior to the problem.
By combining what used to be three to four tools into a separate console, administrators are able to peek at system performance, operational tasks, and historical event information in their analysis of a server problem or system operations instability. You can find more details on performance and reliability monitoring in Chapter 34.Leveraging File Server Resource Manager
File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) was a feature pack add-in to Windows 2003 R2 and has been significantly improved with the release of Windows Server 2008 R2. FSRM is a quota management system of files on network shares across an enterprise. Rather than allowing employees to copy the entire content of their laptop to a network, or potentially back up their MP3 audio files onto a network, FSRM provides the talent to not only restrict the amount of content stored on network shares, but likewise to set quotas (or restrict storage altogether) on unavoidable file types. So, a user could be limited to store 200GB of files on a network share, but of that limit, only 2GB can be allocated to MP3 files.
FSRM, shown in motif 1.9, in Windows Server 2008 R2 has been improved to allow the nesting of quotas to ensure the most restrictive policy is applied. Quotas can likewise transcend subfolders, so as fresh folders are created, or as policies are applied at different levels in a folder hierarchy, the policies soundless apply, and the rules are combined to provide varying levels of quota allocation to user data. Additionally, quotas are now based on actual storage, so if a file is compressed when stored, the user will be able to store more files within their allocated quota.
File Server Resource Manager is covered in detail in Chapter 28.Leveraging the Best rehearse Analyzer
Included in Windows Server 2008 R2 is a built-in Best rehearse Analyzer. institute in the Server Manager console tool, the Best rehearse Analyzer runs a sequence of tests against lively Directory roles, such as the Hyper-V role, the DNS role, and the Remote Desktop Services role, to assess whether the role has been installed and configured properly and to compare the installation with tested best practices.
Some of the results from the Best rehearse Analyzer could bid an administrator they requisite to add more recollection to a server, to accelerate a role to a sunder server to ameliorate role optimization, or to shift a database to a different drive on the server to dispense disk performance demands on the system. More details on the Best rehearse Analyzer are covered in Chapter 20.Introduction of Windows Deployment Services
Windows Server 2008 introduced a fresh tool called Windows Deployment Services (WDS), which was effectively an updated version of the Remote Installation Services (RIS) that has been available for the past several years. Unlike RIS, which was focused on primarily scripted installations and client images, WDS in Windows Server 2008 R2 can dispense images of Windows 7 clients or Windows Server 2008 R2 servers in a significantly more springy and modifiable deployment process.
Like with RIS, Windows Deployment Services allows a client system to initiate a Preboot Execution Environment (PXE), effectively "booting" to the WDS server to espy a list of images that can be deployed on the system. Alternately, an organization can create a Windows PE boot disc and hold an image initiated from a CD or DVD.
With Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7, the image can be created in Windows Imaging (WIM) format, which allows for the injection of patches, updates, or even fresh code to a WIM file without even booting the image file. This provides the organization with more than just static images that salvage pushed out fancy in RIS, but rather a tool that provides ongoing and manageable updates to image files.
WDS likewise supports the imaging of Windows 2003 servers and Windows XP client systems in the very manner that RIS did in terms of pushing out images or using an unattend script file to forward images to systems.
Windows Deployment Services is covered in detail in Chapter 26, "Windows Server 2008 R2 Administration Tools for Desktops."
The Precision 5820 Tower is Dell's second-most powerful desktop workstation—which, judging by the $5,567 test model they received, is akin to aphorism the Boeing 747-8 is only the second-biggest airliner in the world. (Precision 5820 models start at $1,249.) It's an evolution of the Precision 5810 Tower, which they reviewed to high laud back in 2015. Dell's pricier Precision 7820 looks similar but offers dual processors, whereas the Precision 5820 offers "just" one: In their test unit, a monster 10-core Intel Xeon W-2155, lonesome a $1,185 option and requiring an upgrade to Windows 10 Pro for Workstations. They mock-configured a competing HP Z4 with a near-identical loadout, and it came up to $7,118. On paper, the Precision 5820 is a better value and a total beast for pro applications that can rob odds of its specialized memory, pro-grade Quadro/Radeon Pro graphics, ISV certifications, and Xeon horsepower.Laser-Focused on Business
Spiffy, curvy designs aren't a top priority for power-tower workstations fancy the Precision 5820 Tower. The black-and-silver exterior of this unit has a sober, sober look. You'll hold worry getting its massive 16.5-by-6.9-by-20.4-inch (HWD) hulk of a chassis to blend in anywhere outside a black-box convention.
Sturdy metal carry handles on the front and rear assist if you hold to accelerate this 34-pound beast around. You'll appreciate them; lugging this tower is fancy stirring a suitcase full of ingots. It can stand upright or even sit on its side, the latter courtesy of rubber feet on its right panel. The metal case is stout enough that you can ease a monitor on top. The front panel has a honeycomb pattern for air intake.
Tool-less access to the interior is courtesy of a switch on the left side panel. The internal components are laid out neatly, as is the wiring. The massive Intel "Skylake-W"-based motherboard has the CPU in the center. It's topped by a tall air cooler, and straddled by eight RDIMM slots for specialized error-correcting DDR4-2666 ECC memory.
The RAM configuration in the review unit I'm looking at comprises eight 8GB DIMMs (64GB total). The recollection is running in quad-channel mode for sober bandwidth, and this RAM upgrade adds $1,378 to the base model's 8GB setup. For a "mere" $3,327 over their 64GB setup, you can max out the Precision 5820 Tower with a staggering 256GB of RAM. The review unit is powered by a swappable 950-watt power supply in the top of the chassis, allowing for headroom should you keeping to configure with more than one video card.
The motherboard offers plenty of room for expandability. You salvage two PCI Express (PCIe) x16 slots in full x16 bandwidth for graphics cards, one PCIe x16 wired internally as an x8 slot, another wired as x4, and one final PCIe x16, wired for x1. There's even a separate old-school PCI slot. You can install PCIe cards without screws or tools; a clip holds down a retainer bar that keeps cards in place.
For storage, the motherboard has eight SATA ports, plus one extra that's allocated to an optical drive. If you want an M.2 slot for high-speed SSDs, however, you'll requisite to opt for one or more of Dell's PCIe Ultra-Speed cards.
The review unit I hold in hand has the Dell Ultra-Speed Duo card, which has two M.2 Type-2280 slots on it, one of which is occupied by a 512GB PCIe drive with NVMe support. On their unofficial Crystal DiskMark benchmark testing (using a 50MiB cluster size), the drive delivered 2,188MBps read and 1,363MBps write speeds. Those aren't record-breaking numbers, but that doesn't detract from the fact that it's very posthaste storage. (A Dell Ultra-Speed Quad card, with four M.2 slots, is likewise an option.)
Dell offers the Precision 5820 Tower in configurations with up to 24TB of storage. With aftermarket drives, you can evanesce higher than that, even, on the internal storage. The chassis fits up to six 2.5-inch or five 3.5-inch drives, plus the mentioned M.2 SSDs. Given the ready availability of 10TB 3.5-inch hard drives, your only restrict is your budget.
Four of the 3.5-inch drive bays are accessible by removing the right-side grillework portion of the front panel. The drives themselves are hot-swappable; just tow the release wield and coast out the caddy. To add another 2.5- or 3.5-inch drive, you'd requisite to sacrifice the 5.25-inch optical bay, which came occupied in this test unit by an 8x DVD burner in the tester reviewed here. Alternately, you can always evanesce with external drives to expand the storage, especially if you spring for an optional PCIe expansion card with two Thunderbolt 3 ports.Connected to the Nines
Like power and gravitas, ports and slots are something the Precision 5820 Tower has no shortage of.
The front of the test unit here has a full array: a headphone/microphone combination jack, two Type-C USB 3.0 ports (the topmost one supporting PowerShare, for device charging over USB with the system powered down), a pair of Type-A USB 3.0 ports, a full-size SD card slot, and the power button.
On the rear, the ports on the motherboard's panel embrace six Type-A USB 3.0 ports, onboard Ethernet, PS/2 mouse and keyboard ports, a serial port, and microphone line-in (blue) and audio line-out (green) ports. The ease of the ports back here will vary depending on the configuration you opt for. The tester machine received at PC Labs makes consume of an Nvidia Quadro P4000 graphics card, and thus had four DisplayPort video-out connectors. It likewise has an Intel PCIe network card with a separate Ethernet port, plus another PCIe card with two Type-C USB 3.1 ports and a DisplayPort video-in connector.
Dell's $99.99 KM717 keyboard and mouse combo is included in the price of this review unit. Both devices wirelessly connect through a separate USB dongle, each powered by a pair of included AAA batteries.
The keyboard has an aluminum deck and an attractively thin profile. Its major feature is its talent to recollect a connection for up to three devices. A switch at the top right allows you to shift among 2.4GHz wireless and two Bluetooth channels. Aside from that, this keyboard is no-frills. It lacks backlighting, and the tactile feedback from the keys is very shallow. The typing angle isn't adjustable.
The arc-shaped mouse is designed to felicitous the palm of your hand. Its optical sensor is located along the front edge. In addition to the two main mouse buttons and the scroll wheel, it likewise has one button on either side. The mouse is usable overall, but it isn't designed for larger hands. Overall, we'd probably pass on this keyboard/mouse combo at its current price. You can finish better from third parties for the money.Sky-High Parts: Xeon and Quadro Power
In the Precision 5820 Tower, Dell offers a variety of Intel Xeon W-class processors. Introduced in the second half of 2017, these CPUs sport four to 18 cores. The 10-core Xeon W-2155 CPU in their review model effortlessly powers through any task. Each core runs at 3.3GHz, with the capability to Turbo Boost up to 4.5GHz. The top-end processor preference is the 18-core Xeon W-2195, although it's clocked lower; each core runs at just 2.3GHz, with a Turbo Boost up to 4.3GHz. As famed earlier, you can step up to the Precision 7820 for dual CPU advocate if you requisite even more power.
Now, if you know you requisite a Xeon chip, you certainly hold your business-specific reasons. A major one mandating why you'd spend extra for a Xeon is if you requisite advocate for oversight Correcting Code (ECC) memory. This is mainly a concern in situations where not a separate bit in calculations can be wrong, such as in unavoidable scientific, architectural, financial, or aeronautical calculations. Another is sheer uptime engineering; Xeons are designed for constant cranking in environments such as high-demand servers or render stations. If that's not key for you, and you simply requisite weighty multi-threaded power, it would be significantly cheaper to stick with a consumer-class Core i7 chip, available in Dell's OptiPlex industry desktops. (Intel's enthusiast-minded Core X-Series is likewise an option.)
Beyond ECC for professional users, of course, are ISV certifications. These are stamps of approval, of a sort, for specific professional-grade applications in fields such as media production, engineering, and architecture, which guarantee that the hardware will flee up to snuff with the software. With high-end workstations fancy this one, it's a complex interplay between the system maker and the germane software makers. Dell's list of partners for its Precision workstations can be institute here, and it includes a list of partners that includes expected players fancy Adobe, Autodesk, Avid, and Dassault Systems. (Dell likewise offers a software-level optimization service that tweaks the workstation for specific ISV-certified applications.)
In many cases, specific ISV suitability ties in to graphics horsepower, and Dell offers the Precision 5820 with a formidable assortment of AMD Radeon Pro and Nvidia Quadro professional graphics cards. This tower can accept two of them, with each PCIe x16 slot supporting up to 300-watt graphics cards. The test unit I was loaned for review has one highly potent Quadro P4000 with 8GB of memory. Combined with the Xeon W-2155 CPU and 64GB of memory, this Precision 5820 configuration is felicitous to wield any demanding creative chore with aplomb, including rendering CGI imagery and authoring virtual-reality simulations.
The criterion warranty on the Precision 5820 is three years with onsite service. Up to a five-year warranty with next-day onsite service is available. Windows 10 Pro for Workstations, required for harnessing the 10-core CPU in their review unit, is cleanly installed, with just a few Dell apps present.
Cooling isn't an issue for the Precision 5820. Two internal 80mm fans, a 120mm fan, and the two fans in the power supply draw frosty air in the front and forward it out the rear. The fans are well-behaved, running quietly during their performance tests.Let's Fire Up the broad Iron
It goes unsaid that the Precision 5820 has tiny worry with their benchmark suite. Anything in requisite of CPU power won't find a 10-core Xeon W-2155 CPU lacking, although there are faster machines out there.
When you're looking at raw CPU grunt, offerings from Intel in its Core X-Series and AMD in its Ryzen Threadripper line serve up well more than 10 cores and 20 addressable threads. For one, the overclocked 18-core Intel Core i9-7980XE Extreme Edition (a $2,000 CPU) in the Falcon Northwest Talon (2018) more than doubles the Precision 5820's score in the CPU-centric Cinebench R15 benchmark, and it is predictably faster in the video-encoding test Handbrake.
Another example is from the AMD side of the aisle. The 16-core AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1950X in the Alienware Area-51 Threadripper Edition likewise exceeds the Precision 5820's score, but it falls behind in Handbrake. Compared to the aged Haswell-era 10-core Xeon E5-2687W v3 in the Precision 5810, however, their Precision 5820 is significantly faster. It's noteworthy that, excluding the Dells, the other machines in this comparison are for gaming, not professional work.
See How They Test Desktops
The Nvidia Quadro P4000 in the Precision 5820 takes a back seat in these entertainment-driven benchmarks, especially next to the pair of GeForce GTX 1080 Ti graphics cards in the Velocity Micro Raptor Z95 (2017). The Quadro's might lies in its professional application support; it's designed for rendering and complex situations using applications such as AutoCAD. As noted, the Precision 5820 can be configured with up to dual Quadro or AMD Radeon Pro GPUs for the ultimate performance.A Few Workstation-Specific Tests
We likewise subjected the Precision 5820 to several workstation-minded tests, including Cinebench R15 OpenGL and POV-Ray 3.7 to test its professional hardware.
Its 157-frame-per-second (fps) showing in Cinebench outpaced that of the MSI WT73 Mobile Workstation, which was equipped with a Quadro P5000 (albeit the mobile version). Thanks to its 10-core CPU, the Precision 5820 did remarkably well in the CPU-dependent POV-Ray 3.7 test, completing the all-cores test flee in a time of just 61.3 seconds. Although not an apples-to-apples comparison, the Core i7-7820HK quad-core CPU in the aforementioned MSI notebook stood at 160.6 seconds. In the very benchmark, the Dell likewise achieved 4,107 pixels per second (pps), handily outpacing the 1,622 pps score from the MSI.
I likewise ran the Creo, Maya, and SolidWorks viewsets in SPECviewperf, with the Dell tower ringing up at 150fps, 217fps, and 151fps, respectively. (See much more about SPECviewperf here; it's predominantly a workstation-graphics test that simulates a variety of pro-application workloads.) PC Labs had not reviewed a desktop workstation with the Quadro P4000 or P5000 to date; the closest thing was the mobile version of the Quadro P5000 in the aforementioned MSI workstation laptop. The results of two of the sets were immediate enough to summon a virtual tie; the Maya test, however, saw a twofold odds for the desktop P4000 card.Sky-High Limits, Just understanding Your Budget
The Precision 5820 Tower is a highly capable industry workstation. Their approaching-$6,000 test unit is several times the price of the base system, but it is far from the most expensive configuration you can order. Nonetheless, the 10-core Intel Xeon W-2155 processor, Nvidia Quadro P4000 graphics card, and 64GB of quad-channel ECC recollection made short work of their benchmark tests. On top of complete that, it runs quietly and has excellent expandability.
If you requisite professional hardware to salvage the job done, account the Precision 5820 Tower—in your specific, custom config, suited to your apps of choice—as your ally in crime. Just hold the options within understanding for what you do, or you'll requisite to purpose a bank heist before you can hoist this weighty power tower to your desk.Dell Precision 5820 Tower
With software-defined modular instruments, engineers can design and implement springy test systems that can be repurposed quickly. Of the more than 1,500 PXI products on the market, more than 600 were designed by National Instruments. With this proven history, PXI instrumentation designed by NI offers several advantages. This paper examines these advantages: instruments for any application, performance and property of measurement, preference of software architectures, and production unit verification.
Back to Top2. Instruments for Any Application
NI offers more than 600 modular instruments based on PXI and PXI Express technology. These instruments ambit from DC to 26.5 GHz, including the industry’s highest resolution digitizer with 24 bits of resolution and the industry’s fastest, most accurate 7½-digit digital multimeter (DMM).
Figure 1. NI modular instruments span from the industry’s highest resolution to the industry’s highest accuracy.
NI is continually pushing the boundaries of performance with its PXI modular instruments, complete in a more efficient 3U space. With the addition of the NI PXIe-5668 vector signal analyzer (VSA), NI offers best-in-class RF accuracy and test quicken on the PXI platform, exceeding that of industry-standard benchtop instruments. Another example of leading measurement technology is the NI PXIe-5186 digitizer, codeveloped by National Instruments and Tektronix™, the world’s leading oscilloscope manufacturer. It is the highest performing PXI digitizer on the market, with 5 GHz bandwidth and up to 12.5 GS/s sampling rate.
Table 1. The NI modular instrument portfolio features products for every application.
NI not only offers a vast modular instrumentation portfolio but likewise enables the consume of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with the PXI platform. FPGAs present a powerful solution for applications that require the talent to manage big data sets while soundless needing flexibility and customization. NI FlexRIO provides flexible, customizable I/O for the NI LabVIEW FPGA Module to assist you create high-performance, reconfigurable instruments. LabVIEW FPGA extends the LabVIEW graphical evolution platform to target FPGAs. LabVIEW is well suited for FPGA programming because it clearly represents parallelism and data flow, so users who are both experienced and inexperienced in traditional FPGA design can productively apply the power of reconfigurable hardware. With an open, customizable signal front end, you can meet the exact requirements of a test or embedded system.
Figure 2. rob odds of NI FlexRIO to assist target your applications to FPGAs and expand system capabilities.
The NI Vector Signal Transceiver (VST) is another example of NI hardware enabled by the LabVIEW RIO architecture. VSTs combine a vector signal analyzer and vector signal generator with a user-programmable FPGA for real-time signal processing and control. By combining criterion instrumentation with a user-programmable FPGA, you can now rob odds of a software-designed PXI instrument and consume LabVIEW to tailor the FPGA-based hardware to a specific application. Software-designed instrumentation provides the highest flush of flexibility, performance, and future-proofing to ensure you can conform your existing I/O while preserving your software investment as system requirements change.
Figure 3. Meet changing system requirements using LabVIEW to tailor the FPGA-based hardware to a specific application.
Back to Top3. Performance and property of Measurement
NI incorporates several proprietary and patented technologies in its modular instruments to ensure that they role at the highest flush and return reliable measurements for today’s most demanding applications. These technologies embrace the following:
Synchronization and recollection Core (SMC)
Today’s latest electronic designs are characterized by their converging functionality and the expand in seemingly interwoven analog and digital technology. Designing, prototyping, and testing these systems that involve a fuse of video, audio, and data, such as latest-generation wireless handsets and set-top boxes, requires tightly integrated digital and analog acquisition and generation hardware matched in baseband sampling rate, distortion, and timing characteristics. Analog and digital instrumentation can no longer be stand-alone systems with disparate timing engines and mismatched analog performance. Furthermore, with the manufacture of such devices running around the clock in many locations around the world, the requisite for stability and consistency of performance specifications over a wide temperature ambit is compulsory for reliable, high-throughput functional test.
NI designed the Synchronization and recollection Core (SMC) as the common architecture for a suite of high-speed modular instruments that retort the challenge of testing converged devices. The SMC features faultfinding to integrated mixed-signal prototyping and test systems are
Central to the SMC architecture is an FPGA controller, the DataStream FPGA (DSF), which is the “CPU” of the instrument. It processes complete instructions, listens to triggers and locks, routes signals externally, and manages waveform traffic between the instrument and the host computer.
Figure 4. SMC Architecture
To read more about the SMC and how it works, refer to the National Instruments Synchronization and recollection Core -- a Modern Architecture for Mixed-Signal Test paper.Timing and Synchronization With National Instruments T-Clock Technology for Modular Instruments
Many test and measurement applications summon for the timing and synchronization of multiple instruments because of the limited number of stimulus/response channels on a separate instrument and/or the requisite for mixed-signal stimulus/response channels. For example, an oscilloscope may hold up to four channels and a signal generator up to two channels. Applications ranging from mixed-signal test in the electronic industry to laser spectroscopy in the sciences require timing and synchronization for higher matter channels and/or the requisite to correlate digital input and output channels with analog input and output channels.
The PXI platform, specifically chassis, features integrated timing and synchronization capabilities, enabling coherence among PXI modules. Even so, distributing clocks and triggers to achieve high-speed synchronized devices has its challenges. The latencies and timing uncertainties in orchestrating multiple-measurement devices add up to a significant barrier to synchronization, especially for high-speed measurement systems. These issues, often overlooked during the initial system design, restrict the quicken and accuracy of synchronized systems. Two main issues that arise in the distribution of clocks and triggers are skew and jitter.
NI has developed a patent-pending routine for synchronization whereby another signal-clock domain is used to enable sample clock alignment and trigger distribution and reception. The objectives of NI T-Clock (NI-TClk) technology are twofold:
PXI Express chassis are designed to achieve slot-to-slot skew of 100 ps maximum, which is satisfactory for most applications. With NI-TClk technology, you can lower this to less than 10 ps, enabling tighter multichannel angle coherence for high-speed modular instruments.
NI-TClk synchronization is springy and wide ranging; it can address the following consume cases:
The purpose of NI-TClk synchronization is to hold devices respond to triggers at the very time. The “same time” means on the very sample era with very tight alignment of the sample clocks. NI-TClk synchronization is accomplished by having each device generate a trigger clock that is derived from the sample clock. Triggers are synchronized to a TClk pulse. A device that receives a trigger from an external source, or generates it internally, then sends the signal to complete devices, including itself, on a falling edge of TClk. complete devices react to the trigger on the following rising edge of TClk.
To read more about NI-TClk and how it works, refer to the National Instruments T-Clock Technology for Timing and Synchronization of Modular Instruments paper.NI-STC3 Timing and Synchronization Technology for Multifunction Data Acquisition
NI-STC3 timing and synchronization technology delivers a fresh flush of performance to NI X sequence multifunction DAQ devices. This technology is the driver behind the advanced digital, timing, triggering, synchronization, counter/timer, and bus-mastering features.
A retriggerable chore is a measurement chore that executes a specified operation each time a specific trigger event occurs. Previous generations of synchronization and timing technology were only able to retrigger counter operations, which could provide retriggerable sample clocks for other tasks but created fairly complex code. NI-STC3 technology now equips complete acquisition and generation tasks with inherent retriggerable capabilities.
NI-STC3 technology likewise provides a faster 100 MHz timebase, replacing the 80 MHz timebase used by previous devices for many counter applications. The 100 MHz timebase is likewise used to generate analog and digital sampling or update rates, compared to a 20 MHz timebase used in prior devices. For generating arbitrary sampling rates, the generated clock rate can now be significantly closer to the user-requested rate because of this 5X quicken improvement. In addition, the faster timebase and improved device front terminate reduce the time between triggering and the first sample clock edge, which improves the responsiveness of the device to triggers.
Buffered counter input functionality, using NI-STC3 technology, has improved on its predecessors’ capabilities in the areas of buffered era and frequency measurements. Although you can continue selecting implicit as the timing type, you can now select sample clock as well. When using a sample clock as the timing type, you create buffered frequency and era measurements by counting both an internal timebase (counted by embedded counter) as well as the unknown signal of interest up until the rising edge of the sample clock. However, the sample clock is a signal that you must specify and create. You then divide the example frequency of the internal timebase by its matter to find the effective frequency up to the next sample clock edge.
NI-STC3 technology likewise offers several features for the digital I/O and programmable role input (PFI) lines on X sequence devices. These embrace programmable power-up states, watchdog timers, event detection, and fresh PFI filtering.
With NI-STC3 technology, you can now accomplish more advanced analog, digital, and counter operations than ever before. In addition, applications that previously required additional onboard resources or were difficult to program can now execute independently and with less NI-DAQmx code.Calibration Algorithm for Data Acquisition With NI-MCal
NI-MCal is a software-based calibration algorithm that generates a third-order polynomial to rectify for the three sources of voltage measurement error: offset, gain, and nonlinearity. Using software-based measurement corrections, NI-MCal can optimize every selectable ambit with a unique correction polynomial that hardware-based calibration cannot accommodate.
The NI-MCal algorithm executes when a self-calibration role is called from software such as LabVIEW. On a typical modern PC, NI-MCal takes less than 10 seconds to characterize nonlinearity, gain, and offset and to redeem the correction polynomials to the onboard EEPROM. Subsequent measurements are scaled automatically by the device driver software before being returned to you through application software. Unlike other self-calibration schemes, NI-MCal has the unique talent to return calibrated data from every channel in a scan, even if the channels are at different input ranges. This is because NI-MCal determines, saves, and applies correction polynomials for every input ambit on the device. Other self-calibration mechanisms consume hardware components for data correction, and cannot dynamically load correction functions posthaste enough to provide accuracy when multiple input ranges are used in a separate scan. Instead, NI-MCal uses software for data correction, which can easily load and apply channel-specific correction functions even while scanning at maximum device rates.
NI-MCal performs unlike other self-calibration techniques by correcting for nonlinearity oversight in addition to applying channel-specific data correction functions for complete channels in a scan sequence. By eliminating the limitations of hardware components traditionally used for device oversight correction and using the power and quicken of software and PC processing, NI-MCal raises the bar for measurement accuracy and redefines device self-calibration.
To read more about NI-MCal and how it works, refer to the NI-MCal Calibration Methodology Improves Measurement Accuracy paper.
Back to Top4. preference of springy Software evolution Environments
Figure 5. Reduce evolution time with LabVIEW graphical programming.
PXI modular instruments from NI are compatible with Windows OSs, real-time OSs for applications that require deterministic operation, and common Linux distributions. This provides the flexibility you requisite to design your modular instrumentation system.Windows OSs
The evolution and operation of a Windows-based PXI system is no different from that of a criterion Windows-based PC. Therefore, you finish not hold to rewrite existing application software or learn fresh programming techniques when stirring between PC-based and PXI-based systems.
If you select PXI, you can reduce your evolution time and quickly automate your instruments using NI LabVIEW, an intuitive graphical programming language that is an industry criterion for test, or NI LabWindows™/CVI for C development. You can likewise consume other programming languages such as Visual Studio .NET, Visual Basic, and C/C++.
In addition, PXI controllers can flee applications developed with test management software such as NI TestStand. For more information on developing test architectures for PXI, read this white paper on developing a modular software architecture.Real-Time OSs
As an alternative to Windows-based systems, you can consume a real-time software architecture for time-critical applications requiring deterministic loop rates and headless operation (no keyboard, mouse, or monitor). Real-time OSs assist you prioritize tasks so the most faultfinding chore always takes control of the processor, which reduces jitter. You can simplify the evolution of real-time systems by using real-time versions of industry-standard evolution environments such as the LabVIEW Real-Time and LabWindows/CVI Real-Time modules. Engineers edifice dynamic or hardware-in-the-loop test PXI systems can consume real-time testing software such as NI VeriStand to further reduce evolution time. Visit the real-time measurements portal to learn more about deterministic test.Linux OSs
NI likewise supports many hardware devices, including modular instruments in the PXI platform, on common distributions of Linux. Visit the National Instruments Linux Portal for further information on Linux support. For further information on how to install, visit Downloading and Installing NI Driver Software on Linux Desktop.
Back to Top5. Measurement and Control Services
NI modular instruments feature robust software interfaces such as NI Measurement & Automation Explorer (MAX), NI-DAQmx, Virtual Instrument Software Architecture (VISA), LabVIEW Plug & Play drivers, and Interchangeable Virtual Instrument (IVI) drivers. This measurement and control services software provides modular hardware interfaces for configuring and programming your tests. Most NI modular instruments near with soft front panels (SFPs), which you can consume to quickly troubleshoot or debug your instrument. These measurement and control services software packages assist you avoid developing test programs that are permanently tied to specific hardware and channels in your test system, thus increasing the ease of code reuse. rob a closer peek at each of these components.Configuration Manager
A configuration manager, such as MAX, presents a unified system view of measurement hardware. With MAX, you can define channel names to organize signals or specify scaling functions to transfigure digitized signals to measurement quantities. The key benefit of the configuration manager is the integration with the application evolution environments (ADEs). This integration gives you the talent to integrate multiple measurements easily into a separate application without tedious programming. Without these configuration tools, you must spend time configuring these measurement functions programmatically.Instrument Connectivity
Integrating existing traditional instruments into the test software framework should exploit technologies, such as Plug & Play instrument drivers and IVI, to facilitate the communication with these instruments and their interchangeability. A Plug & Play instrument driver is a set of functions, or VIs in the case of LabVIEW, that control a programmable instrument. Instrument drivers assist you salvage started using your instrument from your computer and redeem you evolution time and cost because you finish not requisite to learn the programming protocol for each instrument. With open-source, well-documented instrument drivers, you can customize your operation for better performance.
IVI implements a driver framework that facilitates instrument interchangeability. An IVI driver uses a common API for each kind of instrument and separately implements the driver to communicate with particular instruments. By separating the application programming interface (API) from the particular driver implementation of each instrument, you can design a system using a particular IVI-compliant oscilloscope; once the system is deployed, you can change the brand and model of the instrument without having to rewrite the test application.Programming Tools
Drivers can evanesce one step beyond providing an easy-to-use API by adding tools to facilitate evolution and redeem you time. I/O assistants are interactive tools for rapidly creating a measurement or stimulus application. An example of an I/O coadjutant is the DAQ Assistant, which is section of the NI-DAQmx driver. The DAQ coadjutant presents a panel to you for configuring common data acquisition parameters without programming. The combination of easy-to-use assistants and powerful programming environments is necessary to present both rapid evolution and the capabilities to meet a breadth of application requirements.Example Programs
In addition to the measurement and control services software discussed above, complete NI modular instruments are shipped with several example programs. For example, NI-DCPower, an IVI-compliant instrument driver for NI precision DC sources, includes example programs that demonstrate concepts ranging from simple configuration to advanced sweeping and monitoring.
Figure 6. example Programs Included With NI-DCPower
Back to Top6. Modular Instrument Production Unit Verification
After an NI PXI modular instrument design has moved to full production, NI ensures each production unit is evaluated to meet its specification. Each modular instrument produced endures hours of rigorous testing to ensure that it reliably operates once deployed in its intended application. These tests embrace automated optical inspection (AOI), in-circuit test (ICT), initial functional test (IFT), environmental stress screening (ESS), and functional verification test (FVT).
The first inspection performed, AOI, compares in recollection a sketch of a known qualified product to each fresh product manufactured for section orientation errors or missing parts. ICT checks for shorts, opens, or backward components by evaluating the resistance between complete of the board’s test points. IFT ensures the basic functionality of the product in that it checks for a successful power-up sequence. ESS comprises a thermal conditioning test (TCT) and a highly accelerated stress screening (HASS), during which the production boards are brought to a unavoidable temperature and their responses are monitored, both nonstimulated and under stimulation. These “burns” can final from several hours to several days. Finally, production units undergo an FVT, during which complete modular instruments are calibrated to ensure adherence to specification. For some instruments, their test FVT stations are calibrated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy.
Figure 7. HASS Temperature Chamber at National Instruments
Back to Top7. Other NI PXI Design Advantages
For more information about National Instruments PXI platform design advantages, gladden view the other sections of this series:
NI PXI Platform Design Advantages
The price LabWindows is used under a license from Microsoft Corporation. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries. Tektronix is a trademark of Tektronix, Inc.
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AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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